The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in
the time of Charles the Great, who wrote poems in Latin, several
of which are addressed to the emperor. He is sometimes identified
with Dungal. The designation exul is one which the Irish wanderers
on the continent frequently adopted. The poems of this exile show
that he was not only a poet but a grammarian and dialectician as
well. They also reveal his status as that of a teacher, probably
in the palace school. Of more than ordinary interest are the
verses which describe the attitude of the ninth- century teacher
towards his pupils. His metrical poem on the seven liberal arts
devotes twelve lines to each of the branches, grammar, rhetoric,
dialectic, etc., showing the origin, scope, and utility of each in
succession. Like the lines on the same subject by Theodulf of
Orleans, they may have been intended to accompany a set of
pictures in which the seven liberal arts were represented. The
style of these poems, while much inferior to that of the classical
period is free from many of the artificialities which characterize
much of the versification of the early Middle Ages.
Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler
From the Catholic Encyclopedia, copyright © 1913 by the
Encyclopedia Press, Inc. Electronic version copyright © 1996 by
New Advent, Inc.
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