Brothers of St. Gabriel

Author: St. Louis de Montfort




I. Louis Marie de Montfort, accompanied by a few Brothers: 1. A few companions; 2. Inheritors; 3. Brothers to care for temporal needs and to teach school. II. The Brothers of Christian Instruction of Saint Gabriel, formerly called of the Holy Spirit: 1. Brothers of the Community of the Holy Spirit; 2. Gabriel Deshayes, the providential man; 3. Our founder; 4. Brothers of Christian Instruction of Saint Gabriel. III. The Spirituality of the Montfort Brothers of Saint Gabriel: 1. Love of the Rule; 2. Modest apostle of the Word Incarnate, servant of Mary; 3. Sons of Montfort through the Cross; 4. Heirs of the same past rooted in the first founder.


"Louis Marie de Montfort Grignion": such is the signature of the Apostolic Missionary affixed at the end of the Will he had just dictated to Fr. Mulot on April 27, 1716. "I confide to His Lordship the Bishop of La Rochelle and to Fr. Mulot my small pieces of furniture and my mission books, to be preserved for the use of the four Brothers who joined me in a life of obedience and poverty" (W).

1. A few companions

Throughout Montfort’s missionary life, there are Brothers who accompanied him. Paradoxically, he searched for priests to continue his parish missions but, instead, found Brothers.

a. "The well-known Brother Mathurin."

(1.) In 1705 a young man named Mathurin arrived in Poitiers, hoping to become a Capuchin. He entered the Church of the Penitents to pray. Montfort happened to be present and gestured to him to approach. On learning Mathurin’s plans for the future, Montfort invited him to remain and serve with him in the parish missions. The language Montfort used was that of the Savior calling the Apostles, ‘Follow me,’ and "at once this good man obeyed."2 Mathurin joined Montfort in the parish missions and collaborated with him. Responding to a friend’s request for aid, Montfort wrote: "I will send Mathurin to you on Tuesday to say the Rosary publicly, to sing hymns, and to bring to our soldiers sixty small crosses of St. Michael" (L 21). Mathurin became the missionary’s faithful "traveling companion."

b. Brother Nicholas.

The experiences of "this young man who accompanied Montfort on his travels" was similar to those of Mathurin. On January 29, 1711, Montfort wrote to Father de la Carrière, a priest of Pont-château: "Please give my statues to the bearer of this letter and to Brother Nicholas. It is necessary to move them, both to relieve me of anxiety and to show obedience because it is God’s will" (L 22).

Nicholas was even obliged to give Father de Montfort the discipline. He struck him so hard that with each blow Montfort’s shoulders bowed and he moaned as though it were in spite of himself that he was being struck. When questioned about it, Brother admitted that it was only on this condition that Montfort would accept him in his service."3

c. Brother John.

Brother John was Montfort’s confidant, "always ready to do anything he was asked." In 1715, Montfort wrote to Marie Louise and Catherine Brunet: "The Bishop of La Rochelle to whom I have spoken about you and our plans thinks you should come here to begin the work we want so much. I will send you Brother John with a horse and some money to accompany you." Shortly after, on April 4, he wrote, "Send me news by Brother John if you cannot manage to come here yourselves" (L 27, 29).

d. Brother James.

This Brother appeared on the scene in the last two years of Montfort’s life. The mission at Saint-Pompain began in December 1715, during a harsh winter. Nevertheless, each day before dawn Brother James ran through the icy streets of town summoning everyone to prayer: "Arise, dear brother, come, my friend, / Let us arise before the sun, / God calls us to his festival, / The mission has begun. / So, be there ice, or be there snow, / To gain God’s grace, to church we’ll go" (H 163).

"During the twenty-three months that I had the happiness of living with Father de Montfort, despite his travels and his occupations, I never once saw him pass a single day without saying Mass. He celebrated it with so much piety and such great devotion that he communicated this devotion to all in attendance."4 Such was the testimony of Brother James, who, according to the parish chronicles, continued after Montfort’s death to lead the Confraternity of the White Penitents and to teach in the grade school at Saint-Laurent.

2. Inheritors

In 1715 Father Mulot, the pastor of Saint-Pompain "a very zealous man of means," having planned for some time to hold a mission in his parish, chose Father de Montfort to preach it. The Brothers inherited a double function: helping in the parish mission itself and being of service to the parishioners. The apostolate of the Brothers is described in the following paragraphs.

The parish retreat was accompanied by catechism instruction (cf. RM), the singing of hymns, the recitation of the Rosary, and the organization of processions.

Charitable schools were founded only during Montfort’s last years and within the framework of the pastoral options of the diocese of La Rochelle. Montfort’s Will mentions this specifically: "My few belongings and the mission books, that they preserve them for the use of these four Brothers . . . and for those whom Divine Providence will call to the same Community of the Holy Spirit." The Brothers also received a little house given by a kind woman on condition that "if there are no means of building here, one will provide for the Brothers of the Community of the Holy Spirit who teach in the charitable schools; all the furnishings that are at Nantes will be for the use of the Brothers who maintain the school as long as it exists."5

But if these charitable schools subscribed to a movement already begun by Jean Baptist de la Salle at Rheims, Paris, and Rouen, they cannot be divested of the missionary perspective that was proper to them and that did not appear in the work of Father de la Salle. "Father de Montfort’s main preoccupation during the course of his missions was to establish schools for the boys and for the girls."6 The teacher led them to Mass singing hymns; one student intoned the first verse and the others joined in. . . . Every day after class they recited five decades of the Rosary in honor of the Blessed Virgin."7

The Brothers are inheritors of the Montfort spirit. Hence, in no way were they merely temporary associates; they are rightly part of Montfort’s family. Nor were they "Coadjutor Brothers," as found in the Society of Jesus or in Vincent de Paul’s Priests of the Mission. Still less were they lay Brothers charged with only material concerns. In this, Montfort seems to have forged ahead of his times. If he made the Brothers "heirs," was it not because in his missionary wisdom he felt them participants in his own experience? Besnard informs us that around the feast of Pentecost in 1715, after the mission of St. Armand, Montfort was exhausted and left for a few days rest at La Seguinière. As usual, "a few Brothers accompanied him." Ten months later he made the "holy pilgrimage to Our Lady of Saumur, to obtain from God good missionaries for his proposed Company of Mary." On the way he asked "two of the Brothers who accompanied him" to greet his sister at the convent of Fontevrault.8

With time his companions understood the desires of their "teacher" and "father." They began to realize how reciting the Rosary and singing hymns had made them instruments of conversion, even more, agents of conversion. Traveling with him, they gradually perceived the depth of his life for "God Alone."

Little can be said about his "companions" whom he made his "heirs," since the ecclesiastical mentality of the day paid little account to the category of "Brother." One need only recall the difficulties faced by Father de la Salle with the Brothers of the Christian schools.9 Whether there existed a Rule or specific regulations for the Montfort Brothers remains another question, with the probability that a text did exist. In support of this hypothesis is Montfort’s refusal of Communion to Brother Nicholas because he had not observed the rule regarding the nightly schedule.10

3. Brothers to care for temporal needs and to teach school

a. "Lay Brothers".

Their presence is noted in RM, in a context that excludes the teaching of youth: "Only priests who have been formed in seminaries are received into this Company. . . . Priests called by God to give missions in the footsteps of the poor apostles and not to be vicars, or to administer a parish, teach children or form priests in seminaries. . . . However, lay Brothers are admitted to take care of temporal affairs provided they are detached, robust, and obedient, ready to do all they are told to do. . . . Priests and Brothers alike must not accept even simple benefices and temporal possessions, even those they inherit"11 (RM 1-2, 4-5).

b. "To take care of temporal affairs".

A typical case is that of Brother Peter at the mission of Vertou (1708), who was responsible for the missionaries’ kitchen: "I command you to get up in an hour from now and come, serve us at table," which order of Louis Marie was carried out. "The Lord cured me." In the course of the mission of Montfort- la-Cane, mention is also made of the Brother-cook, who received the order to distribute food to nearly sixty poor people.12 Grandet mentions several times the manager of the store: "rosaries, medals, booklets, instruments of penance . . . all this merchandise is in great demand"; he speaks also of small ‘commodities’. Nor may the care of the mule and wagon be ignored. Was it not a Brother who fled with the receipts from the shop?13

c. Brothers teaching catechism and responsible for the activities of the mission.

Some of these Brothers, having for their guide "The Rules for Catechetical Instruction" (cf. RM 79-91), also sang hymns, had the Rosary recited according to Montfort’s method, and skillfully organized processions. These Brothers were entirely a part of his missionary enterprise. He consulted with them about the material organization, and he followed their advice "to the prejudice of his own." He shared with them, as with his priest-collaborators, "the collars and the clothing received."14

Then, in his boldness, Montfort daringly proposed to his Brothers that they "bind themselves by vows of obedience and poverty, regardless of the ministry they exercised, without discrimination." At Poitiers, Brother Nicholas learned the art of sculpting, Brother Gabriel assisted with the parish missions, and Brother Philip of Nantes and Brother Louis de La Rochelle ministered in the charitable schools. Although Montfort felt his health dwindling, it mattered little; he continued to "venture," even if he left behind but unfinished projects.

The Brothers were fully integrated in the Montfort community of Saint- Laurent and lived voluntary poverty there. Meals were very frugal; all except bread was lacking. Madame de Bouille wanted Father Mulot to train some Brothers at Holy Spirit (the name of the mother-house at Saint- Laurent) and send them out to teach and catechize children in various parishes.15

II. The Brothers of Christian Instruction of Saint Gabriel, Formerly Called of the Holy Spirit.

On February 19, 1910, the Sacred Congregation of Religious signed the "Decree of Apostolic Approbation of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of St. Gabriel." In the summary of the Approbation, approved by Pope Pius X, we read: "The Brothers of Christian Instruction, formerly called of the Holy Spirit, whose motherhouse is in the diocese of Luçon, have for father, and invoke as such, Blessed Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort."

1. Brothers of the Community of the Holy Spirit

During the eighteenth century the life of the Community of the Holy Spirit (the Company of Mary) was centered at Saint-Laurent. Research reveals the names of thirty-five Brothers and nearly fifty missionary priests who lived there. More helpful than names lifted from registers or enshrined in memories is knowledge about the services they rendered and the ministries they performed.

a. Brothers always ready to do whatever they were told to do.

Complementary ministries demonstrated the originality of the Community of the Holy Spirit, and each had its prototype.

Brother Joseau had a ministry to the charitable schools. René Joseau, professed in 1722, whose ministry was "opening schools for the young and caring for the sick." Marie Louise of Jesus, whose confidant he was, said, "He has the spirit of God." He was the prototype of the first teaching Brothers. His reasons for becoming a Brother are revealing: "Because those at Saint-Laurent are poor. I wish to live like the poor, offering my small services to the poor who work for the glory of God and the salvation of souls."16 His major ministry was in the charitable schools. Madame de Bouille encouraged R. Mulot, "faithful imitator of the well-known Montfort" to continue the schools of La Rochelle. To safeguard the unity of his young community, Mulot dared erase from a new edition of the Rule (1728) the adjective "vigorous" from the qualities necessary in a candidate for the Brothers. More importantly, he suppressed the prohibition "to teach youth" from the goals of the Com- pany.17 To preserve the memory of Montfort, whom he had not known, Joseau devised a souvenir notebook. "These are good things that could be used to write a new biography of the man of God," noted Sr. Florence, author of The Chronicles of the Daughters of Wisdom. When Brother Joseau died on May 2, 1755, his successor, Brother Joseph Metayer, had been prepared to take over his work. This ministry often included religious instruction as well as teaching in the schools.18

Brother Mathurin had a ministry of catechizing during the parish missions. The renowned Brother Mathurin participated in many missions during the span of fifty-five years, first as Montfort’s companion from 1705 to 1716, then until 1755 with Mont-fort’s successors. Thanks to the memoirs of Father Hacquet, the extent of this ministry is easily seen: of the 276 missions preached from 1749 to 1799, one or two Brothers participated in 250 of them with the missionaries. After Mathurin died, his successor was ready, for Brother Guerin had already practiced teaching in the schools for children, teaching catechism and singing hymns in church.19

b. The Brothers’ "missionary memory" of Montfort.

Whatever the service performed, the Brothers lived in the footsteps of their father, a life of faith that withstood all trials. "It was by faith that Montfort procured the conversion of so many sinners, that he loved the poor, and rejoiced in bearing the Cross." Some Brothers worked at preserving the texts of Louis Marie, such as Brother James, who copied the letter entitled Secret of Mary and 15 Beautiful Meditations on the Blessed Virgin. The wear and tear of time, however, has erased many specific details of their community life.

When in 1790 the dark clouds of the French Revolution arrived, there were eight Brothers in the mother-house. Three Brothers, two of whom were thirty years old, were executed on the spot in February 1794, and three others were shot a few days later. "They can be considered martyrs, since they were massacred because of hatred for religion." They were joined in the holocaust by two missionary priests and at least twenty sisters.20

2. Gabriel Deshayes, the providential man21

In 1820, under the combined effects of the French Revolution and the politico-religious situation of the Napoleonic regime, the members of the Community of the Holy Spirit could be counted on the fingers of both hands—five or six priests and four Brothers, three for temporal needs and one for the charitable schools.

a. Gabriel Deshayes was "a man of the moment," extremely sensitive to the immense needs of his contemporaries, especially the poor.

In his zeal he used every possible legitimate means to achieve his goals. "I do good; so much the worse for those who undo it!" At the age of twenty-five, he risked his life for God and souls by receiving abroad priestly ordination from the hands of a self-exiled bishop who had refused submission to the atheistic government of France. When Fr. Deshayes wanted something for God’s glory, he sacrificed everything to achieve it. And he did everything possible to revive the almost defunct Community of the Holy Spirit. When he had completed his task, when the Spirit’s fire consumed him, there were about twenty missionaries, compared to the four or five at the beginning of his administration; there were 150 Brothers, compared to four when he was elected; and 1700 Daughters of Wisdom, compared to 750.

b. Brothers of Christian Instruction of the Holy Spirit.

Since 1824 there had been forty-two religious professions. These Brothers literally overflowed the Montfort mother-house. And Father Gabriel Deshayes obtained official approbation for them under the name of Brothers of Christian Instruction of the Holy Spirit. This restored their authorization to teach. In addition, the formation of the Brothers was entrusted to some among themselves, all fresh from their own formation. Then he drew up for them Directories, Rules of Conduct, and sent them out into the parishes at the pastors’ request. He even constructed new quarters for them. Further, on October 15, 1835, he had thirty-three of them leave the House of the Holy Spirit for the "Supiot House," which was promptly renamed "Saint Gabriel" to honor his patron saint. While he, Deshayes, remained the superior, Brothers Augustin and Simeon became directors of the young group. "In multiplying the Brothers I have simply realized the plans of Venerable de Montfort": this was the superior’s response to the concern of a Daughter of Wisdom.

c. "My confreres, the Missionaries of the Holy Spirit, the Brothers of all the Congregations."22

Brother Simeon, at the end of December 1843, remained secretary to Father Deshayes, even though Brother Simeon now lived at Saint Gabriel. He wrote the Will that was dictated to him by Fr. Deshayes: "I recommend myself in a special manner to the prayers of my confreres, the Missionaries of the Holy Spirit, the Brothers of all the Congregations, as well as to those of the Sisters and their students, especially the deaf-mutes. I recommend in a special way the matter of our holy Founder’s beatification. As all the congregations are of equal interest to me, I beg them to be well united and to give each other mutual support."

3. Our founder

a. "A Brother, superior of Brothers".

A reading of the official correspondence between Gabriel Deshayes and the civil administration makes it clear that he set himself up as a founder. "When I was curate at Auray, I was successful in forming a community of Brothers of the Christian Schools [of Ploermel]. This work prospered beyond my wildest dreams. Called to govern the Daughters of Wisdom, I relinquished the government of my Brothers to Father de Lammenais. . . . I brought six of the Brothers with me to form a core group at Saint-Laurent."23 If the Rule of 1830 foresaw that the superior of the Missionaries would always be their superior, the Rule of 1838 stipulated that thenceforth, after the death of Fr. Deshayes, the superior would be a Brother. In 1853 the imperial decree of Napoleon III conferred on the Congregation the title so long desired, Brothers of Christian Instruction of Saint Gabriel.

4. Brothers of Christian Instruction of Saint Gabriel

The approbation of Rome for the Constitutions of the Brothers of Saint Gabriel states: "The general aim of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of Saint Gabriel is to glorify God by working, with the help of His grace, at their personal sanctification through the practice of the three simple vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, through the True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin, Mother of Divine Grace, and by an exact observance of the Constitutions of their Institute. Their particular aim is to devote themselves to the education and Christian instruction of youth, especially the children of common folk in the primary schools. They are also engaged in the education of deaf and/or blind students. The manual works of the Institute are confided as much as possible to those whom the superiors judge apt to fulfill them. In certain very rare cases determined by the superiors, the Brothers may render to a parish some services related to worship. In their devotions to the patron saint of the Institute, the Brothers are distinguished by a filial love for the Blessed Virgin and by the imitation of their founder’s virtues, especially his zeal for the education of young people."24 A new text was approved by Rome in 1960: "The Brothers will have a special devotion for the mystery of the Incarnation and a particular devotion to the Holy Spirit, under whose name they have been founded. Consecrated to Jesus, Wisdom Incarnate, in and through Mary, they wish to commune with all her mysteries in their spiritual and apostolic life. . . In imitation of the Virgin, who had always been the humble servant of the Lord, and of Wisdom Incarnate, who had always accomplished perfectly the will of the Father, the Brothers delight to live in the spirit of dependence on Jesus and Mary even in the smallest details of daily life. As religious and disciples of Saint Louis Marie de Montfort, the Brothers must be true friends of the Cross of Jesus."25

A dispute of many years between the Company of Mary and the Brothers of St. Gabriel on the precise roles of Father de Montfort and Father Gabriel Deshayes in the founding of the teaching Brothers was brought to an end in January 1968. A letter, signed by the general superiors of the Company of Mary (Cornelius Heiligers) and of the Brothers of Saint Gabriel (Roman Landry) declared: "Impelled by the spirit of unity, of charity, and of ecumenism, the General Councils of our two institutes have decided of common accord to reunite, to put an end in charity and, if possible, in unity to the unfortunate dispute that has separated us for almost eighty years. . . . In the measure in which we assume the ecclesiology of Vatican II, we must put in first place, beyond all historical consideration, the common Montfort charism." Pope John Paul II emphasized to the Capitulants in their audience with him on January 5, 1989: "Like Saint Louis Marie during his missions, you must remind the baptized of the grandeur and obligations of their Baptism. You give great importance to the educational projects that you undertake with your lay collaborators . . . including the religious dimension of education and of catechizing. And like your first founder, you are anxious to give Mary her proper place in your apostolic ministry in order that through your action she may raise up disciples and evangelizers, whom the world needs as the twenty-first century dawns."26


"We are Montfort religious. As such, we are called to be disciples of Jesus Christ following in the footsteps of Montfort and to perceive in the Gospel the messages that he grasped, especially in what concerns Jesus Wisdom Incarnate and Mary’s role in the economy of salvation." Such is the assertion of the General Chapter (1988-1989) as supreme authority in the Institute.27 The Montfort spirituality of the Brothers of St. Gabriel is expressed within a teaching community; it is manifested in their proper apostolate of forming boys and young men into the fullness of baptismal life.

1. Love of the Rule

The directive given to the earliest Brothers of Christian Instruction was precise: "Love our Holy Rule; esteem it, observe it faithfully everyday." Dur-ing twenty years, the saintly Gabriel Deshayes led his communities with vigor: "I am sixty-two years old and I can say that I have never doubted Providence, and Providence has never failed me," and "had I but a week to live, I would press forward still."

Despite pressing situations, the spirituality of the Brothers was clarified. "You know, my dear Brothers, the way to obtain faith; it is prayer. Acquire the spirit of prayer; it is the key to heavenly treasures. Pray with the faith of the woman in the Gospel to whom Our Lord said, ‘My daughter, your faith has saved you.’ Pray with attention, purity of intention, fervor, and always in the name of Jesus, and you will pray well."

"Peace and charity" became the motto that gradually shaped the spirit of the young Congregation. "Let us love and serve Mary." In the Spirit, we come to embody its esprit de corps, family spirit. This spirit is indispensable if one is to be a true member of the community.28

2. Modest apostle of the Word Incarnate, servant of Mary

Everything takes time. There was another twenty-year cycle, confided to Brother Eugene-Marie when he was thirty-nine years old—twenty years to daringly open "horizons even more missionary and more evangelical." To sustain the educational mission of the Brothers, he gave spiritual and Christological instructions. "To be a complete Gabrielist, it is necessary that to the virtue of the religious we join the knowledge of the teacher and the en-lightened zeal of the catechist. Nevertheless we must not forget that the Congregation must prepare its members to be teachers and catechists. It is not a question of great things today. You need not go far away to find occasions of self-denial. The sacrifice that God asks of you is to live your Rule, immerse yourself in its spirit."29

In a new edition of the Constitutions and Common Rules of 1874 it is written: "The spirit of the Brothers must be: towards God, a spirit of faith, of love, and of filial confidence in his divine Providence; toward themselves, a spirit of abnegation, of sacrifice, and of humility; towards their Brothers, a spirit of peace, of simplicity, and of charity that will make the Congregation one family in Our Lord Jesus Christ; towards their superiors, a spirit of filial docility and of respectful submission; towards the children and the Institute, a spirit of zeal and supernatural devotion."

Brother Eugene-Marie one day confided the source of his own spirituality: "Is not Mary proclaimed by the Church Mother of Divine Grace, the mother of all religious, the privileged children of God? This is what he understood, he of whom we are incontestably the grandsons, he whose tomb served as our cradle. I speak of the Venerable de Montfort, one of the apostles of devotion to Mary’s maternity of grace and one of the prophets of her present glories in the Church. And was it not our venerated Father Deshayes’s intention to have us honor the Infant Jesus and the double maternity of Mary? He gave us as sole mission the instruction of youth, as feast the Annunciation, as special protector Saint Gabriel."30

3. Sons of Montfort through the Cross.

"Expect to be pruned, hewed, chiseled under the hammer of the Cross; otherwise you will remain like rough stones which serve no purpose" (FC 28). During the twenty-four years of Brother Martial’s generalate, the Congregation lived one of the bitterest seasons it had yet experienced. A simple glance back reveals why: the laws of laicization passed by the French government between 1880 and 1910, the hierarchy’s uncertainty about secularized religious, and the deep uneasiness and discomfort of hunted lives, not knowing what risks to take. And then came World War I (1914-1918), menacing to wipe out the new foundations in the mission lands. To live through all this, which is definitely an impoverishment imposed by events and human beings, required a rare faith and the ability to readjust to life from day to day.

"We are in the process of examining our small part in the evangelization of the entire world,"31 wrote Brother Martial. This meant to leave one’s land, face other lifestyles, other climates, other cultures. This meant experiencing Montfort’s "abandonment to Providence" by taking on a vagabond’s role "to save his poor neighbor." After North America, where preparations were already made, after Africa, less known, came distant Asia, as far as the door of China. "God has his hour, and if you are still resolved to go to the missions, I announce that we have chosen you."32 This letter of obedience came in response more than twenty years after the request. It meant leaving with one’s meager baggage and, for bedside book, The Common Observances. It meant leaving with books that defined the life of a Brother of Saint Gabriel according to all the Roman canonical rigor, little inclined to spiritual consolations. But therein lies a mystery of grace and fidelity. For decades on end, in the ambiance of poverty, these books will be considered sacred. They will energize the life of religious pursued, displaced, but confident in God’s time.

4. Heirs of the same past rooted in the first founder

"The providential mission of the Father is the continuous foundation confided to his children." The Spirit, "deluge of fire, of love and of justice" is always at work, as Montfort prayed (PM16). The Spirit purifies the inevitable dross of our lives, winnowing through the Gospel our humble daily fidelities and our lassitudes, refining by the Rosary, this "secret of sanctity for our conversion and salvation," so many lives immolated, so much common sanctity "blessed for eternity!" It is the Spirit who welcomes new vocations from foreign lands and other cultures. The fruitfullness of the founder can be seen in the concrete works of future generations, works rooted in the world but which are not of it.33

The Spirit is still at work under the impetus of Vatican II, encouraging the Brothers to re-express their spiritual and apostolic motivation and to live it today and tomorrow through all races, peoples, nations, and languages.

J. B. Rolandeau

Notes: (1) Florence, 130. (2) Grandet, 79. (3) Besnard II, 32-33. (4) Florence, 93. (5) Grandet, 224-225. (6) Grandet, 385. (7) Grandet, 384. (8) Florence, 131. (9) Cf. E. Tisserant, Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, les écoles de Charité et les origines des Frères de Saint- Gabriel, Pacteau, Luçon 1960, 254-255. (10) Besnard II, 146. (11) Grandet, 374-375. (12) J. Michel, Claude-François Poullart des Places, fondateur de la Congrégation du Saint-Esprit (1679-1709), Éditions Saint-Paul, Paris 1962, 218.(13) Grandet, 369. (14) Besnard, Marie Louise, 142ff.; cf. also E. Tisserant, Louis-Marie, 259. (15) J.-B. Rolandeau, Pèlerinage aux commencements, in Magazine 2 (1981), 15-38. Florence, 95, 130. (17) Florence, 95. (18) Florence, 74, 77. (19) Florence, 95. (20) Dossier Deshayes, diocesan archives of Poitiers. (21) Dossier Lacombe, diocesan archives of Luçon. (22) J. Dalin, Vie du vénérable serviteur de Dieu Louis Marie Grignon de Montfort, Paris 1839, 545. (23) Circular of Brother Augustin, March 10, 1842. (24) Brother Sébastien, Circulaire 53, 1934. (25) Réunion des conseils généraux de la Compagnie de Marie et des Frères de Saint-Gabriel, 23 décembre et 5 janvier 1968, Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, Vatican City, 4-6. (26) Orientations of the 27th General Chapter, 1989. (27) Brother Eugène- Marie, 1872 circular letter. (28) Brother Eugène-Marie, circular letter 20, 1868. (29) Constitutions et observances régulières, 1874. (30) Brother Martial, circular letter 33, 1912. (31) Brother Martial, letter to Brother Fulgent, August 27, 1900. (32) Constitutions, 1923. (33) Brother Gabriel-Marie, Esprit de l’Institut.

Taken from: Jesus Living in Mary: Handbook of the Spirituality of St.
Louis de Montfort (Litchfield, CT: Montfort Publications, 1994).

Provided courtesy of the Montfort Fathers © All Rights Reserved.

Electronic Copyright © 1998 EWTN
All Rights Reserved

Eternal Word Television Network
5817 Old Leeds Road
Irondale, AL 35210