This is an index of all files in the EWTN "Church Councils" Document Library as of 10/18/2013 sorted by library and title



LIBRARY - FILENAME - TITLE
AUTHOR
DESCIPTION

1. Church Councils - ORANGE.HTM - A Local Council: History and Text
Orange

Contains the 25 canons and subsequent conclusion of the Council of Orange (529 A.D.), against the Pelagians and semi-Pelagians. FAITH GRACE FREE WILL SALVATION NATURE BAPTISM JUSTIFICATION

2. Church Councils - TOLEDO.HTM - A Local Council: History and Text
Toledo XI

This small local Council, attended by only 17 bishops, has little significance today except for the beautiful confession of faith which was recited at its opening. The official value of this document consists in the fact that in subsequent centuries it was kept in highest regard and considered a genuine expression of the Trinitarian faith; it is one of the important formulas of doctrine. In fact, hardly anywhere is the reflection of the early Church on the Trini

3. Church Councils - TRENTBUL.HTM - Bull of the Convocation of the Holy Ecumenical Council of Trent
Trent

Promulgated by Pope Paul III on May 22, 1542. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III BULL

4. Church Councils - V2LITUR.HTM - Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy
Vatican II

Sacrosanctum Concilium, 1963. The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy which called for liturgical renewal of the liturgy of the Mass and the other sacramental rites. LITURGICAL RENEWAL VATICAN TRIDENTINE MUSIC OFFICE LATIN ORDO

5. Church Councils - VIENNE.HTM - Council of Vienne
Vienne

Convened in 1311 by Clement V. The synod dealt with the crimes and errors imputed to the Knights Templars, the Fraticelli, the Beghards, and the Beguines, with projects of a new crusade, the reformation of the clergy, and the teaching of Oriental languages in the universities.

6. Church Councils - V2EDUC.HTM - Declaration On Christian Education
Vatican II

Gravissimum Educationis, 1965. RIGHT SEXUAL EDUCATION FORMATION PARENTS FAMILY CHURCH SCHOOLS DUTY DIVINE PROVIDENCE CHRIST TEACHER VATICAN COUNCIL II

7. Church Councils - V2RELFRE.HTM - Declaration On Religious Freedom
Vatican II

Dignitatis Humanae, 1965. PERSONS DUTY TRUTH LAW FAMILY RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES GOVERNMENT SOCIETY FAITH APOSTLES GOSPEL DISCIPLE VATICAN COUNCIL II

8. Church Councils - V2NON.HTM - Declaration On the Relation Of the Church to Non-Christian Religions
Vatican II

Nostra Aetate, 1965. MUSLIMS JESUS PATRIARCHS MARY HINDUISM BUDDHISM PAUL VATICAN COUNCIL II

9. Church Councils - TRENT6.HTM - Decree Concerning Justification & Decree Concerning Reform
Trent

Sixth session of the Council of Trent celebrated under Pope Paul III on January 13, 1547. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III JUSTIFICATION BAPTISM GRACE ADAM ALMS CHURCHES

10. Church Councils - TRENT5.HTM - Decree Concerning Original Sin & DECREE CONCERNING REFORM
Trent

Fifth session of the Council of Trent celebrated under Pope Paul III on June 17, 1546. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III ORIGINAL SIN ADAM GRACE LIBERAL ARTS ALMS

11. Church Councils - TRENT4.HTM - Decree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures
Trent

Fourth session of the Council of Trent celebrated under Pope Paul III on April 8, 1546. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III SCRIPTURES BIBLE GOSPEL

12. Church Councils - TRENT2.HTM - Decree Concerning the Manner of Living and Other Matters to Be Observed During the Council
Trent

Second session of the Council of Trent celebrated under Pope Paul III on January 7, 1546. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III

13. Church Councils - TRENT1.HTM - Decree Concerning the Opening of the Council
Trent

First session of the Council of Trent celebrated under Pope Paul III on December 13, 1545. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III

14. Church Councils - V2BISHOP.HTM - Decree Concerning the Pastoral Office of Bishops In the Church
Vatican II

Christus Dominus, 1965. APOSTLES EVANGELIZATION COLLEGIATE POWER APOSTOLIC SEE DIOCESE TEACHING DOCTRINE CATECHISTS HOLINESS APOSTOLATE BOUNDARIES CURIA COADJUTOR CLERGY RELIGIOUS VATICAN COUNCIL II

15. Church Councils - TRENT10.HTM - Decree Concerning the Prorogation of the Session
Trent

Tenth - Twelth Sesson of the Council of Trent celebrated at Bologna on the second day of June, 1547. TRENT COUNCIL PROROGATION

16. Church Councils - TRENT7.HTM - Decree Concerning the Sacraments & Decree Concerning Reform
Trent

Seventh session of the Council of Trent celebrated under Pope Paul III on March 3, 1547. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III SACRAMENTS BENEFICES HOSPITALS

17. Church Councils - TRENT3.HTM - Decree Concerning the Symbol of Faith
Trent

Third session of the Council of Trent celebrated under Pope Paul III on February 4, 1546. TRENT COUNCIL PAUL III FAITH APOSTLES CREED

18. Church Councils - V2ECUM.HTM - Decree on Ecumenism
Vatican II

Unitatis Redintegratio, 1964. BAPTISM SCRIPTURES DIALOGUE PERFECTION RENEWAL THEOLOGY LITURGY EASTERN CHURCHES MARY PRIESTHOOD FATHERS DOCTRINE UNITY BAPTISM LORD'S SUPPER VATICAN COUNCIL II 'Unitatis Redintegratio' 1964. BAPTISM SCRIPTURES DIALOGUE PERFECTION RENEWAL THEOLOGY LITURGY EASTERN CHURCHES MARY PRIESTHOOD FATHERS DOCTRINE UNITY BAPTISM LORD'S SUPPER VATICAN COUNCIL II

19. Church Councils - V2PRIEST.HTM - Decree On Priestly Training
Vatican II

Optatam Totius,1965. BISHOPS VOCATIONS SEMINARIES PIETY EUCHARIST VICAR OF CHRIST CELIBACY MATURITY DISCIPLINE FORMATION STUDIES BIBLE ST. THOMAS VATICAN COUNCIL II

20. Church Councils - V2RELIG.HTM - Decree On Renewal of Religous Life
Vatican II

Perfectae Caritatis, 1965. COUNSELS GOSPELS MASS CONTEMPLATION APOSTOLATE MONASTIC CHASTITY SECULAR INSTITUTES POVERTY OBEDIENCE SUPERIORS LOVE RELIGIOUS HABIT CLOISTER VOCATIONS VATICAN COUNCIL II

21. Church Councils - V2LAITY.HTM - Decree On the Apostolate of the Laity
Vatican II

Apostolicam Actuositatem, 1965 APOSTOLATE CHARITY MARY SALVATION TEMPORAL GOSPEL PARISH DIOCESE MARRIED VOCATION MISSION HIERARCHY FORMATION VATICAN COUNCIL II [

22. Church Councils - V2EAST.HTM - Decree On the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite
Vatican II

Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 1964. PATRIARCHS SACRAMENTS BAPTISM MARRIAGE SUNDAYS EASTER DIVINE OFFICE SEPARATED CHURCHES VATICAN COUNCIL II

23. Church Councils - V2COMMUN.HTM - Decree On the Means of Social Communication
Vatican II

Inter Mirifica, 1963. INFORMATION MEDIA EVIL OBLIGATIONS PRESS FILMS RADIO TELEVISION VATICAN COUNCIL II

24. Church Councils - V2MINIS.HTM - Decree On the Ministry and Life of Priests
Vatican II

Presbyterorum Ordinis,1965. APOSTLES EUCHARIST SACRED LITURGY EVANGELIZATION PASTOR COMMUNITY FORMATION VOCATIONS PERFECTION MASS DIVINE OFFICE CHARITY CELIBACY SACRED SCRIPTURES BISHOPS VATICAN COUNCIL II

25. Church Councils - V2MISS.HTM - Decree On the Mission Activity of the Church
Vatican II

Ad Gentes, 1965. GOSPEL DIVINE PROVIDENCE SALVATION APOSTLES MISSION BISHOPS WITNESS CONVERSION CATECHUMENS COMMUNITY LAITY VOCATIONS PRIESTS CATECHISTS RELIGIOUS FORMATION CONTEMPLATIVE VATICAN COUNCIL II

26. Church Councils - CHALCHRI.HTM - Definition on the Two Natures of Christ
Chalcedon

The Council teaches that Jesus Christ is a person, the Word of God, possessing distinct divine and human natures. JESUS CHRIST GOD MAN PERSON NATURE HYPOSTASIS LOGOS MARY

27. Church Councils - V2REVEL.HTM - Dogmatic Constitution On Divine Revelation
Vatican II

Dei Verbum, 1965. REDEMPTION ABRAHAM OBEDIENCE SALVATION GOSPEL TRADITION APOSTLES HOLY SPIRIT FATHERS SCRIPTURE OLD TESTAMENT NEW TESTAMENT VULGATE THEOLOGY BISHOPS VATICAN COUNCIL II

28. Church Councils - V2CHURCH.HTM - Dogmatic Constitution On the Church
Vatican II

Lumen Gentium, 1964. SHEEPFOLD TILLAGE BUILDING FAMILY TEMPLE SPOUSE HEAD CREED SACRAMENTS PEOPLE OF GOD CATECHUMENS APOSTLES BISHOPS ROMAN PONTIFF GOSPEL EUCHARIST PRIESTS DEACONS LAITY HOLINESS RELIGIOUS MARY VATICAN COUNCIL II

29. Church Councils - TRENT18.HTM - Eighteenth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the second under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the twenty-sixth day of February, 1562 Decree concerning the choice of books and the invitation of all to the Council under public protection

30. Church Councils - TRENT8.HTM - Eighth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

celebrated on the eleventh day of March, 1547 Decree concerning the translation of the Council

31. Church Councils - TRENT11.HTM - Eleventh Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the first celebrated under the Supreme Pontiff, Julius III, on the first day of May, 1551, Decree concerning the resumption of the Council.

32. Church Councils - TRENT15.HTM - Fifteenth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the fifth under the Supreme Pontiff, Julius III, celebrated on the twenty-fifth day of January, 1552 Decree for proroguing the session, safe-conduct given to the protestants.

33. Church Councils - V1.HTM - First Vatican Council
Vatican I

This council met December 8, 1869 and closed July 18, 1870. It decreed the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra.

34. Church Councils - TRENT14.HTM - Fourteenth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the fourth under the Supreme Pontiff, Julius III, celebrated on the twenty-fifth day of November, 1551. The Most Holy Sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction

35. Church Councils - CHALCEDO.HTM - History and Text
Chalcedon

Convened in 451 under Pope Leo the Great and the Emperor Marcian. It defined the two natures in Christ against Eutyches, who was excommunicated.

36. Church Councils - FLORENCE.HTM - History and Text
Florence (Basle-Ferrara-Florence)

Convened in 1431 by Eugene IV. Its object was the religious pacification of Bohemia. Quarrels with the pope having arisen, the council was transferred first to Ferrara, then to Florence. It dealt with the extirpation of heresy, the peace of Christendom, and the reform of the Church.

37. Church Councils - LATERAN1.HTM - History and Text
Lateran I

Convened in 1123 in Rome under Pope Callistus II. It abolished the right claimed by lay princes, of investiture with ring and crosier to ecclesiastical benefices and dealt with Church discipline and the recovery of the Holy Land from the infidels.

38. Church Councils - LATERAN2.HTM - History and Text
Lateran II

Convened in 1139 under Pope Innocent II. Its object was to put an end to the errors of Arnold of Brescia.

39. Church Councils - LATERAN3.HTM - History and Text
Lateran III

Convened in 1179 under Pope Alexander III. It condemned the Algigenses and Waldenses and issued numerous decrees for the reformation of morals.

40. Church Councils - LATERAN4.HTM - History and Text
Lateran IV

Convened in 1215 under Innocent III. It issued an enlarged creed against the Albigenses, condemned the Trinitarian errors of Abbot Joachim, and published 70 important reformatory decrees.

41. Church Councils - LATERAN5.HTM - History and Text
Lateran V

Convened in 1512 under Popes Julius II and Leo X. Its decrees are cheifly disciplinary. A new crusade against the Turks was also planned, but came to naught, owing to the religious upheaval in Germany caused by Luther.

42. Church Councils - LYONS1.HTM - History and Text
Lyons I

Convened in 1245 by Innocent IV. It excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II and directed a new crusade, under the command of St. Louis, against the Saracens and Mongols.

43. Church Councils - LYONS2.HTM - History and Text
Lyons II

Convened in 1274 by Pope Gregory X. It effected a temporary reunion of the Greek Church with Rome. The word filioque was added to the symbol of Constantinope and means were sought for recovering Palestine from the Turks. It also laid down the rules for papal elections.

44. Church Councils - NICAEA1.HTM - History and Text
Nicaea I

Convened in 325. Hosius, Bishop of Cordova, assisted as legate of Pope Sylvester. The Emperor Constantine was also present. To this council we owe the Creed of Nicaea, defining against Arius the true Divinity of the Son of God and the fixing of the date for keeping Easter.

45. Church Councils - NICAEA2.HTM - History and Text
Nicaea II

Convened in 787 by Emperor Constantine VI and his mother Irene, under Pope Adrian I, and was presided over by the legates of Pope Adrian; it regulated the veneration of holy images.

46. Church Councils - CONSTAN1.HTM - History and Text
Constantinople I

Convened in 381 under Pope Damasus and Emperor Theodosius I. It was directed against the followers of Macedonius, who impugned the Divinity of the Holy Spirit.

47. Church Councils - CONSTAN2.HTM - History and Text
Constantinople II

The eleven canons (anathemas) of the Second Council of Constantinople, which was called to resolve questions which had arisen from the Definition of the Council of Chalcedon, dealing with the unity of the two natures of Christ. JESUS CHRIST GOD MAN HYPOSTASIS PERSON NATURE SON SOUL FLESH TRINITY WORD MARY INCARNATION NESTORIUS EUTYCHES THEODORE CHALCEDON CONSTANTINOPE

48. Church Councils - CONSTAN3.HTM - History and Text
Constantinople III

Convened in 680 under Pope Agatho and the Emperor Constantine Pogonatus. It put an end to Monothelism by defining two wills in Christ, the Divine and the human, as two distinct princiiples of operation. It anathematized Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Macarius, and all their followers.

49. Church Councils - CONSTAN4.HTM - History and Text
Constantinople IV

Convened in 869 under Pope Adrian II. It condemned Photius who had unlawfully seized the patriarchal dignity in an irregular council against Pope Nicholas and Ignatius the legitimate Patriarch of Constantinople.

50. Church Councils - TRENT19.HTM - Nineteenth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the third under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the fourteenth day of May, 1562 Decree for the prorogation of the session

51. Church Councils - TRENT9.HTM - Ninth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

Celebrated at Bologna on the twenty-first day of April, 1547 Decree concerning the prorogation of the session

52. Church Councils - V2MODWOR.HTM - Pastoral Constitution On the Church In the Modern World
Vatican II

Gaudium et Spes, 1965. GOSPEL DIGNITY HOLY SCRIPTURE SIN CONSCIENCE FREEDOM DEATH ATHEISM INCARNATION COMMUNITY ABORTION SOUL BISHOPS MARRIAGE FAMILY BIRTH CONTROL CULTURE ECONOMIC LIFE SOCIAL LIFE PRIVATE PROPERTY POLITICAL COMMUNITY WAR WEAPONS VATICAN COUNCIL II

53. Church Councils - TRENTPET.HTM - Petition & Bull of Confirmation
Trent

To 'confirm each and all of the things which have been decreed and defined therein under Paul III and Julius III, of happy memory, as well as under Your Holiness.' And the Bull of Pius IV confirming the decrees of the Council.

54. Church Councils - TREATBR.HTM - Reunion Treaty Of Brest
Treaty of Brest

June 1, 1595 Articles Concerning Union With The Roman Church, The Treaty of Brest brought about reunion between Rome and some of the separated churches of Eastern Europe. This text gives the conditions of agreement and reunion.

55. Church Councils - TRENT17.HTM - Seventeenth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

which is the first under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the eighteenth day of January, 1562 Decree concerning the celebration of the Council

56. Church Councils - TRENT16.HTM - Sixteenth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the sixth and last under the Supreme Pontiff, Julius III, celebrated on the twenty-eighth day of April, 1552 Decree suspending the Council, Bull for the Celebration of the Council of Trent

57. Church Councils - TRENTORA.HTM - Summary Oration
Trent

Delivered in the ninth and last Session of the Council of Trent celebrated on the third and fourth day of December, 1563 under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, by the most Reverend Jerome Ragazonus, of Venice, Bishop of Nazianzus and Coadjutor of Famagusta wherein all that was defined in the Council of Trent pertaining to faith and morals is summarized.

58. Church Councils - TRENTBKS.HTM - Ten Rules Concerning Prohibited Books
Trent

Drawn Up by the Fathers Chosen by the Council of Trent and Approved by Pope Pius IV.

59. Church Councils - V2ALL.HTM - The 16 Documents of the Second Vatican Council
Vatican II

This Index page permits access to all 16 documents from the website, in both English and Latin. The ZIP file version contains the Index page and all the documents in English. If downloaded, unzipped and placed in a single directory, the Index will access the documents on your hard drive.

1. Sacrosanctum concilium, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, 1963.
2. Inter Mirifica, Decree On the Means of Social Communication, 1963.
3. Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution On the Church, 1964.
4. Orientalium Ecclesiarum, Decree On the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite,1964.
5. Unitatis Redintegratio, Decree on Ecumenism, 1964.
6. Christus Dominus, Decree Concerning the Pastoral Office of Bishops In the Church, 1965.
7. Perfectae Caritatis, Decree On Renewal of Religious Life, 1965.
8. Optatam Totius, Decree On Priestly Training, 1965.
9. Gravissimum Educationis, Declaration On Christian Education, 1965.
10. Nostra Aetate, Declaration On the Relation Of the Church to Non-Christian Religions, 1965.
11. Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution On Divine Revelation, 1965.
12. Apostolicam Actuositatem, Decree On the Apostolate of the Laity, 1965.
13. Dignitatis Humanae, Declaration On Religious Freedom, 1965.
14. Ad Gentes, Decree On the Mission Activity of the Church, 1965.
15. Presbyterorum Ordinis, Decree On the Ministry and Life of Priests, 1965.
16. Gaudium et Spes, Pastoral Constitution On the Church In the Modern World,1965. ECUMENICAL VATICAN II JOHN PAUL

60. Church Councils - V2ALL.ZIP - The 16 Documents of Vatican II
Second Vatican Council

This Index page permits access to all 16 documents from the website, in both English and Latin. The ZIP file version contains the Index page and all the documents in English. If downloaded, unzipped and placed in a single directory, the Index will access the documents on your hard drive.

1. Sacrosanctum concilium, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, 1963.
2. Inter Mirifica, Decree On the Means of Social Communication, 1963.
3. Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution On the Church, 1964.
4. Orientalium Ecclesiarum, Decree On the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite,1964.
5. Unitatis Redintegratio, Decree on Ecumenism, 1964.
6. Christus Dominus, Decree Concerning the Pastoral Office of Bishops In the Church, 1965.
7. Perfectae Caritatis, Decree On Renewal of Religious Life, 1965.
8. Optatam Totius, Decree On Priestly Training, 1965.
9. Gravissimum Educationis, Declaration On Christian Education, 1965.
10. Nostra Aetate, Declaration On the Relation Of the Church to Non-Christian Religions, 1965.
11. Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution On Divine Revelation, 1965.
12. Apostolicam Actuositatem, Decree On the Apostolate of the Laity, 1965.
13. Dignitatis Humanae, Declaration On Religious Freedom, 1965.
14. Ad Gentes, Decree On the Mission Activity of the Church, 1965.
15. Presbyterorum Ordinis, Decree On the Ministry and Life of Priests, 1965.
16. Gaudium et Spes, Pastoral Constitution On the Church In the Modern World,1965.

61. Church Councils - TRENT.ZIP - The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent
Trent

This file contains all 25 sessions of the Council, 1542 - 1564. A descriptive index is included with links to the various sessions. The whole file should be downloaded to a single directory.

62. Church Councils - CONSTANC.HTM - The Council of Constance
Constance

Convened in 1414. It was held during the great Schism of the West, with the object of ending the divisions in the Church. It only became legitimate when Gregory XI had formally convoked it. Owing to this circumstance it succeeded in putting an end to the schism by the election of Pope Martin V.

63. Church Councils - EPHESUS.HTM - The Council of Ephesus
Ephesus

Convened in 431, presided over by St. Cyril of Alexandria representing Pope Celestine I, defined the true personal unity of Christ, declared Mary the Mother of God against Nestorius and renewed the condemnation of Pelagius.

64. Church Councils - NICAEA2I.HTM - The Iconoclast Synod of Constantinople
Nicaea II

Contains selected texts from the Iconoclast Synod of Constantinople (Hiera), as well as the text from the Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea condemning Iconoclasm. ICONOCLAST IMAGE NICAEA CONSTANTINOPLE LEO III CONSTANTINE V

65. Church Councils - TRENT13.HTM - Thirteenth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the third under the Supreme Pontiff, Julius III, celebrated on the eleventh day of October, 1551. Decree concerning the most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist. MASS LITURGY

66. Church Councils - TRENT12.HTM - Twelfth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the second under the Supreme Pontiff, Julius III, celebrated on the first day of September, 1551 Decree concerning the prorogation of the session.

67. Church Councils - TRENT20.HTM - Twentieth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the fourth under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the fourth day of June, 1562 Decree for the prorogation of the session

68. Church Councils - TRENT25.HTM - Twenty-Fifth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the ninth and last under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, begun on the third and closed on the fourth day of December, 1563 Decree concerning Purgatory

69. Church Councils - TRENT21.HTM - Twenty-First Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the fifth under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the sixteenth day of July, 1562 The doctrine of Communion under both kinds and the Communion of little children

70. Church Councils - TRENT24.HTM - Twenty-Fourth Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the eighth under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the eleventh day of November, 1563 Doctrine of the Sacrament of Matrimony

71. Church Councils - TRENT22.HTM - Twenty-Second Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the sixth under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the seventeenth day of September, 1562 Doctrine concerning the Sacrifice of the Mass. EUCHARIST LITURGY

72. Church Councils - TRENT23.HTM - Twenty-Third Session of the Council of Trent
Trent

This was the seventh under the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IV, celebrated on the fifteenth day of July, 1563 The True and Catholic doctrine concerning the Sacrament of Order, defined and published by the Holy Council of Trent in the seventh session in condemnation of current errors

73. Church Councils - V1TIMELY.HTM - Vatican I's Teaching Is as Timely as Ever
Rino Fisichella

The Auxiliary Bishop of Rome, debunking the idea that Vatican I was all about authority, shows how it prepared for Vatican II, in its correlation of faith with reason, and in its clarification of the structure of the Church. PIUS IX RATIONALISM FIDEISM PAPACY INFALLIBILITY