PHYSICAL REMINDERS OF OUR FAITH
Fr. William Saunders
My child received a medal with a picture of his saint on it for First Communion. When a Protestant friend asked the meaning, I think I gave a pretty good answer, but I hope you can give a better explanation.A Reader in Stafford
Religious medals are usually metallic, cast either in a round or oval shape, depicting the image of our Lord, the Blessed Mother, or another saint. Medals have also commemorated shrines, important spiritual events in one's life (e.g., First Communion or ordination), or major historical events (e.g., a Holy Year, the proclamation of a dogma, or an apparition of the Blessed Mother). These medals are usually designed to be worn around the neck of the person, or to be attached to a rosary or chain.
The wearing of religious medals is a very ancient tradition in our Church. This practice may have resulted from "baptizing" what was once a pagan practice: the Roman writer Pliny used the word "amuletum" for medals worn around the neck by all classes of people as talismans (objects believed to give supernatural powers or protection to the wearer). Rather than simply eradicating a cultural practice, the Christians instead "baptized" their use, rooting it in Christian belief and removing the magical connection.
Archaeologists have discovered medals bearing images of Sts. Peter and Paul from the second century, and of St. Lawrence the Martyr in the fourth century. St. Zeno of Verona (d. 371) recorded the custom of giving religious medals to newly baptized Christians to commemorate their baptism and reception into the Church. A fifth-century story of the life of St. Genevieve recounted how St. Germain placed a medal marked with the sign of the cross around her neck to be a physical reminder of her vow of virginity. Pope St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) sent Queen Theodolind of the Lombards two small reliquaries containing relics of the True Cross and a sentence from the Gospel manuscripts to be worn around the neck as a reminder of her duty as a Christian monarch.
In the Middle Ages, medals were often distributed to pilgrims who visited sacred shrines, such as St. Peter's in Rome, Canterbury in England, and Santiago de Compostela in Spain. During the 13th century, a type of medal known as the "jetons" became popular: on one side were the initials of the wearer or some other identifiable marking, while the reverse side had a pious motto, such as "Love God and Praise Him," "O Lord, Our God," "Hail Mary, Mother of God," or an inscription such as "IHS." These "jetons" were popular until the time of the French Revolution.
The use of religious medals as we know them today arose in the 16th century. Pope St. Pius V (d. 1572) began the custom of blessing religious medals with the image of Jesus and Mary, and granted an indulgence to the faithful who wore them.
Note, however, the Christians consistently condemned the talisman effect or any connection with magic, as evidenced in St. Jerome's early writings in the fourth century. The Catechism also affirms that "all practices of magic or sorcery, by which one attempts to tame occult powers, so as to place them at one's service and have a supernatural power over others , even if this were for the sake of restoring their health , are gravely contrary to the virtue of religion.... Wearing charms is also reprehensible" (No. 2117). Never should we look upon the wearing of a religious medal as a "charm," but always as a sacred symbol of the supernatural protection offered directly by our Lord, Blessed Mother or saint.
Technically, medals are classified as "sacramentals": "These are sacred signs which bear a resemblance to the sacraments. They signify effects, particularly of a spiritual nature, which are obtained through the Church's spiritual intercession. By them, men are disposed to receive the chief effect of the sacraments, and various occasions in life are rendered holy" ("Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy," No. 60). The sacramental prepares a person to receive grace and disposes him to cooperate with it; in this way, the medal reminds us of a holy person, which in turn opens us to grace to follow his example. The "Enchiridion of Indulgences" (1969) affirms, "The faithful, who devoutly use an article of devotion (crucifix or cross, rosary, scapular or medal) properly blessed by any priest, obtain a partial indulgence" (No. 35).
In all, the wearing of a religious medal is a good, pious practice which keeps us mindful of the protection and love of the image it bears. Moreover, the consciousness of that image should motivate us to fulfill our religious duties and put our faith into action. Just as a blessed wedding ring is a constant physical reminder to the spouse of his or her vows of fidelity and love, so do these medals provide a constant physical reminder of the love and fidelity we share with Almighty God and the communion of saints.
Fr. Saunders is president of the Notre Dame Institute and pastor of Queen of Apostles Parish, both in Alexandria.
This article appeared in the June 6, 1996 issue of "The Arlington Catholic Herald." Courtesy of the "Arlington Catholic Herald" diocesan newspaper of the Arlington (VA) diocese. For subscription information, call 1-800-377-0511 or write 200 North Glebe Road, Suite 607 Arlington, VA 22203.