On Indulgences

Author: Pope Paul VI

INDULGENTIARUM DOCTRINA (Apostolic Constitution On Indulgences

Pope Paul VI

Solemnly Promulgated By His Holiness, On January 1, 1967

Chapter I

1. The doctrine and practice of indulgences which have been in force formany centuries in the Catholic Church have a solid foundation in divinerevelation[1] which comes from the Apostles and "develops in the Churchwith the help of the Holy Spirit," while "as the centuries succeed oneanother the Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness of divinetruth until the words of God reach their complete fulfillment in her."[2]

For an exact understanding of this doctrine and of its beneficial use itis necessary, however, to remember truths which the entire Churchillumined by the Word of God has always believed and which the bishops,the successors of the Apostles, and first and foremost among them theRoman Pontiffs, the successors of Peter, have taught by means of pastoralpractice as well as doctrinal documents throughout the course ofcenturies to this day.

2. It is a divinely revealed truth that sins bring punishments inflictedby God's sanctity and justice. These must be expiated either on thisearth through the sorrows, miseries and calamities of this life and aboveall through death,[3] or else in the life beyond through fire andtorments or "purifying" punishments.[4] Therefore it has always been theconviction of the faithful that the paths of evil are fraught with manystumbling blocks and bring adversities, bitterness and harm to those whofollow them.[5]

These punishments are imposed by the just and merciful judgment of Godfor the purification of souls, the defense of the sanctity of the moralorder and the restoration of the glory of God to its full majesty. Everysin in fact causes a perturbation in the universal order established byGod in His ineffable wisdom and infinite charity, and the destruction ofimmense values with respect to the sinner himself and to the humancommunity. Christians throughout history have always regarded sin notonly as a transgression of divine law but alsothough not always in adirect and evident wayas contempt for or disregard of the friendshipbetween God and man,[6] just as they have regarded it as a real andunfathomable offense against God and indeed an ungrateful rejection ofthe love of God shown us through Jesus Christ, who called His disciplesfriends and not servants.[7]

3. It is therefore necessary for the full remission andas it iscalledreparation of sins not only that friendship with God bereestablished by a sincere conversion of the mind and amends made for theoffense against His wisdom and goodness, but also that all the personalas well as social values and those of the universal order itself, whichhave been diminished or destroyed by sin, be fully reintegrated whetherthrough voluntary reparation which will involve punishment or throughacceptance of the punishments established by the just and most holywisdom of God, from which there will shine forth throughout the world thesanctity and the splendor of His glory. The very existence and thegravity of the punishment enable us to understand the foolishness andmalice of sin and its harmful consequences.

That punishment or the vestiges of sin may remain to be expiated orcleansed and that they in fact frequently do even after the remission ofguilt[8] is clearly demonstrated by the doctrine on purgatory. Inpurgatory, in fact, the souls of those "who died in the charity of Godand truly repentant, but before satisfying with worthy fruits of penancefor sins committed and for omissions"[9] are cleansed after death withpurgatorial punishments. This is also clearly evidenced in the liturgicalprayers with which the Christian community admitted to Holy Communion hasaddressed God since most ancient times: "that we, who are justlysubjected to afflictions because of our sins, may be mercifully set freefrom them for the glory of thy name."[10]

For all men who walk this earth daily commit at least venial sins;[11] thus all need the mercy of God to be set free from the penalconsequences of sin.

Chapter II

4. There reigns among men, by the hidden and benign mystery of the divinewill, a supernatural solidarity whereby the sin of one harms the othersjust as the holiness of one also benefits the others.[12] Thus theChristian faithful give each other mutual aid to attain theirsupernatural aim. A testimony of this solidarity is manifested in Adamhimself, whose sin is passed on through propagation to all men. But ofthis supernatural solidarity the greatest and most perfect principle,foundation and example is Christ Himself to communion with Whom God hascalled us.[13]

5. Indeed Christ "committed no sin," "suffered for us,"[14] "was woundedfor our iniquities, bruised for our sins . . . by His bruises we arehealed."[15]

Following in the footsteps of Christ,[16] the Christian faithful have always endeavored to help one another on the path leading to the heavenlyFather through prayer, the exchange of spiritual goods and penitentialexpiation. The more they have been immersed in the fervor of charity, themore they have imitated Christ in His sufferings, carrying their crossesin expiation for their own sins and those of others, certain that theycould help their brothers to obtain salvation from God the Father ofmercies.[17] This is the very ancient dogma of the Communion of theSaints,[18] whereby the life of each individual son of God in Christ andthrough Christ is joined by a wonderful link to the life of all his otherChristian brothers in the supernatural unity of the Mystical Body ofChrist till, as it were, a single mystical person is formed.[19]

Thus is explained the "treasury of the Church"[20] which should certainlynot be imagined as the sum total of material goods accumulated in thecourse of the centuries, but the infinite and inexhaustible value the expiation and the merits of Christ Our Lord have before God, offered asthey were so that all of mankind could be set free from sin and attaincommunion with the Father. It is Christ the Redeemer Himself in whom thesatisfactions and merits of His redemption exist and find theirforce.[21] This treasury also includes the truly immense, unfathomableand ever pristine value before God of the prayers and good works of theBlessed Virgin Mary and all the saints, who following in the footsteps ofChrist the Lord and by His grace have sanctified their lives andfulfilled the mission entrusted to them by the Father. Thus whileattaining their own salvation, they have also cooperated in the salvationof their brothers in the unity of the Mystical Body.

"For all who are in Christ, having His spirit, form one Church and cleavetogether in Him" (Eph. 4:16). Therefore the union of the wayfarers withthe brethren who have gone to sleep in the peace of Christ is not in theleast weakened or interrupted, but on the contrary, according to theperpetual faith of the Church, is strengthened by a communication ofspiritual goods. For by reason of the fact that those in heaven are moreclosely united with Christ, they establish the whole Church more firmlyin holiness, lend nobility to the worship which the Church offers to Godhere on earth and in many ways contribute to building it up evermore (ICor. 12: 12-27). For after they have been received into their heavenlyhome and are present to the Lord (11 Cor. 5:8), through Him and with Himand in Him they do not cease to intervene with the Father for us, showingforth the merits which they have won on earth through the one Mediatorbetween God and man, Jesus Christ (I Tim. 2:5), by serving God in allthings and filling up in their flesh those things which are lacking ofthe sufferings of Christ for His Body which is the Church (Col. 1:24).Thus by their brotherly interest our weakness is greatlystrengthened.[22]

For this reason there certainly exists between the faithful who havealready reached their heavenly home, those who are expiating their sinsin purgatory and those who are still pilgrims on earth a perennial linkof charity and an abundant exchange of all the goods by which, with theexpiation of all the sins of the entire Mystical Body, divine justice isplacated. God's mercy is thus led to forgiveness, so that sincerelyrepentant sinners may participate as soon as possible in the fullenjoyment of the benefits of the family of God.

Chapter III

6. The Church, aware of these truths ever since its origins, formulatedand undertook various ways of applying the fruits of the Lord'sredemption to the individual faithful and of leading them to cooperate inthe salvation of their brothers, so that the entire body of the Churchmight be prepared in justice and sanctity for the complete realization ofthe kingdom of God, when He will be all things to all men.

The Apostles themselves, in fact, exhorted their disciples to pray forthe salvation of sinners.[23] This very ancient usage of the Church hasblessedly persevered,[24] particularly in the practice of penitentsinvoking the intercession of the entire community,[25] and when the deadare assisted with suffrages, particularly through the offering of theEucharistic Sacrifice.[26] Good works, particularly those which humanfrailty finds difficult, were also offered to God for the salvation ofsinners from the Church's most ancient times.[27] And since thesufferings of the martyrs for the faith and for the law of God wereconsidered of great value, penitents used to turn to the martyrs, to behelped by their merits to obtain from the bishops a more speedyreconciliation.[28] Indeed the prayer and good works of the upright wereconsidered to be of so great value that it could be asserted the penitentwas washed, cleansed and redeemed with the help of the entire Christianpeople.[29]

It was not believed, however, that the individual faithful by their ownmerits alone worked for the remission of sins of their brothers, but thatthe entire Church as a single body united to Christ its Head was bringingabout satisfaction.[30]

The Church of the Fathers was fully convinced that it was pursuing thework of salvation in community, and under the authority of the pastorsestablished by the Holy Spirit as bishops to govern the Church ofGod.[31] The bishops, therefore, prudently assessing these matters,established the manner and the measure of the satisfaction to be made andindeed permitted canonical penances to be replaced by other possiblyeasier works, which would be useful to the common good and suitable forfostering piety, to be performed by the penitents themselves andsometimes by others among the faithful.[32]

Chapter IV

7. The conviction existing in the Church that the pastors of the flock ofthe Lord could set the individual free from the vestiges of sins byapplying the merits of Christ and of the saints led gradually, in thecourse of the centuries and under the influence of the Holy Spirit'scontinuous inspiration of the people of God, to the usage of indulgenceswhich represented a progression in the doctrine and discipline of theChurch rather than a change.[33] From the roots of revelation a newadvantage grew in benefit to the faithful and the entire Church.

The use of indulgences, which spread gradually, became a very evidentfact in the history of the Church when the Roman Pontiffs decreed thatcertain works useful to the common good of the Church "could replace allpenitential practices"[34] and that the faithful who were "trulyrepentant and had confessed their sins" and performed such works weregranted "by the mercy of Almighty God and . . . trusting in the meritsand the authority of His Apostles" and 'by virtue of the fullness of theapostolic power', not only full and abundant forgiveness, but the mostcomplete forgiveness for their sins possible."[35]

For "the only-begotten son of God . . . has won a treasure for themilitant Church . . . and has entrusted it to blessed Peter, thekeybearer of heaven, and to his successors, Christ's vicars on earth,that they may distribute it to the faithful for their salvation, applyingit mercifully for reasonable causes to all who are repentant and haveconfessed their sins, at times remitting completely and at timespartially the temporal punishment due sin in a general as well as inspecial ways insofar as they judge it to be fitting in the eyes of theLord. It is known that the merits of the Blessed Mother of God and of allthe elect . . . add further to this treasure."[36]

8. The remission of the temporal punishment due for sins already forgiveninsofar as their guilt is concerned has been called specifically"indulgence."[37]

It has something in common with other ways or means of eliminating thevestiges of sin but at the same time it is clearly distinct from them.

In an indulgence in fact, the Church, making use of its power as ministerof the Redemption of Christ, not only prays but by an authoritativeintervention dispenses to the faithful suitably disposed the treasury ofsatisfaction which Christ and the saints won for the remission oftemporal punishment.[38]

The aim pursued by ecclesiastical authority in granting indulgences isnot only that of helping the faithful to expiate the punishment due sinbut also that of urging them to perform works of piety, penitence andcharityparticularly those which lead to growth in faith and which favorthe common good.[39]

And if the faithful offer indulgences in suffrage for the dead, theycultivate charity in an excellent way and while raising their minds toheaven, they bring a wiser order into the things of this world.

The Magisterium of the Church has defended and illustrated this doctrinein various documents.[40] Unfortunately, the practice of indulgences hasat times been improperly used either through "untimely and superfluousindulgences" by which the power of the keys was humiliated andpenitential satisfaction weakened,[41] or through the collection of"illicit profits" by which indulgences were blasphemously defamed[42] Butthe Church, in deploring and correcting these improper uses "teaches andestablishes that the use of indulgences must be preserved because it issupremely salutary for the Christian people and authoritatively approvedby the sacred councils; and it condemns with anathema those who maintainthe uselessness of indulgences or deny the power of the Church to grantthem."[43]

9. The Church also in our days then invites all its sons to ponder andmeditate well on how the use of indulgences benefits their lives andindeed all Christian society.

To recall briefly the most important considerations, this salutarypractice teaches us in the first place how it is "sad and bitter to haveabandoned . . . the Lord God."[44] Indeed the faithful when they acquireindulgences understand that by their own powers they could not remedy theharm they have done to themselves and to the entire community by theirsin, and they are therefore stirred to a salutary humility.

Furthermore, the use of indulgences shows us how closely we are united toeach other in Christ, and how the supernatural life of each can benefitothers so that these also may be more easily and more closely united withthe Father. Therefore the use of indulgences effectively influencescharity in us and demonstrates that charity in an outstanding manner whenwe offer indulgences as assistance to our brothers who rest in Christ.

10. Likewise, the religious practice of indulgences reawakens trust andhope in a full reconciliation with God the Father, but in such a way aswill not justify any negligence nor in any way diminish the effort toacquire the dispositions required for full communion with God. Althoughindulgences are in fact free gifts, nevertheless they are granted for theliving as well as for the dead only on determined conditions. To acquirethem, it is indeed required on the one hand that prescribed works beperformed, and on the other that the faithful have the necessarydispositions, that is to say, that they love God, detest sin, place theirtrust in the merits of Christ and believe firmly in the great assistancethey derive from the Communion of Saints.

In addition, it should not be forgotten that by acquiring indulgences thefaithful submit docilely to the legitimate pastors of the Church andabove all to the successor of Blessed Peter, the keybearer of heaven, towhom the Savior Himself entrusted the task of feeding His flock andgoverning His Church.

The salutary institution of indulgences therefore contributes in its ownway to bringing it about that the Church appear before Christ withoutblemish or defect, but holy and immaculate,[45] admirably united withChrist in the supernatural bond of charity. Since in fact by means ofindulgences members of the Church who are undergoing purification areunited more speedily to those of the Church in heaven, the kingdom ofChrist is through these same indulgences established more extensively andmore speedily "until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of thedeep knowledge of the Son of God, to perfect manhood, to the maturemeasure of the fullness of Christ."[46]

11. Therefore Holy Mother Church, supported by these truths, while againrecommending to the faithful the practice of indulgences as somethingvery dear to the Christian people during the course of many centuries andin our days as wellthis is proven by experiencedoes not in any wayintend to diminish the value of other means of sanctification andpurification, first and foremost among which are the Sacrifice of theMass and the Sacraments, particularly the Sacrament of Penance. Nor doesit diminish the importance of those abundant aids which are calledsacramentals or of the works of piety, penitence and charity. All theseaids have this in common that they bring about sanctification andpurification all the more efficaciously, the more closely the faithfulare united with Christ the Head and the Body of the Church by charity.The preeminence of charity in the Christian life is confirmed also byindulgences. For indulgences cannot be acquired without a sincereconversion of mentality ("metanoia") and unity with God, to which theperformance of the prescribed works is added. Thus the order of charityis preserved, into which is incorporated the remission of punishment bydistribution from the Church's treasury.

While recommending that its faithful not abandon or neglect the holytraditions of their forebears but welcome them religiously as a precioustreasure of the Catholic family and duly esteem them, the Churchnevertheless leaves it to each to use these means of purification andsanctification with the holy and free liberty of the sons of God. Itconstantly reminds them, though, of those things which are to be givenpreference because they are necessary or at least better and moreefficacious for the attainment of salvation.[47]

Holy Mother Church has then deemed it fitting, in order to give greaterdignity and esteem to the use of indulgences, to introduce someinnovations into its discipline of indulgences and has accordinglyordered the issuance of new norms.

Chapter V

12. The following norms introduce appropriate variations in thediscipline of indulgences, taking into consideration the proposalsadvanced by the episcopal conferences.

The rulings of the Code of Canon Law and of the decrees of the Holy Seeconcerning indulgences which do not go counter to the new norms remainunchanged.

In drawing up the new norms these three considerations have beenparticularly observed: to establish a new measurement for partialindulgences; to reduce considerably the number of plenary indulgences;and, as for the so-called "real" and "local" indulgences, to reduce themand give them a simpler and more dignified formulation.

Regarding partial indulgences, with the abolishment of the formerdetermination of days and years, a new norm or measurement has beenestablished which takes into consideration the action itself of thefaithful Christian who performs a work to which an indulgence is attached.

Since by their acts the faithful can obtain, in addition to the meritwhich is the principal fruit of the act, a further remission of temporalpunishment in proportion to the degree to which the charity of the oneperforming the act is greater, and in proportion to the degree to whichthe act itself is performed in a more perfect way, it has been consideredfitting that this remission of temporal punishment which the Christianfaithful acquire through an action should serve as the measurement forthe remission of punishment which the ecclesiastical authoritybountifully adds by way of partial indulgence.

It has also been considered fitting to reduce appropriately the number ofplenary indulgences in order that the faithful may hold them in greateresteem and may in fact acquire them with the proper dispositions. Forindeed the greater the proliferation (of indulgences) the less is theattention given them; what is offered in abundance is not greatlyappreciated. Besides, many of the faithful need considerable time toprepare themselves properly for acquisition of a plenary indulgence.

As regards the "real" and "local" indulgences, not only has their numberbeen reduced considerably, but the designations themselves have beenabolished to make it clearer that indulgences are attached to the actionsperformed by the faithful and not to objects or places which are but theoccasion for the acquisition of the indulgences. In fact, members ofpious associations can acquire the indulgences proper to theirassociations without the requirement of the use of distinctive objects.


n.1An indulgence is the remission before God of the temporal punishmentdue sins already forgiven as far as their guilt is concerned, which thefollower of Christ with the proper dispositions and under certaindetermined conditions acquires through the intervention of the Churchwhich, as minister of the Redemption, authoritatively dispenses andapplies the treasury of the satisfaction won by Christ and the saints.

n.2An indulgence is partial or plenary according as it removes eitherpart or all of the temporal punishment due sin.

n.3Partial as well as plenary indulgences can always be applied to thedead by way of suffrage.

n.4A partial indulgence will henceforth be designated only with thewords "partial indulgence" without any determination of days or years.

n.5The faithful who at least with a contrite heart perform an action towhich a partial indulgence is attached obtain, in addition to theremission of temporal punishment acquired by the action itself, an equalremission of punishment through the intervention of the Church.

n.6A plenary indulgence can be acquired only once a day, except for theprovisions contained in n. 18 for those who are on the point of death. Apartial indulgence can be acquired more than once a day, unless there isan explicit indication to the contrary.

n.7To acquire a plenary indulgence it is necessary to perform the workto which the indulgence is attached and to fulfill three conditions:sacramental confession, Eucharistic Communion and prayer for theintentions of the Supreme Pontiff. It is further required that allattachment to sin, even to venial sin, be absent.

If this disposition is in any way less than complete, or if theprescribed three conditions are not fulfilled, the indulgence will beonly partial, except for the provisions contained in n. 11 for those whoare "impeded."

n.8The three conditions may be fulfilled several days before or afterthe performance of the prescribed work; nevertheless it is fitting thatCommunion be received and the prayers for the intentions of the SupremePontiff be said the same day the work is performed.

n.9A single sacramental confession suffices for gaining several plenaryindulgences, but Communion must be received and prayers for the SupremePontiff's intentions recited for the gaining of each plenary indulgence.

n. 10The condition of praying for the Supreme Pontiff's intentions isfully satisfied by reciting one "Our Father" and one "Hail Mary";nevertheless the individual faithful are free to recite any other prayeraccording to their own piety and devotion toward the Supreme Pontiff.

n. 11While there is no change in the faculty granted by canon 935 ofthe Code of Canon Law to confessors to commute for those who are"impeded" either the prescribed work itself or the required conditions[for the acquisition of indulgences], local Ordinaries can grant to thefaithful over whom they exercise authority in accordance with the law,and who live in places where it is impossible or at least very difficultfor them to receive the sacraments of confession and Communion,permission to acquire a plenary indulgence without confession andCommunion provided they are sorry for their sins and have the intentionof receiving these sacraments as soon as possible.

n.12The division of indulgences into "personal," "real" and "local" isabolished so as to make it clearer that indulgences are attached to theactions of the faithful even though at times they may be linked with someobject or place.

n.13The Enchiridion Indulgentiarium [collection of indulgenced prayersand works] is to be revised with a view to attaching indulgences only tothe most important prayers and works of piety, charity and penance.

n.14The lists and summaries of indulgences special to religious orders,congregations, societies of those living in community without vows,secular institutes and the pious associations of faithful are to berevised as soon as possible in such a way that plenary indulgences may beacquired only on particular days established by the Holy See acting onthe recommendation of the Superior General, or in the case of piousassociations, of the local Ordinary.

n.15A plenary indulgence applicable only to the dead can be acquired inall churches and public oratoriesand in semipublic oratories by thosewho have the right to use themon November 2.

In addition, a plenary indulgence can be acquired twice a year in parishchurches: on the feast of the church's titular saint and on August 2,when the "Portiuncula" occurs, or on some other more opportune daydetermined by the Ordinary.

All the indulgences mentioned above can be acquired either on the daysestablished orwith the consent of the Ordinaryon the preceding or thefollowing Sunday.

Other indulgences attached to churches and oratories are to be revised assoon as possible.

n.16The work prescribed for acquiring a plenary indulgence connectedwith a church or oratory consists in a devout visit and the recitation ofan "Our Father" and "Creed."

n.17The faithful who use with devotion an object of piety (crucifix,cross, rosary, scapular or medal) properly blessed by any priest, canacquire a partial indulgence.

But if this object of piety is blessed by the Supreme Pontiff or anybishop, the faithful who use it devoutly can also acquire a plenaryindulgence on the feast of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, providedthey also make a profession of faith using any legitimate formula.

n.18To the faithful in danger of death who cannot be assisted by apriest to bring them the sacraments and impart the apostolic blessingwith its attendant plenary indulgence (according to canon 468, para. 2 ofthe Code of Canon Law) Holy Mother Church nevertheless grants a plenaryindulgence to be acquired at the point of death, provided they areproperly disposed and have been in the habit of reciting some prayersduring their lifetime. To use a crucifix or cross in connection with theacquisition of this plenary indulgence is a laudable practice.

This plenary indulgence at the point of death can be acquired by thefaithful even if they have already obtained another plenary indulgence onthe same day.

n.19The norms established regarding plenary indulgences, particularlythose referred to in n.16, apply also to what up to now have been knownas the "toties quoties" ["as often as"] plenary indulgences.

n.20Holy Mother Church, extremely solicitous for the faithful departed,has decided that suffrages can be applied to them to the widest possibleextent at any Sacrifice of the Mass whatsoever, abolishing all specialprivileges in this regard.


These new norms regulating the acquisition of indulgences will becomevalid three months from the date of publication of this constitution inthe Acta Apostolicae Sedis.

Indulgences attached to the use of religious objects which are notmentioned above cease three months after the date of publication of thisconstitution in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis.

The revisions mentioned in n.14 and n.15 must be submitted to theSacred Apostolic Penitentiary within a year. Two years after the date ofthis constitution, indulgences which have not been confirmed will becomenull and void.

We will that these statutes and prescriptions of ours be established nowand remain in force for the future notwithstanding, if it is necessary soto state, the constitutions and apostolic directives published by ourpredecessors or any other prescriptions even if they might be worthy ofspecial mention or should otherwise require partial repeal.

Given at Rome at St. Peter's on January 1, the octave of the Nativity ofOur Lord Jesus Christ, 1967, the fourth year of Our Pontificate.


1. Cf. Council of Trent, Session 25, Decree On Indulgences (DS[Denzinger-Schonmetzer] 1835); cf. Matt, 28:18.

2. Vatican II, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum on Revelation, n. 8 (AAS58, 1966, p 821) cf. Vatican I, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Faius on theCatholic Faith ch. 4 On Faith and Reason (DS 3020).

3. Cf. Gen. 3: 16-19, also cf. Luke 19:41-44; Rom. 2:9 and I Cor. 11:30.Cf. Augustine, Exposition on Psalm 58 1:13"Iniquitas omnis ., . Deovindicante" (CCL 39, p. 739; PL 36, 701). Cf. Thomas, Summa Theol. 1-2,q. 86, a. 1: "Cum autem . . . depressio poena est."

4. Cf Matt 25 41-42 see also Mark 9:42-43, John 5:28-29, Rom. 2:9 Gal 66-8 Cf Council; of Lyons II, Session 4, profession of faith of MichaelPalaeologus (DS 856-858). Cf. Council of Florence, decree for the Greeks(DS 1304-1306). Cf. Augustine, Enchiridion, 66, 17: "Multa etiam . . .mundo damnemur" (ed. Scheel, Tubingen 1930, p. 42; PL 40, 263 ).

5. Cf. Hermae Pastor, Mand. 6, 1, 3 (Funk, Apostolic Fathers 1, p. 487).

6. Cf. Isaiah 1 2-3 Also cf. Deut. 8:11 and 32:15 and ff., Ps. 105: 21 and118 and other places- Wis. 7:14- Isaiah 17:10 and 44:21; Jer. 33:8-Ez20:27. Cf. Vatican II, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum on DivineRevelation, no. 2: "Hac itaque . . . eamque suscipiat" (AAS 58, 1966, p.818). Cf. also ibid., n. 21 (loc. cit., p. 827-828).

7. Cf. John 15:14-15. Cf. Vatican II, Pastoral Constitution Guadium etSpes on the Church in the Modern World, n. 22 (AAS 58, 1966, p. 1042) andthe Decree Ad Gentes Divinitus on the Missionary Activity of the Church,n. 13 (AAS 58, 1966, p. 962).

8. Cf. Num. 20:12-27:13-14- Il Kings 12:13-14. Cf. Innocent IV,Instruction for the Greeks (DS 838). Cf. Council of Trent, Session 6canon 30 (DS 1580; cf. also DS 1689, 1693). Cf. Augustine, tract onJohn's Gospel 124, 5: "Cogitur homo . . . detinet culpa" (CCL 36, p.683-684; PL 35, 1972-1973).

9. Council of Lyons 11, Session 4 (DS 856).

10. Cf. Septuagesima Sunday, Oration- Monday after First Sunday in Lent,Oration over the People; Third Sunday in Lent, Postcommunion.

11. Cf. James 3:2; 1 John 1:8, the Council of Carthage gave a commentaryon this text for which see DS 228. Cf. Council of Trent, Session 6 DecreeOn Justification, ch. 11 (DS 1537). Cf. Vatican II, Dogmatic ConstitutionLumen Gentium on the Nature of the Church, n. 40: "Cum vero. . . debitanostra" (AAS 57. 1965. p. 45).

12. Cf. Augustine, On Baptism, Against the Donatists 1, 28 (PL 43, 124).

13. Cf. John 15:5; I Cor. 12:27. Also cf. I Cor. 1:9 and 10:17; Eph. 120-23 and 4 4 Cf Vatican II Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium on theNature of the Church, n. 7 (AAS 57, 1965, p. 10-11). Cf. Pius XIIEncyclical Mystici Corporis: "Ex eadem . . . Christum totum" (DS 3813)AAS 35, 1943, p. 230-231). Cf. Augustine, second exposition on Psalm 90,1: "Dominus noster . . . est Christus" (CCL 39, p. 1266 PL 37, 1159).

14. Cf. I Peter 2:22 and 21.

15. "Cf. Isaiah 53:4-6 with I Peter 2:21-25, also cf. John 1:29; Rom. 4:25and 5:9 and ff., I Cor. 15:3-11, I Cor. 5:21; Gal. 1:4; Eph. 1:7 and ff.;Heb. 1:3 etc.; I John 3:5.

16. Cf. I Peter 2:21.

17. Cf. Col. 1:24. Cf. Clement of Alexandria, Lib. "Quis dives salvetur"42: "S. Joannes . . . vicariam dabo" (GCS Clement 3, p. 190; PG 9, 650).Cf. Cyprian, De Lapsis 17, 36: "Credimus quidem . . . fecerintsacerdotes" (CSEL 3l, p. 249-250 and 263; PL 4:495 and 508). Cf. Jerome,"Contra Vigilantium" 6: "Dicis in libello . . . et triumphos?" (PL 23,359). Cf. Basil the Great, ''Homily in martyrem Julittam" 9: "Oportetigitur . . . dignum est" (PG 31, 258-259). Cf. John Chrysostom, "Inepist. ad Philipp." 1, hom. 3, 3: "Igitur non . . . mortui fuerint" (PG62, 203). Cf. Thomas, Summa Theol. 1-2, q. 87, a. 8: "Si loquamur . . .ab homine."

18. Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Mirae Caritatis: "Nihil est . . . formacaritas" (Acts of Leo XIII 22, 1902, p. 129; DS 3363).

19. Cf. I Cor. 12:12-13. Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Mystici Corporis: "Ita(Christus) in Ecclesia . . . praedicat Christum" (AAS 35, 1943, p. 218).Cf. Thomas, Summa Theol. 3, q. 48, a. 2 ad I and q. 49, a. 1.

20. Cf. Clement VI, jubilee bull Unigenitus Dei Filius: "Unigenitus Dei .. . praestare noscuntur . . ." (DS 1025, 1026, 1027). Cf. Sixtus IV,encyclical "Romani Pontificis": ". . . Nos, quibus . . . afferrecupientes . . ." (DS 1406). Cf. Leo X, Decree "Cum postquam" to papallegate Cajetan de Vio: '. . . thesaurum meritorum Jesu Christi etSanctorum dispensare . . ." (DS 1448; cf. DS 1467 and 2641).

21. Cf. Heb. 7:23-25; 9:11-28.

22. Vatican II, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium on the Nature of theChurch, n. 49 (AAS 57, 1965, p, 54-55).

23. Cf. James 5:16; 1 John 5:16.

24. Cf. Clement of Rome, "To The Corinthians" 56, 1: "Oremus igitur . . .et perfecta" (Funk Apostolic Fathers I, p. 171). Cf. The Martyrdom of St.Polycarp 8, 1: "Cum autem . . . catholicae ecclesiae . . ." (Funk,Apostolic Fathers 1, p. 321, 323).

25. Cf, Sozomenus, "Church History" 7, 16: In public penance, after thesolemn celebration of Masses, the penitents in the Roman Church "cumgemitu . . . eos dimittit" (PG 67, 1462).

26. Cf. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechesis 24 (mystag. 5), 9; 10: "Deinde etpro . . . jacet victima." After he confirms this by the example of thecrown which used to be offered to the emperor in order that he mightgrant indulgence to the exiles, the Holy Doctor concludes his discourse:"Ad eundem modum . . . propitiare satagentes" (PG 33, 1115; 1118). Cf.Augustine, Confessions 9, 12, 32 (PL 32, 777) and 9 11, 27 (PL 32, 775)-Sermones 172, 2 (PL 38, 936); "De cura pro mortuis gerenda" 1, 3 (PL 40,593).

27. Cf. Clement of Alexandria, Lib. "Quis Dives salvetur" 42: (St. Johnthe Apostle on the conversion of the young thief ) "Exinde partim gremioadmovisset . . ." (CGS 17, p. 189-190; PG 9, 651).

28. Cf. Tertullian, Ad martyras 1, 6: "Quam pacem . . . exorareconsueverunt" (CCL 1, p. 3, PL 1, 695). Cf. Cyprian, letter 18 (alias:12), 1: "Occurrendum puto . . . factis desideraverunt" (CSEL 3t, p,523-524; PL 4, 265- cf. Idem Letter 19 [alias: 13], 2, CSEL 3t, p, 525;PL 4, 267). Cf. Eusebius of Caesaria, "Ecclesiastical History" 1, 6, 42(CGS Eus. 2, 2, 610; PG 20, 614-615).

29. Cf. Ambrose De paenitentia 1, 15: ". . . velut enim . . . omnesredimerentur" (PL ;[6], 511).

30. Cf. Tertullian, De paenitentia 10 5-6; "Non potest . . . filiuspostulat" (CCL 1, p. 337; PL 1, 1356). Cf. Augustine, exposition on Psalm85, 1 (CCL 39, p. 1176-1177; PL 37, 1082).

31. Cf. Acts, 20, 28. Also cf. Council of Trent, Session 23, Decree "Onthe Sacrament of Order." ch. 4 (DS 1768), Vatican I, Session 4, DogmaticConstitution Pastor Aeternus on the Church, ch. 3 (DS 3061)- Vatican IIDogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium on the Nature of the Church, n. 20(AAS 57, 1965, p. 23). Cf. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrnaeos 8, 1;"Separatim ab episcopo nemo quidquam faciat eorum, quae ad ecclesiamspectant . . ." (Funk, Apostolic Fathers 1. p. 283).

32. Cf. Council of Nicea I. can. 12: ". . . quicumque enim de eisstatuere . . ." (Mansi, SS. Conciliorum collectio 2, 674) Cf. Council ofNeocaesaria, can. 3 (loc. cit.. 540). Cf. Innocent I, letter 25, 7, 10(PL 20 559). Cf. Leo the Great, letter 159, 6 (PL 54, 1138). Cf. Basilthe Great letter 217 (canonica 3), 74: "Quod si . . . misericordiamconsequi" (PG 32 803), Cf. Ambrose, De paenitentia 1 15 (see above, innote 29).

33. Cf. Vincent of Lerins. Commonitorium primum 23 (PL 50, 667-668)

34. Cf. Council of Claremont can. 2: "Quicumque pro . . . paenitentiareputetur" (Mansi, SS.Conciliorum collectio 20, 816)

35. Cf. Boniface VIII, bull Antiquorum habet: "Antiquorum habet . . .veniam peccatorum . . ." ( DS 868 ) .

36. Clement VI, jubilee bull Unigenitus Dei Filius (DS 1025, 1026 and


37. Cf. Leo X, Decree Cum postquam: . . . tibi significandum . .,indulgentiae aequivalet" ( DS 1447-1448 ) .

38. Cf. Paul VI, Letter Sacrosancta Portiunculae: "Indulgentia quam . . .creavit illum" (AAS 58, 1966, p. 633-634).

39. Cf. Paul VI, cited Letter: "Iis vero christifidelibus . . . precibusadlaborat" (AAS 58. 1966, p. 632).

40. Clement VI, jubilee bull Unigenitus Dei Filius (DS 1026) Clement VI,Letter Super quibusdam (DS 1059). Martin V bull inter cunctas (DS 1266).Sixtus IV, bull Salvator noster (DS 1398) Sixtus IV, Encyclical RomaniPontificis provida: "Nos scandalis . . . concessimus indulgentiam . . ."(DS 1405-1406). Leo X, bull Exsurge Domine (DS 1467-1472). Pius VI,Constitution Auctorem fidei proposition 40: "Propositio asserens,indulgentiam secundum suam praecisam notionem . . . in art. 19 Lutheridamnata" (DS 2640). Ibid. proposition 41: "Item in eo . in art 17Lutheri damnata" (DS 2640). Ibid. proposition 42: "Item in eo, quodsuperaddit . . . in art. 22 Lutheri" (DS 2642). Pius Xl, Indiction of theextraordinary holy year Quod nuper: . . . plenissimam totius . . . acvenia" (AAS 25, 1933, p. 8). Pius XII, Indiction of the universal jubileeJubilaeum maximum: "Hoc igitur . . . atque impertimus" (AAS 41, 1949, p.258-259).

41. Cf. Lateran Council IV, ch. 62 (DS 819).

42. Cf. Council of Trent, Decree On Indulgences (DS 1835)

43. Cf. ibid.

44. Jer. 2:19.

45. Cf. Eph. 5:27.

46. Eph. 4:13.

47. Cf. Thomas, commentary on the fourth book of the 'Sentences " dist.20, q. I, a. 3, q. la 2, ad 2 (Summa Theol. Suppl., q. 25, a. 2, ad 2):".. . quamvis hujusmodi . . . poenae temporalis."