Music for the Basilica

Author: Duane Galles

SACRED MUSIC Volume 117, Number 2, Summer 1990


Recently the Holy See elevated the Church of Saint Patrick in Montreal, Quebec, to the rank of minor basilica. The apostolic letter declared that the honor was motivated in part by the fine musical program at Saint Patrick's.1 This raises the broader question of what norms govern music in basilicas.

Basilicas tend to be seen and not heard. Therein lies the tale. In North America the name "basilica" seems, in fact, little more than a grandiloquent title for a lovely, old church. There are nearly fifty of these grand-sounding edifices scattered across the continent from sea to sea. And, while their privileges seem more or less clear, their duties, in respect to the solemn liturgy and sacred music, have rarely been discussed.

More often it is the rights and privileges of these structures, distinguished for their age, size or magnificence, which are apparent. The first of these is the name itself. Distinctive, of Greek origin, and meaning "royal house," the name is as unusual to the ear of the average North American as "cathedral," even though in several dioceses--Brooklyn, Buffalo, Chicago, Montreal, Quebec--there are two or more basilicas and but a single cathedral. The traditional privileges of the minor basilica (besides the name) are: the right to display the papal coat of arms; the use in procession of a special red and yellow silk canopy which was once used to protect the pope from inclement weather during papal cavalcades; the right to use a bell mounted on a staff which in former times served both to marshall papal processions and to warn bystanders of their approach; and, if the minor basilica were a collegiate church, the right for the basilica's canons to wear, as choir dress in winter, a "cappa magna" of violet wool trimmed with an ermine cape, or in summer, a cotta or surplice, over the rochet.2

But obligations and rights are correlative. If these be the traditional rights of minor basilicas, what are their obligations? And what are their obligations to sacred music? The answer will be found in no one place.

Basilicas provide proof that there is law outside the "Code of Canon Law." Mentioned only in canon 1180 of the 1917 code, "basilica" fails wholly of mention in the 1983 "Code of Canon Law." Yet this does not mean that in the post-Vatican II era basilicas are passe. Indeed, two-thirds of the basilicas in the United States were elevated to that rank after the summoning of the council.

Canon 2 tells us that in general liturgical law is not governed by the code, and thus much of the law of minor basilicas will be found in an uncodified 1968 decree bearing the incipit, Domus Dei. That decree, issued by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, states that in the post-conciliar reforms the title of minor basilica should be retained. At the same time it was to be enriched with a new meaning "whereby such churches will be linked even more closely with the Chair of Peter and become centers of special liturgical and pastoral zeal.3

The decree then proceeds to revise and codify the canon law of minor basilicas. Indeed, it treats the matter more fully than any official document heretofore. At the same time it expressly purports to adapt the minor basilica to the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Nevertheless, just as the "Code of Canon Law" leaves sacred music to the uncodified liturgical law, the decree on minor basilicas leaves this area for the most part to those norms too.

To supplement "Domus Dei," then, we must have recourse to the liturgical norms governing sacred music. Many of these norms are to be found in the 1967 instruction of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, "Musicam sacram." However, that instruction did not in its own words "gather together all the legislation on sacred music."4 Much of the ante-conciliar legislation remained part of the "jus vigens" or law in force and must be referred to.

Because "Domus Dei" intended to update the law of minor basilicas in accordance with the reforms of the Second Council of the Vatican, the conciliar documents, especially the constitution on the liturgy, must also be referred to. Finally, since canon 23 declares that custom has the force of law and since canon 27 says that custom is the best interpreter of law, custom and usage should be illuminative. This is particularly true of a subject like minor basilicas where the code is silent and where the law is so peculiarly the product of custom. Because, in fact, the law of basilicas is peculiarly a product of history, it might be well to begin examining the sources in reverse order, beginning with custom and usage.

The law of minor basilicas is a comparatively recent canonical development. In the beginning "basilica" referred to a public building, often used by law courts and to transact public affairs. Architecturally, basilicas tended to be covered arcades terminating in a rounded apse and flanked by two or more aisles. The central space or nave is lit by clerestory windows. Classic examples of the style are the major Roman basilicas of Saint Mary Major and Saint Paul-Outside-the-Walls.

After Constantine's edict of toleration in 313 A.D., many basilicas were built or given over as places of Christian worship. Liturgy, derived from the Greek for "public service," thus made its home in a public building. Rome, as the empire's capital, acquired several basilicas for worship, many being the gift of Constantine or his family. But as Christianity spread to smaller towns and eventually to the countryside, its places of worship tended to be called by the newer name of "ecclesia," church. Eventually, the new departure became the norm and church became the generic name for a Christian place of worship.

Some basilicas, however, continued to use their erstwhile sobriquet and Rome, with its wealth of churches, continued to have many basilicas. By the early eighteenth century a differentiation arose among the Roman basilicas. In the early part of that century the holy year pilgrimage churches of Saint John Lateran, Saint Mary Major, Saint Peter's, and Saint Paul- Outside-the-Walls came to be styled "major" or greater basilicas. In contrast to these were the distinguished collegiate churches of Rome. These came to be called the "minor" or lesser basilicas by the mid-eighteenth century.

A collegiate church is one served by a chapter of canons or college of priests which is not the seat of a bishop. A distinguished ("insignis") collegiate church is one decorated with special privileges, both for the church and its clergy. The distinguished Roman collegiate churches had come to use, as distinctive church ornaments, the papal parasol or "ombrelino" and special bell, mounted on a staff. Their clergy, being canons of a distinguished collegiate church, had acquired the right to wear, as choir dress while chanting the offices of the breviary, a rochet over their soutane and over the rochet in winter a violet "cappa magna" fitted with an ermine cape. The rochet, of course, is the long, close-filling surplice reserved for prelates. The "cappa magna" is a long poncho-like garment fitted with a train. It is worn by prelates and those likened to them in law. Canons enjoying the privilege of the "cappa magna" wear theirs curtailed and folded.

It was the "ombrelino" that particularly distinguished the major and minor basilicas. Traditionally ecclesiastical rank is denoted by the color and quality of the clothing of the wearer. Velvet, as the more princely fabric, among ecclesiastics was reserved for the pope. Silk was reserved for members of the papal court. Simple priests wore wool. For this reason the "ombrelini" of the major and minor basilicas differ in their fabric. Major basilicas came to use an "ombrelino" made of red velvet and cloth of gold. The velvet bespoke their status as papal or patriarchal churches. The distinguished collegiate churches of Rome, by contrast, came to use an "ombrelino" made of alternate red and yellow silk stripes. The silk indicated their very real connection with the papal court as stational churches.

When in the eighteenth century the name and privileges of the Roman minor basilicas had become fixed, they were ready for export. The first minor basilica outside Rome was that of Saint Nicholas in Tolentina, Italy. At the request of its clergy, Pope Pius VI bestowed the honor on the church there in 1783. In 1805, the minor basilica crossed the Alps and made its way to Paris. That year the Cathedral of Notre Dame there received the honor from Pope Pius VII. The last stage in the development of the minor basilica came in 1836 when the privileges of the minor basilica were at length defined. Hitherto they had rested on custom. In 1836, the privileges of the minor basilica came to be defined by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites and the development reached completion.5

Meanwhile, secular developments in the nineteenth century operated to ensure the spread of the new canonical institute. The ideology and financial exigencies of the French Revolution had led to the suppression of all collegiate churches in France. The concordat of 1802 did not provide for their restoration and thus sub silentio confirmed their suppression. At the same time the secularization of church property in other countries, like Switzerland, further served to reduce the number of collegiate churches. Into this vacuum came the minor basilica, scion of the distinguished collegiate churches of Rome. It came to serve as a solemn replacement for the suppressed or secularized collegiate churches "extra urbem."

Moreover, in a century marked by conflicts between liberals and ultramontanes, the papal "ombrelino" ensign of a basilica came to be seen as a badge of filial devotion to the Roman See. From the Roman perspective, moreover, it was a badge which could be confrerred without reference to the secular authorities. To alter temporal matters or change ecclesiastical boundaries might have required the consent of the civil power. The title of basilica, however, was purely liturgical and, hence, could be conferred without reference to the civil authorities. These developments ensured the wide spread of the basilica in Catholic countries. In 1926, when the United States received its first minor basilica, France already had seventy churches honored with the title of basilica.6

The Second Vatican Council noted that sacred music is intergral to the solemn liturgy. A solemn Mass, the instruction "De musica sacra" defines, is a sung Mass celebrated with the assistance of sacred ministers. Pope Pius underscored the special dignity of the solemn Mass in his encyclical, "Mediator Dei." He said that a read Mass, even if it involved the very active participation of the people, cannot replace the sung Mass, which, as a matter of fact, though it should be offered with only the sacred ministers present, possesses its own special dignity due to the impressive character of its ritual and the magnificence of its ceremonies." At a sung Mass only sacred music may be sung. That is to say, music composed for the liturgy using scriptural or liturgical texts.7

For sacred music it is of the utmost importance that the basilica is the offspring of the collegiate church. Canon 503 tells us that collegiate churches have as their end the celebration of the more solemn liturgical functions. Historically collegiate churches were large edifices which possessed the human and material resources to enable them to celebrate the liturgy solemnly. They had, moreover, the correlative duty to do so. Typically the canons were bound to the choral recitation of the office, and they would have celebrated a solemn capitular Mass as well. Indeed, at Trent's orders a third of the canons' income was set aside as "daily distributions" and receipt of this portion was dependent on punctual attendance at divine service.

A member of the chapter of canons was expressly deputed to oversee the celebration of the liturgy in a collegiate church. This canon was called the "precentor" and usually he enjoyed an extra benefice besides the prebend annexed to his canonry to compensate him for his extra duties in respect to sacred music. So important were these duties that the precentor was usually included among the "quatuor personae" or "big four" canons who enjoyed precedence over their fellows. The precentor often had an assistant, the "succentor." By the time of the renaissance a division of labor was common so that the precentor took charge of polyphony and the succentor the plainchant.

In some places by the late middle ages the canons tended to be selected more for their pedigrees than for their musical abilities. Hence, it became necessary to develop colleges of vicars choral or chaplains to whom the actual singing was deputed. In many places a group of beneficed choristers also existed to augment the splendor of the divine service. Given such considerable staff, it is easy to see how collegiate churches became some of the most sublime centers of sacred music. And not only were these centers for the celebration of the solemn liturgy. Collegiate churches were also choir schools or training centers for future generations of liturgical musicians.8

Collegiate churches and their offspring, the minor basilicas, along with cathedrals and abbatial and other major monastic churches form a class of churches called "ecclesiae maiores" or "larger churches." This expression is a term of art. Liturgical law gives this class of churches special rights and special duties in respect to the solemn liturgy. A review of the legislation on sacred music will show this.

The concept of the larger churches, "ecclesiae maiores," has frequently appeared in canonical sources. Nabucco in his "Ius Pontificium" provides a description of "ecclesiae maiores" by describing their opposite, the "ecclesiae minores." The latter are so called "propter cleri, cantorum vel supellectillis deficientium" (for lack of clergy, musicians or sacred vestments and vessels).9 Logically then "ecclesiae maiores" are those churches amply supplied with clergy, musicians and sacred vestments and vessels. Since these are the material requisites for the solemn liturgy, it is clearly implicit in this material text that the "ecclesiae maiores" are ordered to the celebration of the solemn liturgy.

The concept of the "ecclesiae maiores" can be found in several norms on sacred music. In his "motu proprio" of 1903, "Tra le sollecitudini," Pius X ordered choirs ("scholae cantorum") to be restored at least in the principal churches ("le chiese principali"). The usage is clarified in the next sentence where these principal churches are contrasted with smaller churches ("chiese minori").10

Twenty-five years later in his apostolic constitution, "Divini cultus sanctitatem," Pius XI referred to the members of this class of churches by name, ordering "those who superintend and take part in the public worship in basilicas, cathedrals, collegiate churches and conventual churches of religious to make every endeavor to have the choral office restored...including its musical portions." He further noted that in time at basilicas and other larger churches ("basilicis maioribus templis") large choirs ("capellae musicorum") succeeded scholas to perform polyphonic music. He strongly wishes those "capellae" to be revived, especially where the frequency and scope of divine worship demand a larger number of singers and more skill in the selection of them. This last phrase itself provides a description of "ecclesiae maiores." He added that boy choirs should be encouraged not only in cathedrals and larger churches ("maiora templa et cathedrales") but also in smaller churches and parish churches.11

A generation later in his encyclical on sacred music, "Musicae sacrae disciplina," in 1955, Pius XII returned to the concept when he declared that in basilicas, cathedrals and churches of religious ("basilicis et cathedralibus aedibus et in familiarum religiosarum templa"), the magnificent works of the old masters as well as the works of more recent composers might appropriately be performed. In providing some detailed practical norms he stressed first of all that ordinaries see to it that in cathedrals and, as far as possible, other larger churches ("sacris aedibus maioribus") a "schola cantorum" be established. Where boy choirs could not be had, he relaxed the norms of the 1903 "motu proprio" and permitted women to provide the higher voices in mixed choirs.12

Perhaps the most explicit statement about the concept of "ecclesiae maiores" came in the 1958 instruction, "De musica sacra," promulgated by the Sacred Congregation of Rites. The document aimed at providing a resume of Pius XII's teachings on sacred music drawn from his encyclicals "Mediator Dei" and "Musicae sacrae disciplina," and codifying the canon law of sacred music. It said:

"There are churches which of their nature require that the sacred liturgy together with sacred music be carried out with special beauty and splendor, viz., larger parish churches, collegiate churches, cathedrals, abbey churches, and the larger shrines. Persons attached to such churches--clerics, ministers, musicians--must strive with all care and attention to become able and ready to perform the sacred music and liturgical functions perfectly."13

Such were the norms on sacred music in "ecclesiae maiores" when the Second Vatican Council promulgated its constitution on the liturgy in 1963. That document understands that the liturgy is the "action of Christ the priest and of His Body, which is the Church." The liturgy is the "fons et culmen," the source and summit of the Church's activity. But to it sacred music gives an even "more noble form," being necessary or integral to the solemn liturgy.

Having declared the link between sacred music and the solemn liturgy, the council went on to recognize that the level of human and physical resources varied between churches. Thus, there should be a range of liturgical solemnity and musicl culture, depending on available resources. This explains the conciliar concern that there be an edition of simpler melodies of Gregorian chant "for use in smaller churches..." Likewise, the council ordered composers to produce works "not only for large choirs but also for smaller choirs." But the traditional solemn service and sacred music was by no means banished. On the contrary, Gregorian chant was given the lead spot, "principem locum" in the Latin. Furthermore, the council insisted that "other kinds of music, expeciallly polyphony, are by no means excluded from liturgical celebrations." In fact, cathedrals, which enjoy the lead spot among the "ecclesiae maiores" and traditionally possessed ample resources for the solemn liturgy, were declared to have the special affirmative duty to develop choirs assiduously. Latin was also to be preserved and the treasury of sacred music was to be preserved and cultivated with superlative care ("summa cura").14

Without making express reference to it, the traditional notion of the "ecclesia maiora" is clearly in the background. As a pastoral council, Vatican II was concerned to speak more about ecclesiae minores. Yet its concern for the smaller churches should not be interpreted as lack of concern for larger churches. Indeed, in referring to cathedrals, the council arguably intended to include other "ecclesiae maiores." This point is clarified in the 1967 instruction on sacred music. Its articles 19 and 20 restate conciliar teaching in this area and expressly add to the work "cathedrals" the other "ecclesiae maiores." Basilicas, monasteries and other major churches are expressly mentioned by name as places where "capellae musicae" have flourished and where they should be retained. Since the instruction was approved by Pope Paul VI "in forma specifica," it has the character of papal law and thus provides authentic norms.15

A review, then, of the ante-conciliar and conciliar legislation thus shows that basilicas are "ecclesiae maiores" and that as such they have peculiar duties with respect to sacred music and the solemn liturgy. Of those to whom much is given much will be expected. These duties were in no way diminished by the conciliar liturgical reforms and thus the ante-conciliar legislation must be considered still to govern sacred music in this area. Having discovered the liturgical law applicable to basilicas, we can now turn to the 1968 decree, "Domus Dei."

The liturgical law of sacred music which we have just reviewed will surely give sinew to the phrase of "Domus Dei" that basilicas are to be "centers of special liturgical and pastoral endeavor." The decree is divided into three parts: 1) conditions; 2) obligations; 3) concessions. It ends with two general norms.

The first section lists four conditions precedent for the concession of the title of minor basilica. The candidate must be "a radiant center of religious and pastoral life." The liturgy, especially the Eucharist, must be celebrated there with the utmost dignity ("omnimodo cum dignitate"). The 1958 instruction uses a similar phrase, "peculiare decore et solemnitate," and then adds by way of explanation "id est cantu et musica sacra exornatae." Also requisite is that a "sufficient number of priests" be assigned there. Finally the candidate church must have a choir. In short, the candidate church must possess the human resources needed for the solemn celebration of the liturgy.16

The decree requires that the candidate church be consecrated or, as the 1983 code puts it, dedicated. This suggests a note of permanence and the financial security to perpetuate itself into the foreseen future.17 Moreover the candidate church must be of appropriate size and artistic beauty. Size and magnificence link today's basilica with the ample structures of Constantine's day which gave them the name.18 Implicit here are the ample pecuniary resources to build and maintain such a magnificent structure, its sacred vestments, sacred vessels and personnel.

A church conceded the title of minor basilica must celebrate with particular solemnity ("signulari cum solemnitate") the feast of the Chair of Saint Peter (February 22), the feast of Saints Peter and Paul (June 29), and the anniversary of the elevation of the reigning pope. This obligation highlights both the special links the basilica bears with the Chair of Peter and the special duty it has as an "ecclesia maiora" toward the solemn liturgy and sacred music. As the 1958 instruction explained, the singularly solemn liturgy must needs be with chant and sacred music. The decree adds that in each basilica, as may be opportune, there are to be one or two Latin Masses, especially on feasts days. During these, Gregorian chant and sacred polyphony are to be performed with studied care.

Among the concessions is that to the rector of the church to wear as choir dress over a rochet a black silk mozetta trimmed with red piping, buttons and buttonholes. Again we see here links both with the Chair of Peter and the solemn liturgy. Silk is reserved for the papal court and red is a papal color. The concession of this splendid choir dress, while anticipating the reform of choir dress of canons in 1970, also provides mute evidence of the basilica's duties to the solemn liturgy of the hours.19 The basilica rector would not, of course, wear his mozetta while celebrating Mass, only while celebrating the liturgy of the hours. Unless the concession is made in vain, it must be implicit that some portion of the liturgy of the hours is to be solemnly celebrated with sacred music, presumably one of its "hinges," lauds or vespers.

The first of the two concluding general norms is an unusual article. It states that "churches which have already obtained the title of basilica should, as far as possible, accommodate themselves to the conditions and obligations above." In short, these conditions and obligations are given retroactive effect and govern all basilicas, including those raised to that rank before "Domus Dei" was promulgated. Canon 5 tells us that generally law is prospective only. Here, however, it is retroactive as well. The sections listing conditions and obligations in respect to sacred music and the solmen liturgy thus apply to all basilicas. The section on "concessions" would apply only to churches to which the title of basilica was conceded after "Domus Dei." In accordance with canon 4, the traditional concessions remain in force for those basilicas elevated to that rank before "Domus Dei."

What, then, are the duties of the basilica to sacred music and the solemn liturgy? Summarizing "Domus Dei" and the existing liturgical law, we may say that it appears incumbent on every minor basilica to celebrate the liturgy solemnly, especially the Eucharist, but also the liturgy of the hours as well; to maintain a choir and cultivate it assiduously, since sacred music is integral to the solemn liturgy; to have in the choir's repertory the great treasury of church music, and not to restrict the choir's singing merely to contemporary works; to include in that repertory sacred polyphony but at the same time to give Gregorian chant, the Latin Church's own proper music, pride of place; to celebrate the Eucharist in Latin, especially on feast days, following, of course, the reformed Vatican II missal.

Law is not merely a set of ideals. Law may be informed by ideals, but the distinctive characteristic of law is that it does not merely exhort. Rather, it also commands. Law is an imperative. This raises the question of compliance. Recently one observer wrote:

"One can search whole dioceses and not find a single Latin Mass celebrated...In many places Gregorian chant, sacred polyphony and choirs have virtually disappeared while we all sing as best we can new hymns, some good, some banal."20

If this be the case, there would seem to be room for considerable improvement. Hopefully, such improvement will be forthcoming. After all, "Domus Dei" is clearly enformed with the conciliar vision of the Church as the people of God and a hierarchy of service. The clergy are at the service of the laity. The laity are at the service of the world.21 Moreover, there is the possibility of a sanction. Pope Leo XII deprived at least one Roman basilica of that title when it no longer met the conditions for that rank.22

In recent years there has been a revival of sacred music--in the concert hall. Increasingly, conductors are inserting into the concert repertory Masses and other works of sacred music. But, by definition, this is music written for the liturgy and it belongs in a liturgical setting. There seem no legitimate reasons why such sacred music should not be performed at Mass in basilicas. To banish Gregorian chant and sacred polyphony to the concert hall is to gloss the command of "Sacrosanctum concilium" to read "the treasury of sacred music should be cultivated and preserved with superlative care in the concert hall" (language supplied). Such interpolation is demonstrably not legitimate. It reduces the constitution on the liturgy to a conciliar address to musicans.

The musicians of minor basilicas enjoy the pleasing prospect of being on the musical "qui vivre" while, incidentally, complying with the pontifical law of sacred music and minor basilicas. They need only ape their secular colleagues and resort to the treasury of sacred music and return it to the place for which it was written, the church. If they revive their choirs, return the treasury of sacred music to their liturgies, and restore the ancient language of the Latin Church to their services, they will simply have accomplished what Pius X, Pius XI, Pius XII and the Second Council of the Vatican willed them to do and what the liturgical law on sacred music and "Domus Dei" have ordered them to do.



1. Apostolic letter "Quae per orbem," 81 "Acta Apostolicae Sedis" 823 (1989).

2. Sacred Congregation of Rites, decree "Lucerina," "Decreta Authentica Congregationis Sacrorum Rituum Ex Actis Eiusdem Collecta Eiusque Auctoritate Promulgata Sub Auspiciis S.S. Domini Leonis Papae XIII" (Romae, 1898) II, 264.

3. Sacred Congregation of Rites, decree "Domus Dei," 60 A.A.S. 536 (1968).

4. Sacred Congregation of Rites, instruction "Musicam sacram," A.A.S. 300 (1967).

5. A. Frutaz, Il II centenario della elevazione a basilica patriarcale e capella papale della chiesa di S. Francesco in Assisi, 'Ordinis Fratrum Minorum caput et mater,'" 68 "Ephemerides Liturgicae" 201 (1954).

6. A. Molien, "Basilique" in "Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique II," 244-245 (1937).

7. Second Vatican Council, constitution "Sacrosanctum concilium," 54 A.A.S. 128 (1964); Sacred Congregation of Rites, instruction "De musica sacra," 50 A.A.S. 661 (1958); Pius XII, encyclical "Mediator Dei," 39 A.A.S. 545 (1947); Sacred Congregation of Rites, instruction "Musicam sacram," 59 A.A.S. 306 (1967). It is important to note the special juridical character of the two instructions on sacred music, "De musica sacra" and "Musicam sacram." Generally instructions are approved by the pope "in forma communi." These remain documents of the dicastery promulgating them and derive their juridical force from it. But instructions approved by the pope "in forma specifica" derive their force from him. They cease to be "mere" instructions and enjoy the force of papal law. Both "De musica sacra" and "Musicam sacram" were approved "in forma specifica" by the pope.

8. F. Harrison, "Music in Mediaeval Britain" (New York, 1959) pp. 17-30, 174-177; D. Galles, "Instrument of evangelization: Baroque Mexican church music," "Zeitschrift fur Missionswissenschrift und Religionswissenschaft" (January, 1990) 60.

9. J. Nabuco, "Ius Pontificalium" (Paris, 1956) p. 782.

10. Pius X, "motu proprio" "Tra le sollecitudini," "Acta Sanctae Sedis" 338 (1904).

11. Pius XI, apostolic constitution "Divini cultus sanctitatem," 21 A.A.S. 37, 38 (1929).

12. Pius XII, encyclical "Musicae sacrae disciplina," 48 A.A.S. 18, 23 (1956).

13. Sacred Congregation of Rites, instruction "De musica sacra," 50 A.A.S. 661 (1958).

14. Second Vatican Council, constitution "Sacrosanctum concilium," 56 A.A.S. 128, 129 (1964).

15. Sacred Congregation of Rites, instruction "Musicam sacram," 59 A.A.S. 306 (1967).

16. Sacred Congregation of Rites, decree "Domus Dei," 60 A.A.S. 536 (1968).

17. T. Ziolkowski, "The Consecration and Blessing of Churches" (Washington, 1943(, p. 58.

18. H. Dante in "De basilica minore," 74 "Monitore Ecclesiastico" 176 (1949) explained that requisite for becoming a basilica is that "templum antiquitate, amplitudine, magnificentia sit clarum. Antiquitas quidem valde relative aestimatur, praesertim si alia requisita adsint. At multum pensanda sunt amplitudo et magnificentia templi, ita ut vere titulus etymologiae respondeat."

19. Sacred Congregation of the Clergy, circular letter "Per instructionem," 63 A.A.S. 314 (1971) laid down norms for the reform of the choir dress of canons of cathedral and collegiate churches. The reformed choir dress was to be a black or grey mozetta trimmed with purple.

20. G. Dimock, "The liturgy of Vatican II: Success or failure?" 87 "Homiletic and Pastoral Review" (August, 1987) 31.

21. C. Burke, "Authority and Freedom in the Church" (San Francisco, 1986) p. 114.

22. A. Molien, "Basilique," "Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique," II, 247, (1937).