THE CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTIONS OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS
Translated with a Commentary by Rev. Joseph B. Collins, S.S., D.D., Ph.D.
Introduction by Rev. Rudolph G. Bandas, Ph.D., S.T.D. et M.
Nihil Obstat: E. A. CONNOLLY, S.S., J.C.D, Censor Deputatus
Imprimatur: MOST REVEREND MICHAEL J. CURLEY, D.D., Archbishop of Baltimore
Baltimore, February 9, 1939
Some are of the opinion that the teaching of religion requires no
preparation and that anything is good enough for the child. Asking
catechism questions and listening to the child's recitation of the
memorized answers--exercises which are considered as constituting the whole
process of catechization--are in their estimation, after all, very simple
tasks. And if the child stumbles and hesitates, a little prompting will
elicit the desired answer. Unfortunately these exercises of verbal memory,
instead of inflaming the child with a love of God, leave him as cold as do
the drills of the multiplication table. The unassimilated abstract forms,
instead of promoting spiritual growth, become non-functional memory loads.
Religion, presented by methods such as these, strikes the child as a mere
formality and as a hard law, and he applies himself to it more out of
necessity than out of love and a joyous enthusiasm.
The teacher must carefully prepare the religion lesson if he wishes to give
an accurate and adequate explanation of the catechismal truths. The child's
intellectual powers are not sufficiently developed to grasp correctly a
religious truth without appropriate explanations. The adult has by
experience acquired many ideas and can interpret the new in terms of the
old. But this is not true of the child. For him the bread of divine truth
and life must be broken slowly. At the same time his mind is an "unmarked
virgin slate" which registers new impressions with the pliability of wax
and retains them with the durability of marble. If a child, through a
faulty presentation on the part of the teacher, assimilates an erroneous
idea in his early years, he may retain it for the rest of his life. The
child will be confirmed in his error by the teacher's authority, which he
accepts unquestioningly, and by his own imitative tendency which makes him
readily repeat whatever the teacher says. If the instructor is to be a
messenger of truth and not of error, he must have access to doctrinal
commentaries in which the truths of faith are explained in a simple,
accurate and authoritative manner.
The catechist must supply those concrete explanations which the Catechism
and religion books are obliged in their brevity to leave out. Theological
manuals in use by priests and seminarians usually state a thesis and then
prove it from the infallible decrees of the Church, from the Scriptures and
Fathers, and finally from reason. The thesis should logically be placed at
the end of such a discussion, since it is an abstract conclusion based upon
many concrete facts. The doctrinal statements in our Catechisms and
religion books are also conclusions--conclusions based upon facts derived
from various sources. To expect the child to grasp these abstract formulas
without first becoming acquainted with the concrete facts on which they are
based, is to expect greater intellectual acumen in the child than in the
theologian. Catechists must with the help of appropriate handbooks build up
the rich doctrinal background which the Catechism and religion books
In his translation entitled "The Catechetical Instructions of St. Thomas
Aquinas," the Rev. Joseph B. Collins, S.S., S.T.D., Professor of Theology
and Catechetics at the Catholic University of America, has made available
to teachers of religion a theologically accurate explanation of the
Catechism. It is Dr. Collins' latest contribution to the catechetical
movement in America. The appearance of this translation of St. Thomas'
catechetical works will be greeted with genuine satisfaction by all. In
these days of renewed interest in Thomism, especially on the part of
laymen, it will be comforting to know that the vast knowledge of the
Church's greatest theologian is now made accessible--in a condensed and
simple form--not only to teachers of religion but to the laity at large.
The work presents several peculiarities. Suggestive of the medieval custom
of dividing the contents of catechetical manuals, the work contains an
explanation of the Creed, the Sacraments, the Commandments, the Our Father,
and the Hail Mary. The principle of doctrinal correlation is frequently in
evidence. Thus, a brief explanation of the Sacraments is correlated with
the Tenth Article of the Creed--"The Communion of Saints, the Forgiveness
of Sins"; for it is through the Sacraments that Christ, our Head,
communicates graces to the members of His Mystical Body. As in the great
theological syntheses of the Middle Ages, the presentation of truth is
comparatively cold and abstract. The medieval theologians deemed it
inadvisable to appeal to the imagination and to the emotions in the quest
of truth. But they were by no means unacquainted with the ethical appeal of
the truths they were discussing. In no one's career, perhaps, was the
golden thread of doctrine so closely woven into the tissues of a perfect
life as in that of St. Thomas. Of him it may be said that he wished to know
in order that he might love; then, because he loved, he wished to
scrutinize ever more closely the object of his affections. His sublime
hymns on the Eucharist are best proof that lofty speculation does not
suppress or warp the affective element in human nature.
To-day, as in other ages, "truths are decayed, they are diminished among
the children of men." The environment in which we live and the atmosphere
which we breathe are tainted with irreligion and unbelief. May the perusal
of this book produce in the readers that strong faith, fond hope, and
burning love of God which animated the soul of the great theologian, the
Angelic Doctor, St. Thomas Aquinas!
RUDOLPH G. BANDAS, S.T.D. ET M.
ST. THOMAS AQUINAS
St. Thomas Aquinas was born about the year 1225.1 The name Aquinas derived
from the territory of his father, Count Landulf of Aquina, in the vicinity
of Naples. The mother of Thomas was Theodora, Countess of Teano, and his
family was related to the Emperors Henry VI and Frederick II, and to the
Kings of France, Aragon, and Castile. "He could have quartered half the
kingdoms of Europe in his shield," wrote Chesterton, "if he had not thrown
away the shield. He was Italian and French and German and in every way
European." At the early age of five Thomas was sent to school at the
Benedictine Monastery of Monte Cassino. He showed at once the great gifts
of intellect with which he had been endowed. His biographers attest to the
piety and inquiring nature of this young pupil, who would surprise his
master with the oftrepeated question: "What is God?" The early Benedictine
training left Thomas with a life-long devotion to the Liturgy, and prepared
him for further studies at the famed University of Naples where he was
enrolled in or about the year 1239. While at Naples Thomas met with the
members of the Order Or St. Dominic, which had been founded some twenty
years earlier. He made known his desire to be a Dominican about 1240, and
instantly met with strong opposition from his family, but especially from
his mother. At length he received the Dominican habit in April, 1244, and
was chosen to continue his studies at the Dominican school of studies at
the University of Paris.
Countess Theodora completely disapproved of this journey, and sent two of
her sons and a detachment of soldiers to intercept Friar Thomas on his way
to Paris. In this she was successful, and for nearly two years he was held
a virtual prisoner in the family castle. This period was well spent by
Thomas in study and meditation. Here he was constantly urged to forsake his
vocation, and on one occasion he was tempted by a woman who had been thrust
into his chamber by his own brothers. Thomas arose and grasping a burning
brand from the fire, forced the temptress from his room. Then with
characteristic vigor he burned deep in the door the potent sign of the
cross. In later years he confided to his secretary and companion, Reginald
of Piperno, that immediately after this event he as granted his urgent
prayer for the gift of perpetual chastity, and thereafter had complete
freedom from the motions of concupiscence. : seems probable that this gave
first basis for his title of Angelic Doctor.
In 1245 St. Thomas began to attend the lectures in theology of St. Albert
the Great at the University of Paris. He made extraordinary progress in his
studies, and three years later he accompanied St. Albert to Cologne there
to continue his study. He was engaged n teaching in 1250. This same year
marks his ordination to the priesthood. Thomas accompanied his teacher,
Albert the Great, back to Paris in 1252, where he continued his lecturing
and at the same time prepared for the examinations for the degree of Master
n Theology. He was awarded the degree in 1257 from the University of Paris.
He continued to lecture at this world-famous institution during these early
years in his career, which was marked by developing intellectual power and
originality and growing familiarity with the vast field of theological and
St. Thomas was called to Rome in 1259, and for nine busy years was
teaching, lecturing, and writing as the theologian of the Papal Court. He
continued his study of Aristotle, and was deeply engrossed in the
literature of the Fathers of the Church. "He worked with the spirit of a
missionary," says Martian, "in the cause of Truth against error." His
chief writings of this period were a number of philosophical works,
commentaries on various Books of the Old and New Testaments, theological
disputations; above all, in 1267 or 1268 he completed the First Part of his
masterpiece, the "Summa Theologica."
St. Thomas was already widely known as a great theologian and scholar in
this century which abounded in great theologians and scholars. Recalled to
Paris to replace a stricken Master of Theology at the University, he began
the last period of his life. He was to live less than six more years. They
were crowded years of writing, teaching, and preaching. His Sermons, which
fill a good-sized volume, were begun in the early years of his priestly
life, and he continued to preach until his death. He was an authority on
the spiritual life, and personally experienced the trials and consolations
of the trained ascetic and the true contemplative. His writings on ascetic
and mystical theology are original and permanent contributions to the
science of the Saints. It is related of him that, after having written the
sublime treatise on the Holy Eucharist, he was seen to fall into an
ecstasy, and a voice from the crucifix above the altar was heard to say:
"Thou hast written well of Me, Thomas. What reward wilt thou have?" To this
the Saint replied: "None, Lord, other than Thyself."
Thomas remained in Paris for three years, from 1269 to 1272,4 in the full
maturity of his powers and the manifold outpourings of his genius. All of
the Second Part of the "Summa Theologica" was written at this time, and the
Third Part was begun. In 1272 he was recalled to Naples by order of the
king to teach at the University of Naples which he had attended as a boy.
He put the finishing touches on his numerous projects, completed the Third
Part of the "Summa" up to Question XC, and then laid down his pen already
worn out at the early age of 48. "I can do no more," he said on the morning
of December 6, 1273. He had experienced an ecstasy during Mass and said to
Reginald, his secretary: "Such secrets have been revealed to me that all I
have written now appears of little value." During the following Lenten
season, Thomas gave to the students and townsfolk of Naples the series of
catechetical instructions on the Creed, Commandments, and Prayer which make
up part of this volume. They are his last words. He died on March 7, 1274,
at Fossanuova in Northern Italy while on his way to attend the Council of
Lyons. St. Thomas Aquinas lived in an age of great scholars and great
Saints. He is the "prince and Master of all."
St. Thomas was canonized in 1323. St. Pius proclaimed him a Doctor of the
Universal Church in 1567. When Pope Leo XIII wrote his famous Encyclical,
"Aeterni Patris," on the restoration of Christian philosophy, he urged his
readers with all the force of his apostolic office "to restore the golden
wisdom of St. Thomas and to spread it far and wide for the defense and
beauty of the Catholic Faith, for the good of society, and for the
advantage of all sciences." The same Pontiff, in a Brief dated August 4,
1880, designated St. Thomas Patron of all Catholic universities, and his
successors, including Pope Pius XI, have ordered Catholic teachers to make
the explanations of Christian Doctrine by St. Thomas the basis for all
CHIEF WORKS OF ST. THOMAS
More than sixty separate works, some of great length and some brief, came
from the fertile mind of the Angelic Doctor. Most important and, one would
wish, most familiar of all his writings is the "Summa Theologica." This is
a complete scientific exposition of theology and at the same time a summary
of Christian philosophy. St. Thomas considered this work simply as a manual
of Christian Doctrine for the use of students. He thus announced its
division: "Since the chief aim of this sacred science is to give a
knowledge of God, not only as He is in Himself, but also as He is the
Beginning of all things and the End of all, especially of all rational
creatures--we shall treat first of God; secondly, of rational creatures'
advance towards God; thirdly, of Christ who as Man is the Way by which we
tend to God." These are the leading ideas of his "Summa," and upon them he
based the three Parts of this great work.
The "Summa contra Gentiles," whose full title is "Treatise on the truth of
the Catholic Faith against Unbelievers" (1258-1261), is the most profound
and doubtless the most powerful apologetically work ever written. It is St.
Thomas' "Summa philosophica," taking philosophy in the modern sense. The
long list of Commentaries on the Sacred Scriptures are exhaustive, of great
depth, and of permanent value. The "Perfection of the Spiritual Life" is
one of the clssics in the field of ascetical and mystical theology, and
together with pertinent parts of the "Summa" forms a complete explanation
of the Christian higher life. St. Thomas also wrote the admirable "Office
for the Feast of Corpus Christi" with its familiar prayers and hymns.
The "Opuscula" or "Little Treatises" are very numerous. In the course of
time works were listed among the "Opuscula" which were not written by St.
Thomas. In the "official" catalogue of Reginald of Piperno the "Opuscula"
number seventy. They may be roughly classified as philosophical and
theological, on moral and canonical questions, on Liturgy and the religious
life, and catechetical instructions. There are some "Opuscula" not listed
in the "official" catalogue which are now considered authentic. The five
"Opuscula" which are translated in the present volume are undoubtedly
authentic." The Explanations of the "Creed," the "Our Father," and the "Ten
Commandments" are numbers 66, 65, 68 respectively in the catalogue which
was prepared for the process of canonization of St. Thomas. The Explanation
of the "Hail Mary" is listed in the catalogue of Bernard Guidonis and in
later lists. This is noteworthy, since Bernard had before him the official
list. Both Mandonnet and Grabmann consider the work authentic. St. Thomas
gave these Explanations to the students and people of Naples during his
last Lenten season on earth. The talks on the Ten Commandments were written
down by Peter d'Andrea, and the Explanation of the other prayers were
faithfully reported by his secretary and companion, Reginald of Piperno.
The "Explanation of the Seven Sacraments" is the second part of the
treatise, "De fidei articulis et septem sacramentis," which St. Thomas
wrote at the request of the Archbishop of Palermo in 1261-62. It is
noteworthy that the famed "Decretum pro Armenis" (Instruction for the
Armenians), issued by the authority of the Council of Florence, is taken
almost verbatim from the second part of this "Opusculum" (i.e., the
"Explanation of the Seven Sacraments"). It is not a definition of the
Council, but a practical instruction, as Denzinger points out.
The latest editions of the "Opuscula" are the Vives edition (Paris) of
1871-80 and the Parma edition of 1852-73. This latter edition is reedited
by Mandonnet with a new order and an introduction (Lethielleux, Paris,
1927). The "catechetical" "Opuscula" are here given in one volume in
English for the first time. An English translation of two of these under
the title, "On the Commandments" and "On the Lord's Prayer," was made by
the Reverend H. A. Rawes in England in 1891. It is now out of print and
practically inaccessible. Recently an English translation was made by Rev.
Lawrence Shapcote, O. P., in two small volumes with the titles, "The Three
Greatest Prayers" and "The Commandments of God" (Burns and Oates, 1937).
The "Explanation of the Seven Sacraments," however, is here given for the
first time in English.
ST. THOMAS IN THE HISTORY OF CATECHETICS
The original and traditional meaning of "catechesis" (from the Greek:
teaching by word of mouth) was oral teaching or instruction by word. It is
used in this sense in the New Testament (e.g., in Luke i. 4; Acts, xviii.
25). "Catechetical" referred solely to this form of oral explanation of
Christian Doctrine. This is the meaning that "catechetical instruction" had
in the time of St. Thomas and throughout the Middle Ages. "In this
connection," says one authority, "it must be remembered that the term
'catechetical' was very often applied to sermons and instructions for grown
people, not for children." The conception of "catechetical" and
"catehism" as referring to the question and answer method of teaching
became general only during the Counter-Reformation. Thus, St. Augustine's
classic work on teaching religion, "De rudibus catechizandis" (On
Instructing the Ignorant), is straight exposition without question and
answers. The famed "Roman Catechism" (Catechism of the Council of Trent) is
not in question and answer form. Hence, the catechetical instructions of
St. Thomas, which are oral explanations of Christian Doctrine, entitle him
to a place in the history of catechetics with St. Augustine, Gerson, St.
Charles Borromeo, St. Peter Canisius and others.
The method of explaining Christian Doctrine by giving detailed attention to
the Creed, the Commandments, the Our Father and Hail Mary, goes back to the
early centuries of the Church. One of the first great works which embody
this fourfold division is the "Catechetical Instructions" of St. Cyril of
Jerusalem (d. 386). This division became general throughout the medieval
period, and the "Creed, Code, Sacraments and Prayer" came to be a formula
of the faith. Numerous Synods and Councils of the Church at this time
decreed that sermons and instructions must be given the faithful according
to this fourfold division. The "Roman Catechism" follows this
arrangement, as do most of the Catechisms of modern times.
The catechetical instructions of St. Thomas were used generally throughout
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as manuals and text-books for
priests and teachers of religion. "The Explanations of St. Thomas," wrote
Spirago, "are remarkable for their conciseness and their simplicity of
language; they are especially noteworthy because the main parts of the
catechetical course of instruction are brought into connection with one
another so that they appear as one harmonious whole." The influence of
these works is especially prominent in the "Roman Catechism" which the
Council of Trent ordered written for parish priests and for all teachers of
religion. Many of the explanatory passages in both works are almost
The edition used in this translation is the Parma, edited by P. Mandonnet,
O. P., "Opuscula Omnia" (Lethielleux, Paris, 1927). Where the Vives edition
is used, the change is noted in the footnotes. The edition of the "Roman
Catechism" (Catechism of the Council of Trent) used in the commentary is
"Catechismus Concilii Tridentini ad Parochos," Romae, Ex Typog. Polyglotta,
S. Cong. de Prop. Fide, 1891. To Reverend E. A. Connolly, S. S., for
reading the manuscript and for many helpful suggestions the Translator is
JOSEPH B. COLLINS, S.S., D.D., PH.D.
1. P. mandonnet, "Date de la naissance de S. Thomas d'Aquin," in "Revue
Thomiste" (1914), 652-662.
2. G. K. Chesterton, "St. Thomas Aquinas" (1933), 43.
3. J. Maritain, "The Angelic Doctor," 35.
4. For the vexed question of exact dates in the life of St. Thomas, I have
relied chiefly on Cayre, "Precis de Patrologie" (Paris, 1930), II, pp. 526-
536, who in turn is largely indebted to the researches of Mandonnet.
5. Pope Leo XIII in Encyclical, "Aeterni Patris," August 4, 1879.
6. For a complete list of St. Thomas' writings: Cayre, "loc. cit.";
Maritain, "The Angelic Doctor," pp. 179-183'
Catholic Encyclopedia," XIV, 666 sqq.
7. Cf. Hugh Pope, O. P., "On Prayer and the Contemplative Life by St
Thomas" (Benziger Bros., 1914).
8. It contains the "Pangua lingu" with "Tantum ergo" among its verses,
"Sacris Solemnis" with the lines of "Panis angelicus," "Verbum supernum"
with its concluding verse, "O salutaris hostia." The antiphon of the Office
is the beautiful "O Sacrum Convivium." The Prayer said by the celebrant at
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, "Deus qui nobis sub Sacramento
mirabili, etc.," is also a part of this Office. The Eucharistic poem,
"Adoro te devote," is also probably by St. Thomas, who is rightly called
the Doctor of the Eucharist.
9. The authoritative studies on the authenticity of the "Opuscula" are: M.
Mandonnet, O. P., "Des Ecrits Authentiques de S. Thomas d'Aquin" (Fribourg,
1910), and "Les Opuscules de S. thomas d'Aquin," in "Revue Thomiste"
(1927), 121-157; M. Grabmann, "Die echten Schriften des hl. Thomas v.
Aquin" (Munster, 1920).
10. Mandonnet, "Des Ecrits," etc., 66; Grabmann, "op. cit.," 232-337.
11. "Enchiridion Symbolorum," n. 695.
12. "By the catechism of St. Thomas is generally understood his explanation
of the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, and the
Decalogue" (Gatterer-Kruz, "The Theory and Practice of the Catechism,"
1914, p. 47).
13. Spirago-Messmer, "Spirago's Method of Christian Doctrine" (1901), 508.
14. John Gerson, the saintly chancellor of the University of Paris, wrote
"On Leading the Little Ones to Christ" in the early fifteenth century. St.
Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, was one of the founders of the
Confraternity of Christian Doctrine and one of the authors of the Roman
Catechism. St. Peter Canisius, the great Jesuit teacher of religion in the
Counter-Reformation, wrote the well-known Canisian Catechisms.
15. Cf. Callan-McHugh, "Catechism of the Council of Trent," Introduction,
xiv and xvi. See also Spirago Messmer, "op. cit.," 507.
16. Spirago-Messmer, "op. cit.," 513-514.
Introduction. By Rudolph G. Bandas, Ph.D., S.T.D. Et M.
THE APOSTLES' CREED
What Is Faith?
The First Article
The First Article (Continued)
The Second Article
The Third Article
The Fourth Article
The Fifth Article
The Fifth Article (Continued)
The Sixth Article
The Seventh Article
The Eighth Article
The Ninth Article
The Tenth Article
The Eleventh Article
The Twelfth Article
EXPLANATION OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
The First Commandment
The Second Commandment
The Third Commandment
The Fourth Commandment
The Fifth Commandment
The Sixth Commandment
The Seventh Commandment
The Eighth Commandment
The Ninth (Tenth) Commandment
The Tenth (Ninth) Commandment
EXPLANATION OF THE SACRAMENTS
The Sacraments Of The Church
The Holy Eucharist
EXPLANATION OF THE LORD'S PRAYER
Five Qualities Of Prayer
The Opening Words Of The Lord's Prayer
The First Petition
The Second Petition
The Third Petition
The Fourth Petition
The Fifth Petition
The Sixth Petition
The Seventh Petition
THE HAIL MARY
The Angelic Salutation
Full Of Grace
The Lord Is With Thee
Blessed Among Women
Blessed Is The Fruit Of Thy Womb .
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
INDEX OF KEY TERMS
Angelic Salutation: see Hail Mary.
Anger: why forbidden
when anger is permissible
ways of avoiding
three considerations of anger
why we should restrain anger
Apollinarius: erroneous views on Incarnation
Apostles' Creed, The
Apostolicity: of the Church
Aquarii: error regarding the Holy Eucharist
Aristotle: on love of parents
Arius: erroneous views on Incarnation
confuted by St. John's Gospel
error regarding Holy Orders
Arrodinici: error regarding the Holy Eucharist
Ascension: see Jesus Christ
Astrology: a form of polytheism
Augustine, St.: on faith
on life everlasting
on the Decalogue
declares all wrongful usurpation is theft
on answers to prayer
on God's will
on unspotted sinlessness of Mary
first Sacrament of faith
bief review of doctrine on
matter and form
Bishops: as ministers of the Sacraments
Bribery: forbidden by Seventh Commandment
Cataphrygae: error regarding the Holy Eucharist
Catholicity: of the Church
Certitude: and faith
Chance: belief in chance a denial of faith
Character, Sacramental: of some Sacraments
Charity: Christ as example of
basis of entire Christian Law
Children: duties to parents
Church, Catholic: faith in
meaning of "church,"
holiness of, so; Catholicity of
Commandments, Ten: explanation of
Commandment, First: precept to worship and love God
why we should adore God
Commandment, Second: reverence for Divine Name
meaning of "in vain,"
conditions of a lawful oath
taking God's Name justly
Commandment, Third: reasons for this Commandment
Sunday and Sabbath
what we should abstain from on the Sabbath
with what the Sabbath and Feasts should be occupied
hearing of God's Word
the Spiritual Sabbath
Commandment, Fourth: and love of neighbor
what children owe to parents
rewards for keeping this Commandment
different applications of "father,"
our duties towards superiors, benefactors, rulers
Commandment, Fifth: the sin of killing
killing of animals
execution of criminals
killing in a just war
other meanings of "to kill,"
the sin of anger
Commandment, Sixth: why placed after Fifth
gravity of sin of adultery
why adultery and fornication must be avoided
Commandment, Seventh: forbids injury to neighbor's property
five forms of theft
why stealing must be avoided
Commandment, Eighth: forbids injuly of neighbor by word,
ways of violating this Commandment
special effects of telling lies
Commandment, Ninth: forbids concupiscence of flesh
ways to overcome concupiscence
Commandment, Tenth: forbids covetous thoughts and desires
covetousness as root of all kinds of wickedness
Communion of Saints: faith in
Confession: as part of Penance
See also Penance.
Confirmation: review of doctrine on
matter and form
errors concerning Confirmation
Contempt for Worldly Things: example of Christ
Contrition: as part of Penance
Covetousness: produces all kinds of wickedness
Creed: see Symbol.
Creed, Nicene: teaching on the Holy Ghost
Criminals: execution not forbidden by Fifth Commandment
Detraction: way of violating Eighth Commandment
Donatists: error regarding Baptism
Ebion: erroneous views on Incarnation
Elaeonitae: error regarding Extreme Unction
Eucharist, Holy: review of doctrine on
matter and form
errors concerning the Eucharist
See also Mass.
Eutyches: erroneous views on Incarnation
Extreme Unction: review of doctrine on
matter and form
Faith: nature and four effects
miracles the seal of faith
good effects of
False Witness: conditions of a lawful oath
Fear of God: inculcated by Christ's descent into Limbo
Forgiveness of Sins: see Penance.
Form: see Sacraments.
Fraud: in buying and sclling for bidden by Seventh Commandment
Ghost, Holy: faith in
teaching of Nicene Creed on
benefits from the Holy Spirit
God: ruler and provider of all things
Creator of heaven and earth
reverence for Divine Name
God's Name is lovable, venerable and ineffable
meaning of God's Kingdom
what does God will?
Good: judgment of
Gossip: forbidden by Eighth Commandment
Greeks: error regarding Confirmation
Hail Mary: composition of prayer
"full of grace,"
"the Lord is with thee,"
"Blessed art thou among women,"
"Blessed is the Fruit of thy womb,"
"Hallowed": meaning of
Heaven: condition of the blessed
See also Life, Everlasting.
Hell: three meanings
Christ's descent into
condition of the damned
See also Life, Everlasting.
Holiness: of the Church
Holy Eucharist: see Eucharist, Holy.
Holy Orders: see Orders, Holy.
Hope: inculcated by Christ's descent into Limbo
Humility: example of Christ
Idleness: to be avoided on Sabbath
Incarnation: see Jesus Christ.
Jesus Christ: true Son of God
error of Photinus on Incarnation
Divine Generation of the Word of God
passion and death of
meaning of Christ's death
why Christ suffered for us
exemplar of virtues
exemplar of charity, patience and humility
of obedience and contempt for earthly things
descent into hell
reasons for Christ's descent
Christ's Resurrection differed from that of all others
what we may learn from the Resurrection
sublimity of the Ascension
Christ as Judge
Jovinian: error regarding Matrimony
Judgment: Christ as Judge
form of the Judgment
who are to be judged
fear of the Judgment
preparation for the Judgment
Lies: evil effects of
Life, Everlasting: faith in
what it means
fullness of desires
seven gifts of eternal glory
See also Resurrection of the Body
liberation of the just
Lord's Prayer, The: five qualities of prayer
opening words of
"Hallowed be Thy Name,"
"Thy kingdom come,"
"Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven,"
"Give us this day our daily bread,"
"Forgive us our trespasses,"
"Lead us not into temptation,"
"Deliver us from evil. Amen,"
short explanation of the whole
Manichaeus: erroneous views on Incarnation
Manicheans: erroneous beliefs regarding God
St. Augustine on
Mary: faith of Blessed Virgin
virtues of the Blessed Virgin
help of Christians
most beautiful of all creatures
Mass: as fulfillment of duty on Sabbath
See also Eucharist, Holy.
Matrimony: review of doctrine on
Matter: see Sacraments
Miracles: the seal of faith
Murder: the sin of killing
Nestorius: erroneous views on Incarnation
Nicea, Council of: errors suppressed by
Nicene Creed: see Symbol.
Nicolaitae: error regarding Matrimony
Novati: error regarding Penance
Oath: conditions of lawful
Obedience: example of Christ
See also Commandment, Fourth
Old Law: Sacraments in
Orders, Holy: review of doctrine on
matter and form
Origen: erroneous views on Incarnation
Parents: duties to children
Patience: example of Christ
Paul, St.: on faith
on the resurrection of the body
Pelagians: error regarding Baptism
Penance: review of doctrine on
matter and form
Photinus: erroneous views on Incarnation
confuted by St. John's Gospel
Polytheism: why some men believed in a plurality of gods
astrology a form of polytheism
Poor People of Lyons: error regarding the Holy Eucharist
Praeputiati: error regarding the Holy Eucharist
Prayer: five qualities of
effects of prayer
St. Augustine on answers to
Priests: as ministers of the Sacraments
Resurrection: see Jesus Christ
Resurrection of the Body: faith in
qualities of the risen bodies
condition of the blessed
condition of the damned
See also Life, Everlasting.
Roman Catechism: on First Commandment
on taking of oaths
on just oaths
on hearing Mass on Sundays and Holydays
on the Heavenly Sabbath
on killing in a just war
on sinful and righteous anger
on Sixth Commandment
on occasions of sin
on robbery and theft
on sins of covetousness
definition of Sacrament
on the Holy Eucharist
on "quasi-materia" of Penance
on Extreme Unction
on Holy Orders
on the Lord's Prayer
on God's Will
on "our daily bread,"
Rulers: our duties towards
Sabbath: the Spiritual Sabbath
the Heavenly Sabbath
See also Commandment, Third
Sabellius: erroneous views on Incarnation
confuted by St. John's Gospel
Sacraments: a review of the Seven Sacraments
of the dead and of the living
definition of a Sacrament
and spiritual life
form and matter
sacramental character of some Sacraments
Seven Sacraraments in general
reviviscence of sacramental grace
Satisfaction: as part of Penance
Sin: evil effects of
avoidance of on Sabbath
Solentiani: error regarding Baptism
Suicide: prohibited by Fifth Commandment
Superiors: our duties towards
Symbol: Apostles' Creed
definition of "symbol,"
Apostles' and Nicene Creeds
Nicene Creed on error of Sabellius
Tatian: error regarding Matrimony
what it is
of the flesh
of the devil
of the world
Theft: five forms of
Transfiguration: evidence of Christ's Divinity
Trespasses: meaning of term
Unity: of the Church
Valentinus: erroneous views on Incarnation
Virgin, Blessed: see Mary
War: killing in a just
Wicked: judgment of
Work, Servile: avoidance on Sabbath