Volume 117, Number 4, Winter 1990
PARTICIPAIO ACTUOSA IN THEOLOGICAL AND MUSICAL PERSPECTIVE
(Reprinted with permission from Divini Cultus Studium by Robert
A. Skeris. Alto"tting: Verlag Alfred Coppenrath, 1990.)
The sacrificial death of Jesus Christ the High Priest on Calvary is and
will remain the basis for the active participation of the faithful in the
liturgy. Membership in the Church, which is brought about by valid baptism,
makes one a part of the Mystical Body of Christ, the Priest, to whose
priesthood one is interiorly conformed1 through the baptismal character.
In comparison with the high priesthood of Christ Himself, this priesthood
of the baptized is analogous, by an analogy of proper proportionality.2 And
since confirmation is related to baptism as growth is related to birth, it
is clear that the so-called universal priesthood of all believers is
ontologically based upon baptism, and not upon the sacrament of
confirmation.3 As St. Jerome aptly phrased it, "Sacerdotium laici, id est
From these facts the Church has always drawn the necessary consequences
both in theory and in practice. Thus, for example, though there were
certain variations in the different liturgical and geographical areas, the
basic ways of expressing the participation of the laity in the Eucharist
remained in principle the same from the third to the sixth century.5
Furthermore, in wide areas of the Frankish kingdom during the sixth and
seventh centuries the faithful participated in the liturgical actions and
chants.6 And from the era of the great Spanish councils of Toledo there are
many examples of the participation of the people in their liturgy.7 It
should be obvious that the ordinary of the Mass offered opportunities for
On the theoretical level, F. Holbock has clearly shown that although the
theological foundations of active participation in the liturgy were
perceived with increasing clarity during the course of the passing
centuries, they were never ignored completely, not even in the period
between Berengar and the Fourth Lateran Council.9
More recent times have witnessed a noteworthy growth of interest in the
question of "active participation," especially since the publication of the
"motu proprio," "Tra le sollecitudini," of St. Pius X.10 This document
forms the basis of all subsequent papal statements on the subject,11 many
of which found a sympathetic resonance in the German language area, above
all in student circles and among college graduates, where the German
"Quickborn House" at Castle Rothenfels on the Main exercised an important
influence.12 In these groups, external participation was very strongly
emphasized, indeed it was taken for granted that everyone would recite the
prayers and sing the chants together.
The names of R. Guardini, S. Landersdorfer, J. A. Jungmann and H. v.
Meurers perhaps typify developments within Germany during the period
between the World Wars.13 The initiatives developed in centers like
Klosterneuburg, Paris, Antwerp and Maria Laach as well as the international
meetings at St. Odilienberg, Lugano or Assisi, for instance, determined to
a large extent, through the cooperation of the centers for pastoral
liturgy, the entire atmosphere in the years just prior to the last
council.14 And thus when the council was announced, personalities from
these centers were at hand to carry out no small part of the preparatory
labors.15 And finally the first fruits of II Vatican were solemnly
proclaimed on December 4, 1963: the constitution on the sacred liturgy,
Within that section of the preliminary conciliar draft which enunciated
the basic theological principles, the subject of "actuosa participatio" was
treated chiefly in paragraphs 9 and 14 within the framework of earlier
magisterial pronouncements such as "Divini cultus, Mediator Dei," the
allocution of Pius XII for Assisi, "Tra le sollecitudini" and the
instruction of 1958.17 In his explanatory "relatio" presented during the
fourth general session on October 22, 1962, Franciscan Fr. Ferdinand
Antonelli spoke of a "participatio actuosa et personalis." Some of the
observations made in the ensuing discussion are of interest.
The Archbishop of New York, Francis Cardinal Spellman, cautioned against a
mere generalization and a purely external participation ("cavendum est a
mera divulgatione et participatione tantum externa") which would only
appear to be worship in the Spirit and in the truth.18
Chiefly in light of his experiences in Berlin, Munich Archbishop Julius
Dopfner stressed that the spiritual life depends principally upon a
fruitful and living participation in the liturgy ("vita spiritualis
praecipue pendet a fructuosa et viva participatione liturgiae") and
expressed his satisfaction that although in principle Latin was to remain
the liturgical language, the vernacular could also be permitted, above all
where the "salus animarum" or the active participation of the people would
make it seem advisable ("ubi salus animarum seu actuosa participatio populi
hoc suadet").19 The remarks of Raul Silva Henriquez, Cardinal Archbishop of
Santiago, Chile, were of greater theological significance. Since the
liturgy is the exercise of Christ's priesthood in His members, the Cardinal
called for an unequivocal statement about the baptismal priesthood of the
laity. Dr. Hermann Volk repeated this request on the following day.20
Archbishop Egidio Vagnozzi then expressed certain reservations, calling
the formulations of the schema rather wordy ("saepe verbosa"), more poetic
and ascetical than strictly theological ("magis poetico et ascetico quam
stricto theologico sermone concinnata"). He gave several concrete examples
of this vague and sometimes theologically inexact manner of expression
("sermo theologicus saepe vagus quandoquidem inexactus"). In the subsequent
session Cardinal Ottaviani also called for the omission of such ambiguities
("relinquere ea quae ambigua possunt esse, vel obnoxia diversae
In the fifth general session on October 23, 1962, Cardinal Ritter,
Archbishop of Saint Louis, U.S.A., once more called attention to the fact
that the task of a liturgical action, at least in part, is to move the
"mentes fidelium" psychologically, i.e., to call forth, support and
complete in the faithful ("in eis causare, nutrire, perficere") devotion
and interior worship ("devotionem et cultum internum").22 It may be noted,
however, that the means here proposed actually seem less suitable for
accomplishing the pastoral goal desired. Instead of speaking about the
psychological and spiritual character traits or dispositions of
"contemporary man" as "elementum determinativum et normativum" of a
liturgical transformation in general, one should--if one is going to speak
in sociological terms at all--rather investigate carefully the sociological
and anthropological foundations of celebration or feast, for example, or
the representative role of the bearers of authority in a community, and
only then draw the necessary consequences.23
As the discussion continued, the Archbishop of Camerino, Italy, Giuseppe
d'Avack, urgently requested a precise definition of terms in order to
ensure that the conciliar deliberations would bear fruit. In what sense, he
asked are we using terms such as "liturgy," and the like? The next speaker,
William Cardinal Godfrey, Archbishop of Westminster, supported the demand
made by Archbishop d'Avack.24 Regrettably, the remarks of these and other
fathers went unheeded, and the synod formulated no definitions in the sense
of these requests, but rather was content with presenting more or less
meager, scanty descriptions.25 Thus J. Pascher was able to enumerate nine
different "extensions" of the concept "participation." Some of them he
considered theologically significant (e.g., "scienter, plena, conscia"),
others he viewed as less meaningful (e.g., "facilis" or "fructuosa").26 It
is not difficult to understand why this fact continues to be perceived as a
deficit. Here is a typical comment:
"...the crisis which is rocking the Church today is to a great
extent the consequence of that council. That is not a reproach
directed against the council and its decisions as such; one can
rather surmise that these results set standards which were not
concrete enough because they were formulated in complicated and
wordy texts which therefore require interpretation...The
concrete statements of the council have practically never
reached their ultimate "consumer" in precise and comprehensible
form, and hence that which people today claim to understand as
"post-conciliar" is really anything but clear."27
In any event, Louis Rastouil, Bishop of Limoges, used clear concepts in
his written summary of the theological foundations of the priesthood of
Christ as the basis for "actuosa participatio."28
The result of the discussion up to this point was the addition of the
words "vi baptismatis" in the text of the present article 14, precisely in
order to state "expressis verbis" the sacramental basis for liturgical
participation ("ut fundamentum sacramentale participationis...verbis
Since human beings are made up of both body and soul, the "actuosa
participatio" of human persons is necessarily internal as well as external:
the interior element is the "heart" of the matter, which must be expressed
in the exterior participation.30 Since the object of liturgical worship is
to promote the self-oblation of the faithful as a spiritual sacrifice in
union with Christ,31 a constantly more profound transformation in Christ is
required, in the sense of the Pauline admonition, "Let this mind be in you,
which was also in Christ Jesus."32
It may be noted in passing that this "actuosa participatio" may not be
equated with concelebration in the strict sense of that term, for two
reasons. Firstly, because lay persons lack the sacramental character of
orders, and secondly because each participant should carry out all and only
those parts which pertain to his office by the nature of the rite and the
norms of the liturgy.33
By way of summary, it may be said that at the celebration of Holy Mass,
together with Christ, the faithful glorify God the Father in such a way
"they for their part offer to God the same adoration which
Christ offers to the Father, and they unite the glorification
which they offer, to that glorification offered by Christ. How
does all of this occur? Through the fact that in conformity with
the mind and heart of Christ they offer their own spiritual
sacrifice of themselves to God, acknowledging Him as their
Creator and Lord, adoring Him and giving themselves to Him
completely in gratitude and love."34
In this sense one can only agree with the medieval theologians who say
that the forms in which the inner adhesion to Christ's sacrifice are
manifested outwardly, are in fact secondary details--provided that the
"interior link" is expressed.35
The church musician who is aware of his responsibilities, is by no means a
stranger to the many problems connected with "actuosa participatio." The
active participation which expresses itself in the universally
comprehensible language of music demands a firm and solid foundation, which
must be sought in a faith which shapes and forms one's whole life.36 Th. B.
Rehmann, citing "Mediator Dei," has strongly emphasized that the concept of
a "living" participation37 must needs include the fundamental human
attitude toward the liturgy (and indeed toward divine revelation itself):
"ex auditu," an awefilled hearing, a wondering perception. The living
worship community arises only from this deeply interior spiritual
receptiveness.38 Before the council ever began, U. Bomm also pointed out
that participation in God's redeeming action is a type of mediation. It is
from God that the singer receives the words of prayer which he intones, and
it is to God that the singer directs his prayerful song--but at the same
time he passes this song on to others. Thus the singer shares in the
sacramental and liturgical action of Christ and the Church as His
interpreter, His herald, His spokeman, as the intermediary who through song
interprets the signs of salvation.39
Significant comments were made on this subject during the conciliar
deliberations. Thus during the discussion of chapter 7 (6 in the final
redaction) of the schema, Bishop Peter Canisius van Lierde, O.S.A., noted
that one could not simply ignore the interior participaton of the
faithful.40 The next speaker, Bishop Wilhelm Kempf, agreed, pointing out
that the simple disignation of Musica sacra as "ancilla liturgiae" was
inadequate because the essence of liturgical song must be expressed more
clearly: "ipse cantus praecise est actio liturgica."41 Enrico Nicodemo,
Archbishop of Bari, Italy, stressed that interior worship is the origin of
the universally comprehensible language of music ("a cultu interno oritur")
and he demanded that the participation of the people be precisely
determined ("expresse determinetur") in order to avoid harmful differences
("ad diversitates vitandas, quae in damnum fidelium cederent").42 Success
in this area also depends on musical quality, said Bishop Vincenzo
Radicioni of Montalto, Italy. One may not condemn the congregation
("populus in ecclesia condemnari non debet") to worthless music or songs of
the cheapest type under the pretext of "pastoral need" ("sub specie
exigentiae pastoralis"). Only a music which attracts the congregation
through the power of its beauty, sanctity and general appeal will be
pastorally effective. Otherwise the people will turn away in disgust ("a
liturgia abhorrebit") because the music used in the liturgy is
inappropriate and banal ("ratione deformitatis seu inanitatis").
Unfortunately, he concluded, this is often enough the case at present.43
After this brief survey of some fundamental theological aspects, it will
be opportune to consider several important musical points. The discussion
of Musica sacra gained much in clarity from the theologically well-founded
observations of Jaime Cardinal de Barros Camara, Archbishop of Rio de
Janeiro. During the seventeenth general session on November 12, 1962, he
stated that "quoad suam naturam," Musica sacra is a pars necessaria vel
integrans of the solemn liturgy, "quoad actionem" an "ancilla liturgiae."44
The question was further clarified in 1964 at the general assembly of the
Federated Caecilian Societies at Brixen, by a conciliar peritus: it is of
primary importance simply because "agere sequitur esse."45
During the next general session of the council, one of the first speakers
was the Primate of Mexico, Archbishop Miguel Dario Miranda y Gomez. He
insisted that all must learn to grasp the pastoral task and the goal of the
council correctly and completely ("recte et adaequate") in order to avoid
the danger of frustrating the genuinely pastoral purpose by using
supposedly "pastoral" means. True pastoral and liturgical progress, he
concluded, always brings with it the progress and development of church
music as well.46
In any discussion of the division of (musical) roles within the Mass, in
the sense of "active participation," one repeatedly hears the phrase
"partes quae ad populum spectant." But the problem is precisely to
determine which parts "pertain to" the celebrant or the choir on the one
hand, and which "pertain to" the participating faithful on the other. J.
Pascher dryly observes that "the council, of course, does not settle the
question."47 The same author opines that here "it could not simply be a
matter of those pieces whose actual performance pertains to the
congregation, such as the responses to the acclamations."48 On the basis of
the greater intelligibility made possible by the vulgar tongue he then
attempts to broaden the extension of the "parts which pertain to the
people," and among other things comes to the astonishing conclusion that
the liturgy constitution considers the recitation and/or singing of the
Mass ordinary in the vernacular to be the norm, whereby the Latin form
should also not be lost.49
However, well-known canonists who have carefully analyzed this problem,
such as G. May and H. Flatten, have come to the diametrically opposed
conclusion.50 And the reluctance with which certain persons accept the
unassailable results of such professionally qualified study, is more than
passing strange. People simply attempt to minimize such conclusions by
casting aspersions on them, calling them "completely mistaken and
unchurchly"51--which surely contributes nothing to the factual explanation
of the conciliar texts.
Another attempt at interpreting the concept of "partes quae ad populum
spectant" argues from the "principle of functionality" and tries to include
the entire ordinary of the Mass, for example, under the common denominator
of "acclamation." A typical example may be cited here.
"The acclamations, too, pertain to the congregation. These
include not just the well-known short responses such as "Glory
to you, O Lord" and the like. The "Sanctus," the "Kyrie" and the
"Agnus Dei" are also acclamations, which the composers of the
medieval Gregorian melodies-- not to mention more modern
composers--no longer understood. Hence they pertain to the
congregation, as does the "Credo," which is a profession of
faith and hence not suitable for a lyrical and dramatic
interpretation such as many composers have given it. The same is
true for the hymn, "Gloria in excelsis Deo."
And thus some do not hesitate to speak about "returning the ordinary of
the Mass to the congregation," concluding that "the reform means...the end
of the complete Mass ordinaries which are sung by the choir alone."52
Unfortunately, the partisans of such an extreme view have not yet succeeded
in presenting a logical explanation of the glaring contradiction evident
between their position and the clear pronouncements of pope and council.52A
The legitimate liturgist may be permitted the following observations:
* The statement that the liturgy reform means the end of
complete Mass ordinaries which are sung by the choir alone, does
not correspond with the facts. For instance, some years ago the
diocesan synod of Vienna passed the following regulation with
244 "ayes," 24 abstentions and 9 "nays:"
The ordinary of the Mass can also be sung by the choir, though
the congregation may not be completely excluded from singing. In
future it is basically no longer permitted to sing "Sanctus" and
"Benedictus" compositions straight through the Eucharistic
prayer. In order to overcome the resulting problems for
traditional church music, after the choir finishes the "Sanctus"
the priest sings or recites the epiclesis, the consecratory
prayers and the anamnesis. Then the choir sings the Benedictus,"
after which the celebrant sings the concluding doxology of the
The ordinary of Vienna, H.E. Cardinal Konig, then made this resolution a
diocesan law in accord with the provisions of canon 362 (Code of Canon Law,
"* Referring to the "Sanctus," the instruction, "Musicam Sacram" of
March 5, 1967, states that ..."praestat ab universo coetu una cum
sacerdote, de more cantari..."54 A correct canonist explains this text
"But "praestat" means that it is more appropriate, it is more
apt and opportune, that the "Sanctus" usually be sung in common
by the entire congregation. In other words, no constantly
binding norm, as would appear according to the erroneous German
translation, but simply an earnest recommendation to conduct
oneself so as a rule. Over and above this, the word "praestat"
applies only to non-polyphonic Masses, since for polyphonic
Masses it is expressly stated in No. 34, Par. 1 of the
instruction that they can be performed by the choir "suetis
normis." Making a clear distinction here, No. 34, Par. 2 of the
sacred music instruction then continues: "In aliis casibus,"
therefore not in the case of a polyphonic ordinary. And only for
these other cases is the congregational singing of the "Sanctus"
* In the medieval sources it is impossible to find clear proof that
the congregation as a whole, for instance during the middle ages,
performed prescribed Gregorian chants or recited the texts in common,
as is often assumed.56
* Finally, it is necessary to remind ourselves that according to canon
18 in the Code of Canon Law, 1917 (18 in the Code of Canon Law, 1983),
for the textual interpretation of the liturgy constitution we still
have at our disposal a legal norm of interpretation in the link
between the text to be explained and the intention or mind of the
concrete legislator formed before the law was passed.57
It will be helpful in this respect to note some of the relevant
observations presented during the conciliar discussion. During the
eighteenth general session on November 13, 1962, Bishop Peter Canisius van
Lierde pointed out that there are certain chants which are meant to be sung
by the congregation ("modulationes ad populum destinatae et a populo
decantandae") and others which are to be sung by a choir ("modulationes
ipsi choro destinatae").58 This distinction, said the bishop, must be taken
into account in any discussion of vocal participation in the solemn
liturgy. And in this connection Archbishop Radicioni called attention to
another important fact: that the choir has a true and proper liturgical
role ("habet verum munus liturgicum, et quidem suum proprium"), which is by
no means identical with that of the congregation ("et distinctum a munere
populi"). From this we can conclude, with the archbishop, that choral music
has its own proper form and substance, distinct from the congregational
song ("formam ac substantiam distinctam a cantu sacro populari").59
The foregoing considerations make one thing clear: the conscientious and
diligent church musician must not allow himself to be misled by onesided
(though today unfortunately widespread) misinterpretations of the conciliar
texts.60 He is rather called--as is every son and daughter of the Church--
to demonstrate through his accomplishments in the service of a truly sacred
music, a deep and constructive loyalty to the Church, to her clear
commands, her authentic traditions, and her authoritative wishes.
REVEREND ROBERT A. SKERIS
1. Cujus sacerdotio configurantur fideles: Sum. Theol. III q. 63a. 3 resp.
2. See A. Graiff, Teologia della partecipazione dei fedeli alla liturgia:
La partecipazione dei fedeli alla messa = Liturgica 3 (Roma 1963) 29/62,
here above all 43/4. On analogy, see E. Coreth, Analogia entis: LThK I
3. Ita se habet confirmatio ad baptismum, sicut augmentum ad generationem:
Sum. Theol. III q. 72a. 6 resp. On this see also Graiff (note 2) 45/50. In
order to base the doctrine of the universal priesthood in the Church at
least in part upon the sacrament of Confirmation, Pius Parsch, for example,
interpreted the sacred chrism as "oil of anointing to the priestly
dignity:" Bericht u"ber die 2. Volksliturgische Tagung in Klosterneuburg:
Bibel und Liturgie 2 (1927/28) 428/50, here 443/7. More recently, another
attempt to stress the importance of the sacrament of Confirmation in this
respect has been made by B. Luykx, The'ologie et pastorale de la
confirmation: Paroisse et Liturgie 39 (1957) 180/201, 263/78, here e.g.
264, 267. But on the other hand, B. Botte has pointed out how difficult it
would be to find this beautiful idea (une tre`s belle ide'e') in the church
fathers (on ne la trouve pas chez les Pe`res): BTAM No. 669 (1951) Tome
6/202. See also the apposite remarks of E. Schillebeeckx, Le Christ,
Sacrement de la rencontre de Dieu (tr. A. Kerkvoorde) = Lex Orandi 31
(Paris 1964) 176/88, above all 181/2. However, it cannot be denied that the
character of confirmation also includes a deputatio ad cultum and is
related to the baptismal character. See the overview of the sources
presented by A. Robeyns, Les droits des baptise's dans l'assemble'e
liturgique: LMD 61 (1960) 97/130, here 99/107.
4. Dialogus contra Luciferianos: MPL 23/166.
5. J. P. Montminy, La participation des lai"cs a` l'Eucharistie du IIe au
VIe sie`cle: Sciences ecclesiastiques 19 (1967) 351/72, here 369.
6. G. Nickl, Der Anteil des Volkes an der Messliturgie im Frankenreiche von
Chlodwig bis auf Karl den Grossen: Forschungen zur Geschichte des
innerkirchlichen Lebens 2 (Innsbruck 1930) 24/32 on the Sanctus and the
Pater Noster, 36/61 on the presentation of the gifts and the kiss of peace,
7. A. Franquesa, Die Beteilgung des Volkes in der mozarabischen Liturgie:
LL 5 (1938) 243/72, here above all 259/65.
8. See for example the indications given by B. Capelle, Compte rendus
bibliographiques: l'histoire des rites et la participation active a` la
Messe: QLP 18 (1933) 169/82.
9. F. Holbo"ck, Der eucharistische und der mystische Leib Christi in ihren
Beziehungen zueinander nach der Lehre der Fru"hscholastik (Rom 1941) 215/8,
229/31. See also A. Kolping, Der aktive Anteil der Gla"ubigen an der
Darbringung des eucharistischen Opfers. Dogmengeschichtliche Untersuchung
fru"hmmittelalterlicher Messerkla"rungen: Divus Thomas 27 (1949) 369/80; 28
(1950) 79/110, above all 166/7.
10. AAS 36 (1903/4) 329/39. See also G. Lercaro, Ta"tige Teilnahme, das
Grundprinzip des pastoralliturgischen Reformwerkes Pius X.: LJb 3 (1953)
167/74, here 174. Publications on this subject have meanwhile increased to
such an extent that is is quite superfluous to attempt even an overview at
11. Cf. the collection of these statements by e.g. P. Theeuws, Actieve
deelname der gelovigen aan de liturgie: Tijdschrift voor Liturgie 46 (1962)
303/13; also A. Mistrorigo, La partecipazione dei fedeli alla liturgie nel
pensiero e nell'opera dei Sommi Pontefici: La partecipazione dei fedeli
alla Messe = Liturgica 3 (Roma 1963) 11/27. To be consulted with care and a
critical sense is the Diss. theol. of Stephan Schmid-Keiser, Aktive
Teilnahme. Kriterium gottesdienstlichen Handelns und Feierns = Europa"ische
Hochschulschriften XXIII/250 (Bern 1985) 1/10-125.
12. On this see E. J. Lengeling, Ernte der liturgischen Bewegung: Idem, Die
Konstitution = Reihe Lebendiger Gottesdienst 5/6 (Munster 1964) 38*/46*,
here above all 39*/41*.
13. See J. Wagner, Heinrich von Meurers zum Geda"chtnis: LJb 3 (1953) 5/9.
14. On this see e.g. A. Robeyns, De actieve deelneming aan de Eucharistie
en het pontificaat van Pius XII: Tijdschrift voor Liturgie 41 (1957) 50/61,
15. On this see Lengeling, Die Konstitution (note 12) 41/3, 49. Furthermore
DOL 77/86 and cf. 20/76, above all 78; A. Bugnini, La riforma liturgica
(1948/1975) = EphLit Subsidia 30 (Roma 1983) 902/20.
16. AAS 56 (1964) 97/138.
17. Acta synodalia Concilii Vaticani II (Roma 1970) Vol. I, part 1, 267/9.
Hereinafter cited as A/S with volume or part number and pages.
18. AS I/1, 316. The passage cited from the relatio is to be found at p.
19. AS (note 17) 320.
20. AS (note 17) 324; 359.
21. AS (note 17) 326; 344.
22. AS (note 17) 351/2.
23. On the subject of "feast" see e.g. J. Pieper, Zustimmung zur Welt. Eine
Theorie des Festes (Mu"nchen 1963); R. Caillois, L'homme et le sacre'
(Paris 19502); G. Heilfurth, Fest und Feier; Wo"rterbuch der Soziologie
(Stuttgart 19692(275/7 with further literature. On role theory, see e.g. R.
Dahrendorf, Homo sociologicus: Ko"lner Zeitschrift fu"r Soziologie und
Sozialpsychologie 10 (1958) 178/208, 345/78 with abundant references.
Important reflections on the representative role of those who bear
authority within the Church can be found in W. Siebel, Freiheit und
Herrschaftsstrukturen in der Kirche: Schriften zur Religionssoziologie 1
(Berlin 1971), above all 39/52, 59/69. Such considerations appear to gain
significance when one recalls what the archbishop of Durban, South Africa,
Denis Hurley (to take but one example), said in the aula of St. Peter's on
October 22, 1962: the Church's most important manifestation of herself
(praecipua manifestatio Ecclesiae) is to be found in the full and active
participation of the entire People of God in the liturgical celebrations.
24. AS (note 17) 359; 374.
25. Thus G. Barauna, Active participation: the inspiring and directive
principle of the constitution: Idem (ed.), The Liturgy of Vatican II
(Chicago 1966) I/132-93, here 134.
26. J. Pascher, Das Wesen der ta"tigen Teilnahme: Miscellanea Liturgica G.
Lercaro (Roma 1966) I/211-29, here 212/4. See also E. J. Lengeling, Die
liturgische Versammlung und die Laien als Mittra"ger der Liturgie nach dem
2. Vatikanischen Konzil: Jahrbuch des Instituts fu"r christl.
Sozialwissenschaften 7/8 = FS J. Ho"ffner (1966/67) 313/32, here 323, above
all note 37. In his written votum, Bishop Biagio d'Agostino of Valle di
Lucania pleaded for the qualification "pia" on the grounds that greater
piety was the final goal of all efforts at reform: AS (note 17) 590.
27. Thus Theo Lemmer in the Rheinischer Merkur no. 52 (December 29, 1972)
28. AS (note 17) 648/9.
29. Thus the relatio presented on December 3, 1962, by Archbishop Francis
Grimshaw of Birmingham, England: AS I/4, 170/1. This supplementary
emendation was accepted with 2096 "ayes," 10 "nays" and 7 invalid ballots.
See AS I/4, 213.
30. On this see J. Pascher (note 26) 218/9. The psychological background of
this process was described long ago by e.g. Cardinal Mercier, Apercus
psychologiques sur la participation des fide`les a la vie liturgique: QLP 1
(1910/11) 4/11, here primarily 10.
31. A. M. Roguet, Participation in the Mass--the theological principles: V.
Ryan (ed.), Studies in Pastoral Liturgy 2 (Dublin 1963) 120/37, here 127.
32. Phil 2/5. On this see R. M. Van den Bosch, Actuosa participatio:
Tijdschrift voor Liturgie 40 (1956) 323/6, here 324. Instructive also D. v.
Hildebrand, Liturgie und Perso"nlichkeit = Bu"cher der Geisteserneuerung 4
(Salzburg 1933) 20/4, 37/42. On the spirit of response to value in the
liturgy, especially in the affirmative giving of oneself to the Valuable,
see pp. 70/102.
33. Cf. H. Lubienska de Lenval, Un essai de participation a` la Messe par
le geste et le silence: LMD 8 (1946) 68/74, here 72. One can of course use
the expression in a broader sense, as is done with reference to the 1969
Novus Ordo Missae by E. Lodi, Partecipazione attiva o concelebrazione dei
fedeli alla Messa?: Rivista Liturgica 57 (1970) 127/42, here e.g. 131/2.
34. Thus B. Durst, Wie sind die Gla"ubigen an der Feier der heiligen Messe
beteiligt?: BenedMon 25 (1949) 337/54; 417/34, here 432/3.
35. On this see A. Kolping (note 9) 167.
36. See J. Overath, Zum Jahresbeginn: Musica sacra CVO 80 (1960) 1/3, here
37. G. S., Actuosa participatio: CVO 85 (1965) 161/3.
38. Th. B. Rehmann, Heilige Musik und kultische Feierlichkeit: CVO 81
(1961) 18/21, here 20. See also the remarks of Lengeling, Was besagt
"aktive Teilnahme?": LJb 11 (1961) 186/8, above all 187/8, whereby the
question is whether or not this participation is in fact limited to
exclusively interior participation in Rehmann's lecture.
39. U. Bomm, Kultgesang als ta"tige Teilnahme am Gotteswerk: CVO 80 (1960)
5/14, here above all 9.
40. AS I/2, 658.
41. AS (note 40) 659 and see note 44 below.
42. AS (note 40) 740. In this connection one should recall the remarks of
Th. Lemmer cited above.
43. AS (note 40) 749. As far as "pastoral needs" are concerned, see the
remarks of Archbishop Miranda y Gomez below.
44. AS (note 40) 588. In this context see the present author's remarks in
CVO 92 (1972) 196/8, here 198. Bishop Kempf also spoke in the same vein as
Cardinal de Barros Camara: see note 41 above.
45. Cf. CVO 84 (1946) 194.
46. AS (note 40) 669/70.
47. J. Pascher, Das liturgische Recht des II. Vatikanischen Konzils u"ber
die Heilige Liturgie: AfkKr 132 (1963) 385/405, here 396.
48. J. Pascher, Augenblicklicher Stand der Liturgiereform und Ausblick auf
das Kommende: Liturgiereform im Streit der Meinungen = Studien und Berichte
der Katholischen Akademie in Bayern 42 (Wu"rzburg 1968) 43/59, here 46.
49. Pascher (note 48) 47/8.
50. G. May, Umfang und Grenzen des Gebrauchs der Landessprache in der
Liturgie nach der Gesetzgebung des zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils: O"AfKr 18
(1967) 16/94, here 16, 17ff., 58 etc. See also H. Flatten, Zur Rechtslage
der Musica Sacra nach dem 2. Vatikanischen Konzil: U. Mosiek-H. Zapp
(edd.), Jus et salus animarum = FS Panzram (Freiburg 1972) 171/90, here
e.g. 178, 180. This latter text has been published in an authorized English
translation by R. Skeris (ed.), Crux et Cithara = MuSaMel 2 (Alto"tting
51. For instance, see H. B. Meyer, Beharrung und Wandel im Gottesdienst:
Liturgiereform im Streit der Minungen (note 48) 83/108, here above all
52. E. J. Lengeling, Eucharistiefeier und Pfarrgemeinde - Aufgaben nach dem
Konzil: A. Exeler (ed.), Die neue Gemeinde = FS Filthaut (Mainz 1968)
136/66, here 147, 149.
52A. E.g. Sacrosanctum Concilium 112, 114; Notitiae 2 (1966) 292/3; DOL
506: the conservation and promotion of the "thesaurum musicae sacrae" "are
evidently not intended to take place outside that environment in which and
for which sacred music was born, but rather within the practical liturgical
53. Wiener Synodalbeschlu"sse, Abs. V, Die Kirchenmusik, No. 26. Cf. Wiener
Dio"zesanblatt of January 1, 1970, as well as J. Overath (ed.), Magna
Gloria Domini: CIMS Salzburg 1972 (Roma 1971) 157.
54. AAS 59 (1967) 310.
55. Thus H. Flatten (note 50) 188.
56. Thus K. F. Fellerer, Soziologie der Kirchenmusik = Kunst und
Kommunikation 9 (Ko"ln/Opladen 1963) 27 note 30. See also G. Goller, Die
Struktur der Missa Cantata in der ro"mischen Liturgie: J. Overath (ed.),
Musica Sacra und Liturgiereform nach dem II. Vatikanischen Konzil
(Regensburg 1968) 129/48, here above all 134/41. The matter is well
summarized by J. Handschin, Die historische Stellung von Gesang und
Orgelspiel im Gottesdienst: H. Oesch (ed.), Gedenkschrift Jacques Handschin
(Bern 1957) 161/5, here 161: "Many assume that congregational singing
indeed existed in the earliest Christian ages, but that it gradually
disappeared in the course of the middle ages, being totally replaced by the
song of the clerics. Though it may be correct to a certain extent, the
statement is in any case exaggerated, for community singing never died out
completely, even in the middle ages. We know that in the larger and more
generously endowed churches, the song of the clerics assumed the form of
truly artistic singing. But such song is not the product of the exuberant
high middle ages, or of the renaissance, for the Church already knew such
truly artistic song since the time of Ambrose and Augustine. As this type
of song flourished, congregational singing receded into the background
during the middle ages, but at no time did it disappear completely. The
really new development is that in the middle ages, the organ gradually came
into the Church..."
57. See H. Barion, Das Zweite Vatikanische Konzil. Kanonistischer Bericht
II: Der Staat 4 (1965) 341/59, here 358. Now: W. Bo"ckenfo"rde (ed.),
Kirche und Kirchenrecht. Gesammelte Aufsa"tze Hans Barion (Paderborn 1984)
519/37, here 536.
58. AS (note 40) 657.
59. AS (note 40) 750.
60. Dreadful examples of such misinterpretation can be found in e.g. G.
May, Deutung und Missdeutung des Konzils: AfkKr 135 (1966) 444/72, here
452ff. See also F. Feuling (ed.), Konzilsaussage und Konzilsauslegung
(Zurich 1966), above all 39/64.