REFLECTIONS ON ROSARIUM VIRGINIS MARIAE— 9
Salvatore M. Perrella, O.S.M.
Pontifical Theological Faculty of the 'Marianum'
Rosarium Virginis Mariae
Recent Popes consistently stress the value of the Rosary
Everyone knows that the Magisterium of the Bishops of Rome has always been particularly careful, in the light of the Revelation and of the Tradition of the Church, to motivate, regulate, foster and guide the veneration and devotion of the faithful to the Mother of the Lord, conscious that this ancient and proven custom "is an important and universal ecclesial phenomenon. Its expressions are manifold and its motivation profound".1 The Popes have shown great interest in the prayer of the Rosary or Psalter of the Virgin, often recommending it to the faithful as a "biblically inspired prayer which is centred on contemplation of the salvific events of Christ's life, and their close association with the Virgin Mother. The value and efficacy of this prayer have often been attested to by saintly Bishops and those advanced in holiness of life".2 In our day, despite the renewal of the liturgy and popular piety that took place as a result of the Second Vatican Council and Marialis Cultus, this prayer is subjected in some sectors to an unfortunate "pseudo-democratic" form of marginalization (K. Rahner), justified by the fear that it might in some way detract from the centrality of the Liturgy.3 Far from "competing" or conflicting with the public prayer of the Church, the Rosary is a practice of devotion,4 a popular prayer relaunched by John Paul II with his Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae (The Rosary of the Virgin Mary), aiming, in the ever timeless words of von Balthasar, to "free the Rosary from a sort of narrowness that is foreign to Mary’s spirit, and to nourish it, in conformity with that same spirit, with the full concept of God's saving work for the world. The essence of Mary's action in all this is mediation: between God and the world, between Christ and the Church, between spirit and flesh, between the two forms of ecclesial existence, between the world of saints and the world of sinners. She stands at all the crossroads to show the way".5
This phrase is intended to designate those "public or private expressions of Christian devotion which, although they are not part of the Liturgy, are in harmony with it, respecting its spirit, norms and pattern; moreover, in a certain way they draw inspiration from the Liturgy and must lead the Christian people to it". Exercises of piety or devotion "always refer to public divine revelation and to an ecclesial background".
These words effectively sum up the attitude, intention, content and proposals the Roman Pontiffs have used, from Leo XIII to John Paul II, to commit themselves and their Magisterium to the Rosary of the Virgin Mary.
THE ROSARY: A PRAYER FOR THE REMISSION OF THE SINS AND ERRORS OF THE MODERN AGE (1878-1958)
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Pope Leo XIII carried out his long and intense papal service in a difficult time: between tradition and progress. Pope Leo dedicated at least 16 documents to the Marian Rosary: 11 Encyclicals (from Supremi Apostolatus, 1 September 1883, to Diuturni Temporis, 5 September 1898); one Apostolic Constitution (Parta Humano Generi, 8 September 1901); three Apostolic Letters (Salutaris Ille Spiritus, 24 December 1883; Vi è Ben Noto, addressed to the Italian Bishops, 20 September 1887; Ubi Primum, on the Confraternity of the Rosary, 2 October 1898); one chirograph sent to Cardinal Luigi Maria Sincero, Vicar of Rome, of 31 October 1886, so that the faithful might distinguish themselves in their devotion to the Blessed Virgin by the recitation of the Rosary. There is no room to mention other minor Marian documents.6
Leo XIII considered this pious practice a true and proper Christian prayer since "it consists of an interweaving of angelic greetings, interspersed by prayer to the Lord combined with meditation. So composed, the Rosary is the most excellent form of prayer; it offers us a firm defence of our faith and a sublime model of virtue in the mysteries proposed for our contemplation".7 Among "the multiple forms of devotion to Mary, the most esteemed and practised is the excellent one of the holy Rosary".8 This very simple, popular practice was given the name of "Rosary" because it "recalls in a fortunately interwoven combination, the great mysteries of Jesus and Mary: their joys, their sorrows and their triumphs".9 It is consequently a prayer that was broadly and authoritatively disseminated by the Popes,10 proposed and tested by the Church,11 at stormy moments in her history,12 as a remedy to the religious, ideological and social evils and errors that afflicted and still afflict the Church and the Christian people.13 Saints, pastors and faithful are particularly fond of it, since it was inspired, taught and recommended by the Mother of God herself,14 and is a prayer and a meditation on the sound, edifying mysteries of Christ and of Mary,15 a practice that expresses the effectiveness and power of the Co-redemptrix of the human race, the Mediatrix and Dispenser of heavenly graces.16
For Leo XIII, this beloved Marian practice, which at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th "was, by divine disposition, marvellously affirmed to reawaken the languishing devotion of the faithful",17 served to encourage people to persevere in the faith and to experience works of the faith after the example of the evangelical virtues of the Virgin.18 Understood as a theological meditation on the love of Christ, the Rosary will bring the believer to live the faith in an exemplary way,19 inasmuch as "it is absolutely impossible for one to consider and contemplate attentively these very beautiful witnesses of love of our Redeemer without burning with deep gratitude to him. Indeed, authentic faith will have such great power that, enlightening man's mind and moving his heart, it will drag him, as it were, to follow in Christ's footsteps, weaving his way between all the obstacles until he comes to exclaim, like Paul: 'Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril or sword?' (Rom 8:35). '...It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me' (Gal 2:20)".20 For these indisputable values and influences for human and Christian life,21 for their very form that "is excellently suited to common prayer",22 the Rosary can be said to be a prayer for the Church and of the Church,23 and is warmly recommended as a daily practice to parents, children, young people and families.24 The Psalter of the Virgin "constitutes the most excellent form of prayer, and the most effective means to gain eternal life... it offers us a solid defence for our faith and a sublime model of virtue in the mysteries suggested for our contemplation. We have also shown that the Rosary is a simple habit suited to the inclination of the people, to whom it likewise presents, in recalling the Family of Nazareth, the most perfect ideal of domestic life. For these reasons, the faithful have always been aware of its salutary power".25 It is not surprising that Leo XIII was nicknamed "the Pope of the Rosary", since he strongly supported this practice which is "a public witness of our love for the august Mother of God, and at the same time, an incentive and a reward for the piety of the faithful, so that in the extreme hour of their lives they may be comforted by her help and gently close their eyes on her breast".26
Pius X (1903-1914)
Pius X strove to implement his papal motto, "Instaurare omnia in Christo" (to establish all things in Christ), by making the Christian people literate in the catechism, promptly dealing with the Modernist phenomenon and reviving missionary zeal. On 2 August 1914, he launched a heart-felt, though vain, appeal for peace and expressed sorrow and horror at the incipient world war. His magisterium was frugal from the Marian viewpoint, but at least for the times, significant. It is enough to think of his Encyclical Ad Diem Ilium, of 2 February 1904, for the 50th anniversary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, in which he deepened the dogma and the doctrine of mediation. It would appear that, keeping in mind the ample magisterium of his Predecessor, he reflected on the Rosary in such "minor" documents as the Apostolic Letter Summa Deus, of 27 November 1907, to observe the 50th anniversary of the Marian apparitions of Lourdes; in it he stressed the "marvellous fact" that they had increased the devotion to the Immaculate Virgin and to her "most holy Rosary".27
Benedict XV (1914-1922)
Benedict XV is remembered as the "Pope of peace" for his efforts and appeals against the "senseless massacre", although they unfortunately went unheard. He promulgated the Code of Canon Law; he worked hard to resolve the "Roman question"; he did his utmost to put an end to the climate of suspicion and intimidation caused by the Modernist crisis; he was interested in biblical exegesis, while at the same time overseeing the improvement of seminary studies. He paid great attention to the ecumenical movement, especially with the Christian East; he promoted missionary work; he wrote heartfelt prayers to implore God for peace, prosperity and unity among the peoples. To this end, he ordered the invocation, "Queen of Peace, pray for us",28 to be inserted into the Litany of Loreto . The Rosary, in the document commemorating the seventh centenary of the death of St Dominic, is presented as a remedy and comfort in the harsh moments of trial, being a prayer "marvellously suited to nourishing and to giving rise in all souls to charity and the virtues".29 The Virgin, who "has such great power with her divine Son that of all the graces granted to men... she is always the intermediary and arbiter...", has always revealed herself as such, "especially when people have had recourse to the Holy Rosary. Therefore, the Popes never missed an opportunity to exalt the Rosary with the greatest of praise... and to enrich it with the treasures of an apostolic indulgence".30 This regular practice was warmly recommended by Benedict XV, especially in this "period that is so disturbed".31
Pius XI (1922-1939)
Pius XI was a Pontiff with a strong character who, in the turmoil of the 20th century, affirmed the appropriateness and truth of the "Kingdom of Christ", to which he dedicated all his energy and pastoral action. From a Marian perspective, let us recall his Encyclical Lux Veritatis, of 25 December 1931 for the 15th centenary of the Dogma of the Theotokos.32 In 1937, after recovering from a serious illness, Pope Pius XI recalls how, in the face of the errors and serious evils of that time, the Church and the Pontiff himself took comfort and an incentive in childlike confidence in the Mother of the Redeemer and in the daily recitation of the Rosary33, The Rosary, the true "Psalter of the Virgin, Breviary of the Gospel and of Christian life", is a "mystical wreath",34 a "mystical chaplet"35 beloved by Catholics regardless of their background;36 a practice of devotion which, through contemplation of the mysteries of Christ and of his Mother, is an incentive to practise the evangelical virtues and revives hope in the eternal reward. The Rosary is a prayer which, while it inculcates love for God, also suggests charity for one's neighbour, which in recent years seems to have weakened and grown cold in the hearts of many men and women; consequently, priests must encourage it among young people and in families, among adults and in "Catholic Action".37
Pius XII (1939-1958)
Pius XII, the Bishop of Rome acclaimed as the Pastor Angelicus and insulted as "Hitler's Pope"; the Pontiff of firm doctrine and of outstanding magisterium that was both tradition and prophecy, is remembered as the "Pope of the Assumption of Our Lady", of the consecration of the Church and the human race to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and of the institution of the liturgical memorial of the Queenship of Mary. The Marian Letters he sent during the war (1939-1944) to Cardinal Luigi Maglione, Secretary of State, calling for a crusade of prayer to the Virgin to implore the gift of peace and justice among the peoples, also deserve mention. Pope Pius XII dedicated to the Rosary one address on 16 October 1940 and another on 8 October 1941: in them he invites Christian families to give it a place of honour among other prayers. In the Encyclical Ingruentium Malorum of 15 September 1951, the Pope invites the faithful to trust in the protection of Mary, whom God made the vehicle of salvation for the whole human race, to dispel the serious dissent between the countries and the persecution of the Church in various States and to shield youth from threats.38 To pursue these noble ends, Pius XII asked people to pray the Rosary, conscious of "its powerful efficacy in obtaining the motherly help of the Virgin".39 The mysteries of the redemption, contemplated and prayed by the believer, especially by families, in revealing the splendid examples of Jesus and Mary, increase the zeal of good Christians and rekindle the hope of the Church against the enemies of religion, because they remind those who have strayed that the Lord does not save with the sword but with his name alone.40 The prayer dear to the Virgin Mary inspires compassion for the sufferings of the world: "Do not forget... while you slip the beads of the small Rosary in your fingers, do not forget, we repeat, those who are suffering harshly in prison, in detention centres, in concentration camps. Among them there are... even bishops...; there are children and the fathers and mothers of families.... Just as we love and surround them all with fatherly affection, so you too, motivated by that fraternal charity which the Christian religion fosters and nurtures, should join your prayers with ours... and commend them to her motherly heart".41
THE ROSARY: A COMPENDIUM OF THE WHOLE GOSPEL: CONCILIAR AND POST-CONCILIAR RENEWAL
John XXIII (1958-1963)
John XXIII is the "Pope of the Council", an event that marked a positive turning-point in the Church, in Christian communities and in ecclesial relations with the world and with people today. His traditional Marian piety was to accompany him throughout his long life. After becoming Bishop of Rome, he made frequent addresses encouraging the faithful, by praying the Rosary, the Angelus and observing the practice of the month of May, to implore the intercession of the Mother of Jesus, whom he proclaimed as Heavenly Patroness of the Council,42 to ensure the successful outcome of the ecumenical council which he had desired "with humble determination". This was a non-formal and episodic act, given that it was to have an influence on the drafting of the "Mariology" of the Second Vatican Council, concisely expressed in Chapter VIII of De Ecclesia.
In his brief but intense pontificate, John XXIII dedicated two important documents to Marian practice: the Encyclical Grata Recordatio, on the recitation of the Rosary for the missions and for peace, of 26 September 1959, and the Apostolic Letter IlReligioso Convegno,of 29 September 1961, to which he added an example of meditation for this practice. In his Encyclical, the Pope begins with his youthful memories of Marian devotion prompted by the Encyclicals of Leo XIII, a teaching that served "to make very dear to Our spirit the holy Rosary which we never neglect to recite in its entirety every day of the year".43 He asked the clergy and faithful to practise this act of Marian devotion with special fervour at least during the month of October for the following reasons: the first anniversary of the passing of Pius XII and his election to the supreme pontificate;44 the presentation of the crucifix to a large group of young missionaries; and the commemoration of the first centenary of the foundation of the North American College. "We therefore warmly desire that, during the coming month of October, all these our sons be commended with fervent prayers to the Blessed Virgin Mary";45 so that the leaders of nations, small or large, may keep intact the spiritual rights and riches of the members of their communities, adapting legislation to the needs of progress and religious freedom, given that certain philosophical and practical attitudes have spread which are irreconcilable with the Christian faith. The prayer, commitment and hope of the Church that truth, justice, peace and charity between nations may triumph, is promoted by the beloved Mother of Christ.46 At the end of Grata Recordatio, John XXIII asks for the recitation of the Rosary also for the success of the Roman Synod and for the ecumenical Council which had been announced.47
The Apostolic Letter which, with the approach of the month of October, John XXIII sent to the Church, sprang from the convention for peace which he had called for at Castel Gandolfo on 10 September 1961 and from the visit in this context to the Roman catacombs of St Callistus to pray for peace in the world.48 In line with the teaching of Leo XIII and his Successors, Pope John XXIII expresses and recommends the pious practice, exalting its mystical contemplation, intimate reflection and pious intention, despite accusations of repetitiveness and the lack of originality. The Rosary is a social, public and universal prayer for the ordinary and extraordinary needs of the Church, of nations and of the world. Lastly, the Pope, with true modesty, humbly offers some of his own "simple and spontaneous notes" for every decade of the Rosary, with reference to its threefold dimension: mystery, reflection, intention.49
Paul VI (1963-1978)
Paul VI, the tenacious promoter of the Second Vatican Council, intelligently carried out its directions in the difficult but fruitful time of its reception. He addressed the Marian question with great congruity and originality. We recall three documents of his magisterium on the Rosary: the Encyclical Mense Maio,of 29 April 1965, in which, underlining the Marian character of the month of May, he recalls that Mary is the way to Christ and this means that continuous recourse to her involves seeking Christ the Saviour to whom we must always turn, in her, through her, and with her.50 Paul VI asks for prayers for the historical period in which the Church, in the process of concluding the Council, was living; due to the tense international situation on account of hostilities; for the alarming increase of attacks on the sacred and inviolable character of human life; to implore the divine gift of peace.51 He urges pastors to "take great pains" to inculcate "the practice of the holy Rosary, the prayer so dear to the Blessed Virgin and so strongly recommended by the Supreme Pontiffs".52 The Encyclical Christi Matri of 15 September 1966, invites the Catholic community to implore from God, through the intercession of the Blessed Virgin with her Rosary, the heavenly and precious gift of peace.53 "Not only is this fruitful prayer most effective in averting evils and in keeping disasters at bay, as the history of the Church clearly shows, but it also abundantly fosters Christian life".54 In the Apostolic Exhortation Recurrens Mensis Octobris of 7 October 1969, the Pope urges people to pray for peace among individuals and peoples, given that deadly conflicts were still being fought, new "trouble spots" were appearing and "even Christians who identify with the Gospel of love itself [were] involved in fighting".55 Misunderstandings that also arise between members of the Church make it necessary to invoke peace and reconciliation from God through the Mother of the Prince of Peace, he who proclaimed the beatitude of peace (cf. Mt 5:9). The Church of the Council never ceases to recall and to seek to obtain the intercession of the Virgin, as she did at Cana (cf. Jn 2:1-11) beside the Son on behalf of men. Indeed, "meditating on the mysteries of the Holy Rosary, we will learn, after the example of Mary, to become souls of peace, through loving, constant contact with Jesus and with the mysteries of his redeeming life".56 The members of the Church, the Pope concludes, are honour-bound to recite frequently this "meditation on the mysteries of salvation", now an established Marian practice of ecclesial devotion.57
The true turning point in the nature, content and goal of pious exercises, already announced by the Council (cf. Sacrosanctum Concilium, n. 13; Lumen Gentium, nn. 66-67), came with the Apostolic Exhortation Marialis Cultus, of 2 February 1974.58 Pope Paul VI, in continuity with the doctrine expounded by the Council and by the Apostolic Exhortation Signum Magnum of 13 May 1967, proposed a theological-liturgical treatment that aimed to shed light on the place Mary occupies in ecclesial devotion, especially with regard to the teaching on the presence and celebration of Mary in the context of the annual cycle of the mystery of Christ (cf. Marialis Cultus, nn. 2-15), and Mary's example with regard to divine worship (cf. Marialis Cultus, nn. 16-23). The papal exhortation, moreover, is intended to offer valid guidelines for the revision and development of liturgical devotion, of the practice of devotion of the Angelus and of the Rosary.59Marialis Cultus, in the practice of the Rosary that is very different from "liturgical rites" sacramental by their nature, virtue and saving aims and action (Marialis Cultus, n. 48), singles out three fundamental themes: theological, liturgical and pastoral. The theological theme explains the evangelical character that derives from the presentation of the mysteries of the redeeming Incarnation, which is why this practice is a Christological and soteriological prayer in which the participation of the Mother and Handmaid of the Lord is highlighted. The liturgical theme presents the Psalter of the Virgin as a prayer of praise, supplication and above all, contemplation. The pastoral theme is characterized by encouragement to propose anew the use of the recitation of the Rosary in the context of the family. The recitation of the Rosary, one of the most excellent "community" prayers, must flourish anew (cf. Marialis Cultus,nn. 52-54) in the Christian family. These elements taken together make this treatment of the practice of the Rosary a remarkable synthesis of doctrine, which not only sums up the doctrine already expounded in other documents by Paul VI and by his Predecessors, but also applies to and develops it as well as the general norms and principles spelled out by the Second Vatican Council.
John Paul II
John Paul II, elected Bishop of Rome on 16 October 1978, the Pope of the Totus Tuus, has been advocating from the beginning of his Pontificate this practice,and on various occasions has taken the time to illustrate its values, timeliness and objective. It is enough to recall the Angelus Addresses in October 1983,60 in which he highlighted the evangelical, ecclesial and human value of the prayer of the Rosary: a Christian prayer that exalts human sentiments and affections, in which "we relive the Christian's hopes: for eternal life, which involve God's omnipotence, and the expectations of the present time, which involve men and women's collaboration with God".61 In his Marian catechesis of 5 November 1997, John Paul II underlines how the Rosary "has taken on an important role. By repeating the ‘Hail Mary', it leads us to contemplate the mysteries of faith. In nourishing the Christian people's love for the Mother of God, this simple prayer also orients Marian prayer in a clearer way to its goal: the glorification of Christ".62 In the recent Rosarium Virginis Mariae, the Holy Father recalls how in the Psalter of the Blessed Virgin, which is both meditation and supplication, the merciful One in prayer, the Deesis, as she is popularly called in the East, stands praying with us and for us before the Father, who with his Spirit has filled her with grace, and before the Son, born of her virginal womb. For these reasons, John Paul II says, "The Rosary is my favourite prayer.... It can be said that the Rosary is, in some sense, a prayer-commentary on the final chapter of the Vatican II Constitution Lumen Gentium, a chapter which discusses the wondrous presence of the Mother of God in the mystery of Christ and the Church.... At the same time our heart can embrace in the decades of the Rosary all the events that make up the lives of individuals, families, nations, the Church and all mankind: our personal concerns and those of our neighbour, especially those who are closest to us, who are dearest to us. Thus, the simple prayer of the Rosary marks the rhythm of human life".63
If it is properly prayed and meditated upon in the community or in the family, the Rosary truly becomes a spiritual journey in which Mary is our Mother, sister, teacher and guide to God the Trinity, who sustains us with her mediation and intercession which is powerful, true and effective.
1 Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Directory on Popular Piety, Liturgy, Principles and Guidelines. LEV, Vatican City 2002, n. 183, p. 152.
2Ibid., n. 197, p. 163. Cf. the entire section dedicated to the Rosary in nn. 197-202, of pp. 163-166.
3 Cf. John Paul II, Rosarium Virginis Mariae, n. 4, Apostolic Letter of 16 October 2002. ORE, 23 October 2002, p. II.
4 Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Directory on Popular Piety, Liturgy, Principles and Guidelines, n. 7, p. 20;on the nature, content and purpose of practice of devotion of a Marian kind, cf. ibid., nn. 183-207, pp. 152-173.
5 H. Urs von Balthasar, The Rosary.The salvation of the world in Marian Prayer. Jaca Book, Milan 1984, p. 107.
6 Refer to the many direct and indirect interventions on the Rosary by Leo XIII, cf. Le Encicliche Mariane [The Marian Encyclicals], by Mons. Amleto Tondini. Angelo Belardetti, Rome 1954, pp. 786-793.
7Diuturni Temporis, in Enchiridion delle Encicliche [EE]. EDB, Bologna 1997, vol. 3, n. 1419.
8Adiutricem Populi, in EE, 3, n. 1217.
9Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, n. 953.
10 Cf. Superiore Anno, in EE, 3, n. 433; Supremi Apostolatus, in EE, 3, nn. 352, 353; Adiutricem Populi, in EE, nn. 1230, 1419; Augustissimae Virginis, in EE, 3, nn. 1349, 1353; Diuturni Temporis, in EE, 3, nn. 1420, 1421.
11 Cf. Supremi Apostolatus, in EE, 3, n. 350; Magnae Dei Matris, in EE, 3,nn.1034-1035.
12 Cf. Superiore Anno, in EE, 3, nn. 435437; Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, nn. 939, 952; Magni Dei Matris, in EE, 3, n. 1033.
13 Cf. Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, nn. 940943; Laetitiae Sanctae, in EE, 3, nn. 10951098; lucunda Semper, in EE, 3, nn. 12041207; Vi e Ben Noto, in EE, 3, n. 1772.
14 Cf. Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, n. 954; Magnae Dei Matris, in EE, 3, n. 1035; Adiutricem Populi, in EE, 3, n. 1217.
15 Cf. Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, n. 953; Magnae Dei Matris, in EE, 3, n. 1039; lucunda Semper, in EE, 3, nn. 1193-1196.
16 Cf. Supremi Apostolatus, in EE, 3, nn. 344-346, 352; Superiore Anno, in EE, 3, nn. 434-439; Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, nn. 948-952; Magnae Dei Matris, in EE, 3, n. 1036; Laetitiae Sanctae, in EE, 3, n. 1094; lucunda Semper, in EE, 3, nn. 1192, 1200; Adiutricem Populi, in EE, 3, nn. 1217, 1220, 1232; Fidentem Piumque,in EE, 3, nn. 1289-1290; Diuturni Temporis, in EE, 3, nn. 1417, 1422; Vi e Ben Noto, in EE, 3, n. 1774; Diurturni Temporis, in EE, 3, n. 1417.
17Augustissimae Virginis, in EE, 3, n. 1344.
18 Cf. Magnae Dei Matris, in EE, 3,nn.1044-1046; 1419.
19 The Rosary "produces another notable fruit, adapted to the needs of our times. Since, in an age in which the virtues of faith in God are exposed day after day to serious danger and assaults, the Christian finds in the Rosary abundant means to nourish it and reinforce it" (Fidentem Piumque, in EE, 3, n. 1291; cf. ibid., n. 1292).
20 Gal 2:20; Magnae Dei Matris, in EE, 3, n. 1043.
21 The mysteries of the Rosary show the harmony of the human and Christian virtues, lived by the holy members of the Family of Nazareth (cf. ibid., Magnae Dei Matris, in EE, 3, nn. 1047-1048; Laetitiae Sanctae, in EE, 3, nn. 10991110).
22Fidentem Piumque, in EE, 3, n. 1286.
23 Cf. Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, nn. 959960.
24 Cf. Octobri Mense, in EE, 3, n. 957.
25Diuturni Temporis, in EE, 3, n. 1419.
26Diuturni Temporis, in EE, 3, n. 1422. Pope Leo's special attention to the Shrine of Our Lady of Pompei is attested to in some of his writings: Quotquot Religionis of 28 March 1890, in which a protector Cardinal is appointed to increase the shrine's beauty; Qua Providentia of 13 March 1894, with which the rights and property of the shrine and annexed institutions were transferred to the Apostolic See; lam Nemini of 4 May 1901, which raised the Shrine of Pompei to a "minor basilica".
27 Cf. Pii Pontificis Maximi Acta. Vatican Printing Press 1908, vol. 5, p. 129. On the Pontiff's various Marian interventions, cf. Le Encicliche Mariane, op. cit. pp. 793-801.
28 Cf. the Letter to Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, Secretary of State, of 5 May 1917.
29Fausto Appetente, in EE, 4, n. 579.
31Ibid., in EE, 4, n. 581.
32 Cf. EE, 5, nn. 820-878.
33 Cf. Ingravescentibus Mails, in EE, 5, nn. 1327-1342.
34Ibid., n. 1331.
35Ibid., n. 1333.
36 Cf. ibid.
37 Cf. ibid., nn. 1338-1339.
38 Cf. EE, 6, nn. 873-876.
39Ingruentium Malorum, in EE, 6, n. 877; cf. ibid., n. 879.
40 Cf. ibid., nn. 880-881.
41Ibid., n. 884.
42 John XXIII, Celebrandi Concilii, Apostolic Letter of 11 April 1961, in Discourses, Messages, Colloquia of the Holy Father John XXIII, Polyglot Vatican Printing Press, 1962, Vatican City, vol. 3, p. 784.
43Grata Recordatio, in EE, 7, n. 150.
44Ibid., n. 152.
45Ibid., n. 160; cf. also nn. 156-159.
46 Cf. ibid., in EE, 7, nn. 161-165.
47 Cf. ibid., in EE, 7, n. 166.
48 Cf. Discourses by the Holy Father John XXIII, The Polyglot Vatican Printing Press 1962, vol. 3, pp. 753-761,
49 This brief essay is entitled "Elevazioni sui quindici Misteri dell'aurea Corona", cf. ibid., pp. 762-772.
50 Cf. Mense Maio, in EE, 7, nn. 831-832.
51 Cf. ibid., nn. 834-841.
52Ibid., n. 843.
53 Cf. Christi Matri, in EE, 7, nn. 920-925.
54 Cf. ibid., n. 926.
55Recurrens Mensis Octobris, in Enchiridion Vaticanum (EV), EDB, Bologna 1997, vol. 3, n. 1609-1610.
56 Ibid., in EV, 3, n. 1615.
57Ibid., in EV, 3, n. 1617.
58 Cf. EV, 5, nn. 13-97.
59 Cf. Marialis Cultus, nn. 40-55, in EV,2, nn. 71-87.
60 Cf. Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II. LEV, Città del Vaticano, vol. V1/2 (9 October 1983, ORE, 17 October, p. 1; 16 October, ORE, 24 October, p. 2; 23 October, ORE, 31 October, p. 1; 1 November, ORE, 7 November, p. 3; 6 November, ORE, 14 November, p. 2).
61Ibid. (Angel us, 6 November 1983, ORE, 14 November 1983, p. 2).
62General Audience, 5 November 1997, n. 2; ORE, 12 November, p. 11.
63 John Paul II, Rosarium Virginis Mariae, op. cit., n. 2.
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