|The court-ordered starvation and dehydration of Terri Schiavo in 2005
raised a number of
and constitutional, about the right to life and
the so-called right to die. Most coverage of the
case focused on the question of her guardian's
right to decide according to her alleged wishes and the due process of the
judicial proceedings. However, at base the question was a
moral, not a legal, one: under what conditions, if
any, may a patient, a guardian, medical personnel or
civil authorities, withhold
or withdraw nutrition and hydration?
Catholic Teaching on Extraordinary Means
The natural law and the Fifth Commandment1 requires that all ordinary means be used to preserve life, such as food, water, exercise, and medical care. Since the middle ages, however, Catholic theologians have recognized that human beings are not morally obligated to undergo every possible medical treatment to save their lives. Treatments that are unduly burdensome or sorrowful to a particular patient, such as amputation, or beyond the economic means of the person, or which only prolong the suffering of a dying person, are morally extraordinary, meaning they are not morally obligatory in a particular case. Medical means may be medically ordinary, but yet morally extraordinary.
The many advances in medicine during recent decades has greatly complicated the decision whether to undergo or forego medical treatment, since medicine can now save many people who would simply have been allowed to die in the past. Further, having saved them, many people continue to live for long periods in comatose or semi-conscious states, unable to live without technological assistance of one kind or another. The following Questions and Answers will address some of the complexities of this issue.
Q. When may medical therapies, procedures, equipment and the like be withheld or withdrawn from a patient.
A. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states,
The key principle in this statement is that one does not will to cause death. When a person has an underlying terminal disease, or their heart, or some other organ, cannot work without mechanical assistance, or a therapy being proposed is dangerous, or has little chance of success, then not using that machine or that therapy results in the person dying from the disease or organ failure they already have. The omission allows nature to takes its course. It does not directly kill the person, even though it may contribute to the person dying earlier than if aggressive treatment had been done.
Q. Does this also apply to artificially provided nutrition and hydration?
A. Yes, when the moral conditions noted above are met. We must, therefore, ask the question "will the withdrawal of nutrition and hydration allow the person to die, or kill the person?" When it will allow a person to die from an underlying condition, rather than unnecessarily prolonging their suffering, it may be removed. So, for example, in the last hours, even days, of a cancer patient's life, or if a sick person's body is no longer able to process food and water, there is no moral obligation to provide nutrition and hydration. The patient will die of their disease or their organ failure before starvation or dehydration could kill them.
However, when the withdrawal of nutrition and hydration is intended to kill the person, or will be the immediate and direct cause of doing so, quite apart from any disease or failure of their bodies, then to withdraw food and water would be an act of euthanasia, a grave sin against the natural law and the law of God.
Q. What about the case of Terri Schiavo?
A. In Terri's case, while there was some disagreement as to her exact medical condition, she was not dying. Indeed, when the other artificial means were withdrawn she continued to live, so that the withdrawal of her food and water directly caused her death. This was a violation of the natural law and the law of God.
Q. You mention the natural law, what is it?
A. The natural law is morality which reason can determine from the nature of man, without the assistance of God's revelation. An example is the right to life. Almost all human societies throughout history, both religious and non-religious, have recognized that it is wrong to kill an innocent person. This is a conclusion which reason can easily come to, since all human beings have an inborn desire to live. From this natural law principle we can easily see that any action that directly and intentionally kills an innocent person is an unjust taking of a human life. Therefore, withdrawing food and and water from anyone who is not about to die and who can still tolerate it, has no other reasonable name than murder.
Q. What does the Church say about this?
A. The Pope addressed this issue in an address to a group of physicians who were in Rome in March 2004 precisely to discuss it.
In this address the Holy Father draws the following significant conclusions:
1. Food and water are natural means of sustaining life, not medical acts, even if delivered artificially.
2. Nutrition and hydration are ordinary and proportionate means of care.
3. Food and water are morally obligatory unless or until they cannot achieve their finality, which is providing nutrition and hydrating and alleviating suffering.
4. The length of time they are, or will be, used is not grounds for withholding or withdrawing artificially delivered nutrition and hydration.
5. If the result of withholding or withdrawing nutrition and hydration is death by starvation and dehydration, as opposed to an undying disease or dysfunction, it is gravely immorally.
In summary, nutrition and hydration, like bathing and changing the patient's position to avoid bedsores, is ordinary care that is owed to the patient. This is true even if it is delivered artificially, as when a baby is bottle-fed or a sick person is tube-fed. Nutrition and hydration may only be discontinued when they cannot achieve their natural purposes, such as when the body can no longer process them, or, when during the death process they would only prolong the person's suffering. If such a case the patient dies of the underlying disease. On the other hand, if starvation and dehydration is the foreseeable cause of death, to withhold or withdrawn nutrition and hydration is gravely immoral.
Q. What can a person do to ensure that their wishes and their religious beliefs are respected by their family, medical personnel and the courts?
A. The best way is by means of an Advance Directive which states the patients wishes with respect to aggressive medical treatment. There are two basic kinds, a Living Will by itself or an Advance Directive with a Durable Power of Attorney (or Proxy) for Health Care Decisions. The merits of each are as follows:
The following sample forms are provided through the courtesy of the National Catholic Bioethics Center.
1The 5th Commandment (Dt. 5:17), 6th in Protestant usage (Ex 20:13), says "Thou shalt not kill." The implicit corollary is that one must save life, one's own and others by reasonable care (not driving too fast, not taking drugs, seeing a doctor if home care cannot effect a cure of sickness, etc.).
Answered by Colin B. Donovan, STL
© EWTN 2011