The Catechetical Instructions of St. Thomas

Authored By: Aquinas

THE CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTIONS OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS

Translated with a Commentary by Rev. Joseph B. Collins, S.S., D.D., Ph.D.

Introduction by Rev. Rudolph G. Bandas, Ph.D., S.T.D. et M.

Nihil Obstat: E. A. CONNOLLY, S.S., J.C.D, Censor Deputatus

Imprimatur: MOST REVEREND MICHAEL J. CURLEY, D.D., Archbishop of Baltimore

Baltimore, February 9, 1939

INTRODUCTION

Some are of the opinion that the teaching of religion requires no preparation and that anything is good enough for the child. Asking catechism questions and listening to the child's recitation of the memorized answers--exercises which are considered as constituting the whole process of catechization--are in their estimation, after all, very simple tasks. And if the child stumbles and hesitates, a little prompting will elicit the desired answer. Unfortunately these exercises of verbal memory, instead of inflaming the child with a love of God, leave him as cold as do the drills of the multiplication table. The unassimilated abstract forms, instead of promoting spiritual growth, become non-functional memory loads. Religion, presented by methods such as these, strikes the child as a mere formality and as a hard law, and he applies himself to it more out of necessity than out of love and a joyous enthusiasm.

The teacher must carefully prepare the religion lesson if he wishes to give an accurate and adequate explanation of the catechismal truths. The child's intellectual powers are not sufficiently developed to grasp correctly a religious truth without appropriate explanations. The adult has by experience acquired many ideas and can interpret the new in terms of the old. But this is not true of the child. For him the bread of divine truth and life must be broken slowly. At the same time his mind is an "unmarked virgin slate" which registers new impressions with the pliability of wax and retains them with the durability of marble. If a child, through a faulty presentation on the part of the teacher, assimilates an erroneous idea in his early years, he may retain it for the rest of his life. The child will be confirmed in his error by the teacher's authority, which he accepts unquestioningly, and by his own imitative tendency which makes him readily repeat whatever the teacher says. If the instructor is to be a messenger of truth and not of error, he must have access to doctrinal commentaries in which the truths of faith are explained in a simple, accurate and authoritative manner.

The catechist must supply those concrete explanations which the Catechism and religion books are obliged in their brevity to leave out. Theological manuals in use by priests and seminarians usually state a thesis and then prove it from the infallible decrees of the Church, from the Scriptures and Fathers, and finally from reason. The thesis should logically be placed at the end of such a discussion, since it is an abstract conclusion based upon many concrete facts. The doctrinal statements in our Catechisms and religion books are also conclusions--conclusions based upon facts derived from various sources. To expect the child to grasp these abstract formulas without first becoming acquainted with the concrete facts on which they are based, is to expect greater intellectual acumen in the child than in the theologian. Catechists must with the help of appropriate handbooks build up the rich doctrinal background which the Catechism and religion books presuppose.

In his translation entitled "The Catechetical Instructions of St. Thomas Aquinas," the Rev. Joseph B. Collins, S.S., S.T.D., Professor of Theology and Catechetics at the Catholic University of America, has made available to teachers of religion a theologically accurate explanation of the Catechism. It is Dr. Collins' latest contribution to the catechetical movement in America. The appearance of this translation of St. Thomas' catechetical works will be greeted with genuine satisfaction by all. In these days of renewed interest in Thomism, especially on the part of laymen, it will be comforting to know that the vast knowledge of the Church's greatest theologian is now made accessible--in a condensed and simple form--not only to teachers of religion but to the laity at large.

The work presents several peculiarities. Suggestive of the medieval custom of dividing the contents of catechetical manuals, the work contains an explanation of the Creed, the Sacraments, the Commandments, the Our Father, and the Hail Mary. The principle of doctrinal correlation is frequently in evidence. Thus, a brief explanation of the Sacraments is correlated with the Tenth Article of the Creed--"The Communion of Saints, the Forgiveness of Sins"; for it is through the Sacraments that Christ, our Head, communicates graces to the members of His Mystical Body. As in the great theological syntheses of the Middle Ages, the presentation of truth is comparatively cold and abstract. The medieval theologians deemed it inadvisable to appeal to the imagination and to the emotions in the quest of truth. But they were by no means unacquainted with the ethical appeal of the truths they were discussing. In no one's career, perhaps, was the golden thread of doctrine so closely woven into the tissues of a perfect life as in that of St. Thomas. Of him it may be said that he wished to know in order that he might love; then, because he loved, he wished to scrutinize ever more closely the object of his affections. His sublime hymns on the Eucharist are best proof that lofty speculation does not suppress or warp the affective element in human nature.

To-day, as in other ages, "truths are decayed, they are diminished among the children of men." The environment in which we live and the atmosphere which we breathe are tainted with irreligion and unbelief. May the perusal of this book produce in the readers that strong faith, fond hope, and burning love of God which animated the soul of the great theologian, the Angelic Doctor, St. Thomas Aquinas!

RUDOLPH G. BANDAS, S.T.D. ET M.

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE

ST. THOMAS AQUINAS

St. Thomas Aquinas was born about the year 1225.1 The name Aquinas derived from the territory of his father, Count Landulf of Aquina, in the vicinity of Naples. The mother of Thomas was Theodora, Countess of Teano, and his family was related to the Emperors Henry VI and Frederick II, and to the Kings of France, Aragon, and Castile. "He could have quartered half the kingdoms of Europe in his shield," wrote Chesterton, "if he had not thrown away the shield. He was Italian and French and German and in every way European."[2] At the early age of five Thomas was sent to school at the Benedictine Monastery of Monte Cassino. He showed at once the great gifts of intellect with which he had been endowed. His biographers attest to the piety and inquiring nature of this young pupil, who would surprise his master with the oftrepeated question: "What is God?" The early Benedictine training left Thomas with a life-long devotion to the Liturgy, and prepared him for further studies at the famed University of Naples where he was enrolled in or about the year 1239. While at Naples Thomas met with the members of the Order Or St. Dominic, which had been founded some twenty years earlier. He made known his desire to be a Dominican about 1240, and instantly met with strong opposition from his family, but especially from his mother. At length he received the Dominican habit in April, 1244, and was chosen to continue his studies at the Dominican school of studies at the University of Paris.

Countess Theodora completely disapproved of this journey, and sent two of her sons and a detachment of soldiers to intercept Friar Thomas on his way to Paris. In this she was successful, and for nearly two years he was held a virtual prisoner in the family castle. This period was well spent by Thomas in study and meditation. Here he was constantly urged to forsake his vocation, and on one occasion he was tempted by a woman who had been thrust into his chamber by his own brothers. Thomas arose and grasping a burning brand from the fire, forced the temptress from his room. Then with characteristic vigor he burned deep in the door the potent sign of the cross. In later years he confided to his secretary and companion, Reginald of Piperno, that immediately after this event he as granted his urgent prayer for the gift of perpetual chastity, and thereafter had complete freedom from the motions of concupiscence. : seems probable that this gave first basis for his title of Angelic Doctor.

In 1245 St. Thomas began to attend the lectures in theology of St. Albert the Great at the University of Paris. He made extraordinary progress in his studies, and three years later he accompanied St. Albert to Cologne there to continue his study. He was engaged n teaching in 1250. This same year marks his ordination to the priesthood. Thomas accompanied his teacher, Albert the Great, back to Paris in 1252, where he continued his lecturing and at the same time prepared for the examinations for the degree of Master n Theology. He was awarded the degree in 1257 from the University of Paris. He continued to lecture at this world-famous institution during these early years in his career, which was marked by developing intellectual power and originality and growing familiarity with the vast field of theological and philosophical learning.

St. Thomas was called to Rome in 1259, and for nine busy years was teaching, lecturing, and writing as the theologian of the Papal Court. He continued his study of Aristotle, and was deeply engrossed in the literature of the Fathers of the Church. "He worked with the spirit of a missionary," says Martian, "in the cause of Truth against error."[3] His chief writings of this period were a number of philosophical works, commentaries on various Books of the Old and New Testaments, theological disputations; above all, in 1267 or 1268 he completed the First Part of his masterpiece, the "Summa Theologica."

St. Thomas was already widely known as a great theologian and scholar in this century which abounded in great theologians and scholars. Recalled to Paris to replace a stricken Master of Theology at the University, he began the last period of his life. He was to live less than six more years. They were crowded years of writing, teaching, and preaching. His Sermons, which fill a good-sized volume, were begun in the early years of his priestly life, and he continued to preach until his death. He was an authority on the spiritual life, and personally experienced the trials and consolations of the trained ascetic and the true contemplative. His writings on ascetic and mystical theology are original and permanent contributions to the science of the Saints. It is related of him that, after having written the sublime treatise on the Holy Eucharist, he was seen to fall into an ecstasy, and a voice from the crucifix above the altar was heard to say: "Thou hast written well of Me, Thomas. What reward wilt thou have?" To this the Saint replied: "None, Lord, other than Thyself."

Thomas remained in Paris for three years, from 1269 to 1272,4 in the full maturity of his powers and the manifold outpourings of his genius. All of the Second Part of the "Summa Theologica" was written at this time, and the Third Part was begun. In 1272 he was recalled to Naples by order of the king to teach at the University of Naples which he had attended as a boy. He put the finishing touches on his numerous projects, completed the Third Part of the "Summa" up to Question XC, and then laid down his pen already worn out at the early age of 48. "I can do no more," he said on the morning of December 6, 1273. He had experienced an ecstasy during Mass and said to Reginald, his secretary: "Such secrets have been revealed to me that all I have written now appears of little value." During the following Lenten season, Thomas gave to the students and townsfolk of Naples the series of catechetical instructions on the Creed, Commandments, and Prayer which make up part of this volume. They are his last words. He died on March 7, 1274, at Fossanuova in Northern Italy while on his way to attend the Council of Lyons. St. Thomas Aquinas lived in an age of great scholars and great Saints. He is the "prince and Master of all."[5]

St. Thomas was canonized in 1323. St. Pius proclaimed him a Doctor of the Universal Church in 1567. When Pope Leo XIII wrote his famous Encyclical, "Aeterni Patris," on the restoration of Christian philosophy, he urged his readers with all the force of his apostolic office "to restore the golden wisdom of St. Thomas and to spread it far and wide for the defense and beauty of the Catholic Faith, for the good of society, and for the advantage of all sciences." The same Pontiff, in a Brief dated August 4, 1880, designated St. Thomas Patron of all Catholic universities, and his successors, including Pope Pius XI, have ordered Catholic teachers to make the explanations of Christian Doctrine by St. Thomas the basis for all their teaching.

CHIEF WORKS OF ST. THOMAS

More than sixty separate works, some of great length and some brief, came from the fertile mind of the Angelic Doctor.[6] Most important and, one would wish, most familiar of all his writings is the "Summa Theologica." This is a complete scientific exposition of theology and at the same time a summary of Christian philosophy. St. Thomas considered this work simply as a manual of Christian Doctrine for the use of students. He thus announced its division: "Since the chief aim of this sacred science is to give a knowledge of God, not only as He is in Himself, but also as He is the Beginning of all things and the End of all, especially of all rational creatures--we shall treat first of God; secondly, of rational creatures' advance towards God; thirdly, of Christ who as Man is the Way by which we tend to God." These are the leading ideas of his "Summa," and upon them he based the three Parts of this great work.

The "Summa contra Gentiles," whose full title is "Treatise on the truth of the Catholic Faith against Unbelievers" (1258-1261), is the most profound and doubtless the most powerful apologetically work ever written. It is St. Thomas' "Summa philosophica," taking philosophy in the modern sense. The long list of Commentaries on the Sacred Scriptures are exhaustive, of great depth, and of permanent value. The "Perfection of the Spiritual Life" is one of the clssics in the field of ascetical and mystical theology, and together with pertinent parts of the "Summa" forms a complete explanation of the Christian higher life.[7] St. Thomas also wrote the admirable "Office for the Feast of Corpus Christi" with its familiar prayers and hymns.[8]

THE OPUSCULA

The "Opuscula" or "Little Treatises" are very numerous. In the course of time works were listed among the "Opuscula" which were not written by St. Thomas. In the "official" catalogue of Reginald of Piperno the "Opuscula" number seventy. They may be roughly classified as philosophical and theological, on moral and canonical questions, on Liturgy and the religious life, and catechetical instructions. There are some "Opuscula" not listed in the "official" catalogue which are now considered authentic. The five "Opuscula" which are translated in the present volume are undoubtedly authentic." The Explanations of the "Creed," the "Our Father," and the "Ten Commandments" are numbers 66, 65, 68 respectively in the catalogue which was prepared for the process of canonization of St. Thomas. The Explanation of the "Hail Mary" is listed in the catalogue of Bernard Guidonis and in later lists. This is noteworthy, since Bernard had before him the official list. Both Mandonnet and Grabmann consider the work authentic.[10] St. Thomas gave these Explanations to the students and people of Naples during his last Lenten season on earth. The talks on the Ten Commandments were written down by Peter d'Andrea, and the Explanation of the other prayers were faithfully reported by his secretary and companion, Reginald of Piperno.

The "Explanation of the Seven Sacraments" is the second part of the treatise, "De fidei articulis et septem sacramentis," which St. Thomas wrote at the request of the Archbishop of Palermo in 1261-62. It is noteworthy that the famed "Decretum pro Armenis" (Instruction for the Armenians), issued by the authority of the Council of Florence, is taken almost verbatim from the second part of this "Opusculum" (i.e., the "Explanation of the Seven Sacraments"). It is not a definition of the Council, but a practical instruction, as Denzinger points out.[11]

The latest editions of the "Opuscula" are the Vives edition (Paris) of 1871-80 and the Parma edition of 1852-73. This latter edition is reedited by Mandonnet with a new order and an introduction (Lethielleux, Paris, 1927). The "catechetical" "Opuscula" are here given in one volume in English for the first time. An English translation of two of these under the title, "On the Commandments" and "On the Lord's Prayer," was made by the Reverend H. A. Rawes in England in 1891. It is now out of print and practically inaccessible. Recently an English translation was made by Rev. Lawrence Shapcote, O. P., in two small volumes with the titles, "The Three Greatest Prayers" and "The Commandments of God" (Burns and Oates, 1937). The "Explanation of the Seven Sacraments," however, is here given for the first time in English.

ST. THOMAS IN THE HISTORY OF CATECHETICS

The original and traditional meaning of "catechesis" (from the Greek: teaching by word of mouth) was oral teaching or instruction by word. It is used in this sense in the New Testament (e.g., in Luke i. 4; Acts, xviii. 25). "Catechetical" referred solely to this form of oral explanation of Christian Doctrine. This is the meaning that "catechetical instruction" had in the time of St. Thomas and throughout the Middle Ages.[12] "In this connection," says one authority, "it must be remembered that the term 'catechetical' was very often applied to sermons and instructions for grown people, not for children."[13] The conception of "catechetical" and "catehism" as referring to the question and answer method of teaching became general only during the Counter-Reformation. Thus, St. Augustine's classic work on teaching religion, "De rudibus catechizandis" (On Instructing the Ignorant), is straight exposition without question and answers. The famed "Roman Catechism" (Catechism of the Council of Trent) is not in question and answer form. Hence, the catechetical instructions of St. Thomas, which are oral explanations of Christian Doctrine, entitle him to a place in the history of catechetics with St. Augustine, Gerson, St. Charles Borromeo, St. Peter Canisius and others.[14]

The method of explaining Christian Doctrine by giving detailed attention to the Creed, the Commandments, the Our Father and Hail Mary, goes back to the early centuries of the Church. One of the first great works which embody this fourfold division is the "Catechetical Instructions" of St. Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386). This division became general throughout the medieval period, and the "Creed, Code, Sacraments and Prayer" came to be a formula of the faith. Numerous Synods and Councils of the Church at this time decreed that sermons and instructions must be given the faithful according to this fourfold division.[15] The "Roman Catechism" follows this arrangement, as do most of the Catechisms of modern times.

The catechetical instructions of St. Thomas were used generally throughout the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as manuals and text-books for priests and teachers of religion.[16] "The Explanations of St. Thomas," wrote Spirago, "are remarkable for their conciseness and their simplicity of language; they are especially noteworthy because the main parts of the catechetical course of instruction are brought into connection with one another so that they appear as one harmonious whole."[17] The influence of these works is especially prominent in the "Roman Catechism" which the Council of Trent ordered written for parish priests and for all teachers of religion. Many of the explanatory passages in both works are almost identical.

TRANSLATOR'S NOTE

The edition used in this translation is the Parma, edited by P. Mandonnet, O. P., "Opuscula Omnia" (Lethielleux, Paris, 1927). Where the Vives edition is used, the change is noted in the footnotes. The edition of the "Roman Catechism" (Catechism of the Council of Trent) used in the commentary is "Catechismus Concilii Tridentini ad Parochos," Romae, Ex Typog. Polyglotta, S. Cong. de Prop. Fide, 1891. To Reverend E. A. Connolly, S. S., for reading the manuscript and for many helpful suggestions the Translator is very grateful.

JOSEPH B. COLLINS, S.S., D.D., PH.D.

ENDNOTES

1. P. mandonnet, "Date de la naissance de S. Thomas d'Aquin," in "Revue Thomiste" (1914), 652-662.

2. G. K. Chesterton, "St. Thomas Aquinas" (1933), 43.

3. J. Maritain, "The Angelic Doctor," 35.

4. For the vexed question of exact dates in the life of St. Thomas, I have relied chiefly on Cayre, "Precis de Patrologie" (Paris, 1930), II, pp. 526- 536, who in turn is largely indebted to the researches of Mandonnet.

5. Pope Leo XIII in Encyclical, "Aeterni Patris," August 4, 1879.

6. For a complete list of St. Thomas' writings: Cayre, "loc. cit."; Maritain, "The Angelic Doctor," pp. 179-183' Catholic Encyclopedia," XIV, 666 sqq.

7. Cf. Hugh Pope, O. P., "On Prayer and the Contemplative Life by St Thomas" (Benziger Bros., 1914).

8. It contains the "Pangua lingu" with "Tantum ergo" among its verses, "Sacris Solemnis" with the lines of "Panis angelicus," "Verbum supernum" with its concluding verse, "O salutaris hostia." The antiphon of the Office is the beautiful "O Sacrum Convivium." The Prayer said by the celebrant at Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, "Deus qui nobis sub Sacramento mirabili, etc.," is also a part of this Office. The Eucharistic poem, "Adoro te devote," is also probably by St. Thomas, who is rightly called the Doctor of the Eucharist.

9. The authoritative studies on the authenticity of the "Opuscula" are: M. Mandonnet, O. P., "Des Ecrits Authentiques de S. Thomas d'Aquin" (Fribourg, 1910), and "Les Opuscules de S. thomas d'Aquin," in "Revue Thomiste" (1927), 121-157; M. Grabmann, "Die echten Schriften des hl. Thomas v. Aquin" (Munster, 1920).

10. Mandonnet, "Des Ecrits," etc., 66; Grabmann, "op. cit.," 232-337.

11. "Enchiridion Symbolorum," n. 695.

12. "By the catechism of St. Thomas is generally understood his explanation of the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, and the Decalogue" (Gatterer-Kruz, "The Theory and Practice of the Catechism," 1914, p. 47).

13. Spirago-Messmer, "Spirago's Method of Christian Doctrine" (1901), 508.

14. John Gerson, the saintly chancellor of the University of Paris, wrote "On Leading the Little Ones to Christ" in the early fifteenth century. St. Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, was one of the founders of the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine and one of the authors of the Roman Catechism. St. Peter Canisius, the great Jesuit teacher of religion in the Counter-Reformation, wrote the well-known Canisian Catechisms.

15. Cf. Callan-McHugh, "Catechism of the Council of Trent," Introduction, xiv and xvi. See also Spirago Messmer, "op. cit.," 507.

16. Spirago-Messmer, "op. cit.," 513-514.

17. "Ibid."

CONTENTS

Introduction. By Rudolph G. Bandas, Ph.D., S.T.D. Et M. Translator's Preface

THE APOSTLES' CREED

What Is Faith? The First Article The First Article (Continued) The Second Article The Third Article The Fourth Article The Fifth Article The Fifth Article (Continued) The Sixth Article The Seventh Article The Eighth Article The Ninth Article The Tenth Article The Eleventh Article The Twelfth Article

EXPLANATION OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

The First Commandment The Second Commandment The Third Commandment The Fourth Commandment The Fifth Commandment The Sixth Commandment The Seventh Commandment The Eighth Commandment The Ninth (Tenth) Commandment The Tenth (Ninth) Commandment

EXPLANATION OF THE SACRAMENTS

The Sacraments Of The Church Baptism Confirmation The Holy Eucharist Penance Extreme Unction Holy Orders Matrimony

EXPLANATION OF THE LORD'S PRAYER

Five Qualities Of Prayer The Opening Words Of The Lord's Prayer The First Petition The Second Petition The Third Petition The Fourth Petition The Fifth Petition The Sixth Petition The Seventh Petition

THE HAIL MARY

The Angelic Salutation Full Of Grace The Lord Is With Thee Blessed Among Women Blessed Is The Fruit Of Thy Womb .

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

INDEX OF KEY TERMS

Angelic Salutation: see Hail Mary. Anger: why forbidden when anger is permissible ways of avoiding three considerations of anger why we should restrain anger Apollinarius: erroneous views on Incarnation Apostles' Creed, The Apostolicity: of the Church Aquarii: error regarding the Holy Eucharist Aristotle: on love of parents on anger Arius: erroneous views on Incarnation confuted by St. John's Gospel error regarding Holy Orders Arrodinici: error regarding the Holy Eucharist Ascension: see Jesus Christ Astrology: a form of polytheism Augustine, St.: on faith on Manicheans on life everlasting on the Decalogue declares all wrongful usurpation is theft on answers to prayer on God's will on unspotted sinlessness of Mary

Baptism: first Sacrament of faith bief review of doctrine on effect of matter and form errors concerning Bishops: as ministers of the Sacraments Bribery: forbidden by Seventh Commandment

Cataphrygae: error regarding the Holy Eucharist Catholicity: of the Church Certitude: and faith Chance: belief in chance a denial of faith Character, Sacramental: of some Sacraments Charity: Christ as example of basis of entire Christian Law Children: duties to parents Church, Catholic: faith in meaning of "church," unity of holiness of, so; Catholicity of Apostolicity of Commandments, Ten: explanation of text of summary of Commandment, First: precept to worship and love God errors against why we should adore God Commandment, Second: reverence for Divine Name meaning of "in vain," conditions of a lawful oath taking God's Name justly Commandment, Third: reasons for this Commandment Sunday and Sabbath what we should abstain from on the Sabbath with what the Sabbath and Feasts should be occupied hearing of God's Word the Spiritual Sabbath Commandment, Fourth: and love of neighbor what children owe to parents rewards for keeping this Commandment different applications of "father," our duties towards superiors, benefactors, rulers Commandment, Fifth: the sin of killing killing of animals execution of criminals killing in a just war prohibits suicide other meanings of "to kill," the sin of anger Commandment, Sixth: why placed after Fifth gravity of sin of adultery why adultery and fornication must be avoided Commandment, Seventh: forbids injury to neighbor's property five forms of theft why stealing must be avoided Commandment, Eighth: forbids injuly of neighbor by word, false testimony ways of violating this Commandment special effects of telling lies Commandment, Ninth: forbids concupiscence of flesh ways to overcome concupiscence Commandment, Tenth: forbids covetous thoughts and desires covetousness as root of all kinds of wickedness Communion of Saints: faith in advantages of Concupiscence Confession: as part of Penance See also Penance. Confirmation: review of doctrine on matter and form effect of errors concerning Confirmation Contempt for Worldly Things: example of Christ Contrition: as part of Penance Covetousness: produces all kinds of wickedness Creed: see Symbol. Creed, Nicene: teaching on the Holy Ghost Criminals: execution not forbidden by Fifth Commandment

Death, Everlasting Detraction: way of violating Eighth Commandment Donatists: error regarding Baptism

Ebion: erroneous views on Incarnation Elaeonitae: error regarding Extreme Unction Eucharist, Holy: review of doctrine on matter and form effect of errors concerning the Eucharist See also Mass. Eutyches: erroneous views on Incarnation Extreme Unction: review of doctrine on matter and form

Faith: nature and four effects and certitude miracles the seal of faith good effects of False Witness: conditions of a lawful oath false testimony Fear of God: inculcated by Christ's descent into Limbo Forgiveness of Sins: see Penance. Form: see Sacraments. Fraud: in buying and sclling for bidden by Seventh Commandment

Ghost, Holy: faith in teaching of Nicene Creed on benefits from the Holy Spirit God: ruler and provider of all things polytheism God's providence Creator of heaven and earth His dignity His bounty reverence for Divine Name preeminence of God's Name is lovable, venerable and ineffable meaning of God's Kingdom God's will what does God will? Good: judgment of Gossip: forbidden by Eighth Commandment Greeks: error regarding Confirmation Hail Mary: composition of prayer "Hail Mary," "full of grace," "the Lord is with thee," "Blessed art thou among women," "Blessed is the Fruit of thy womb," "Hallowed": meaning of Heaven: condition of the blessed See also Life, Everlasting. Hell: three meanings Christ's descent into condition of the damned See also Life, Everlasting. Holiness: of the Church Holy Eucharist: see Eucharist, Holy. Holy Orders: see Orders, Holy. Hope: inculcated by Christ's descent into Limbo Humility: example of Christ

Idleness: to be avoided on Sabbath Incarnation: see Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ: true Son of God error of Photinus on Incarnation Divine Generation of the Word of God passion and death of meaning of Christ's death why Christ suffered for us exemplar of virtues exemplar of charity, patience and humility of obedience and contempt for earthly things descent into hell reasons for Christ's descent Christ's Resurrection Christ's Resurrection differed from that of all others what we may learn from the Resurrection Ascension sublimity of the Ascension its reasonableness its benefits Christ as Judge Jovinian: error regarding Matrimony Judgment: Christ as Judge form of the Judgment who are to be judged fear of the Judgment preparation for the Judgment

Lies: evil effects of Life, Everlasting: faith in what it means fullness of desires everlasting death seven gifts of eternal glory See also Resurrection of the Body Limbo: definition liberation of the just Lord's Prayer, The: five qualities of prayer opening words of "Hallowed be Thy Name," "Thy kingdom come," "Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven," "Give us this day our daily bread," "Forgive us our trespasses," "Lead us not into temptation," "Deliver us from evil. Amen," short explanation of the whole

Manichaeus: erroneous views on Incarnation Manicheans: erroneous beliefs regarding God St. Augustine on Mary: faith of Blessed Virgin virtues of the Blessed Virgin help of Christians most beautiful of all creatures Mass: as fulfillment of duty on Sabbath See also Eucharist, Holy. Matrimony: review of doctrine on efficient cause threefold good errors regarding Matter: see Sacraments Miracles: the seal of faith Murder: the sin of killing

Nestorius: erroneous views on Incarnation Nicea, Council of: errors suppressed by Nicene Creed: see Symbol. Nicolaitae: error regarding Matrimony Novati: error regarding Penance

Oath: conditions of lawful Obedience: example of Christ See also Commandment, Fourth Old Law: Sacraments in Orders, Holy: review of doctrine on matter and form Origen: erroneous views on Incarnation

Parents: duties to children Patience: example of Christ value of Paul, St.: on faith on the resurrection of the body Pelagians: error regarding Baptism Penance: review of doctrine on matter and form effects of Photinus: erroneous views on Incarnation confuted by St. John's Gospel Polytheism: why some men believed in a plurality of gods astrology a form of polytheism Poor People of Lyons: error regarding the Holy Eucharist Praeputiati: error regarding the Holy Eucharist Prayer: five qualities of effects of prayer St. Augustine on answers to Priests: as ministers of the Sacraments Purgatory: definition

Resurrection: see Jesus Christ Resurrection of the Body: faith in benefits of qualities of the risen bodies condition of the blessed condition of the damned See also Life, Everlasting. Roman Catechism: on First Commandment on taking of oaths on just oaths on hearing Mass on Sundays and Holydays on the Heavenly Sabbath on killing in a just war on sinful and righteous anger on Sixth Commandment on occasions of sin on robbery and theft on detraction on sins of covetousness definition of Sacrament on the Holy Eucharist on "quasi-materia" of Penance on Extreme Unction on Holy Orders on Matrimony on the Lord's Prayer on God's Will on "our daily bread," Rulers: our duties towards

Sabbath: the Spiritual Sabbath the Heavenly Sabbath See also Commandment, Third Sabellius: erroneous views on Incarnation confuted by St. John's Gospel Sacraments: a review of the Seven Sacraments of the dead and of the living definition of a Sacrament and spiritual life form and matter sacramental character of some Sacraments Seven Sacraraments in general reviviscence of sacramental grace Satisfaction: as part of Penance Sin: evil effects of avoidance of on Sabbath Solentiani: error regarding Baptism Stealing Suicide: prohibited by Fifth Commandment Sunday Superiors: our duties towards Symbol: Apostles' Creed definition of "symbol," Apostles' and Nicene Creeds Nicene Creed on error of Sabellius

Tatian: error regarding Matrimony Temptation: source what it is of the flesh of the devil of the world Theft: five forms of Transfiguration: evidence of Christ's Divinity Trespasses: meaning of term

Unity: of the Church

Valentinus: erroneous views on Incarnation Virgin, Blessed: see Mary

War: killing in a just Wicked: judgment of Work, Servile: avoidance on Sabbath