This is an index of all files in the EWTN "Church History" Document Library as of 8/24/2018 sorted by library and title



LIBRARY - FILENAME - TITLE
AUTHOR
DESCIPTION

1. Church History - ANNU2001.HTM - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2001
LOR

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2001, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, gives a more or less complete picture of the comparative data necessary for a correct understanding of the Catholic Church's numerical strength throughout the world. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS RELIGIOUS SEMINARIANS CANDIDATES

2. Church History - annu2004.htm - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2004
LOR

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2004, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, supplies the data for an overview of the worldwide numerical strength of the Catholic Church as of 2004, with comparative figures from 1978 and 1988. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS PROFESSED RELIGIOUS CANDIDATES

3. Church History - annu2005.htm - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2005
L'Osservatore Romano

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2005, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, supplies the data for an overview of the worldwide numerical strength of the Catholic Church as of 2005, with comparative figures from 2000 and 2004. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS PROFESSED RELIGIOUS CANDIDATES

4. Church History - ANNU2000.HTM - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae: Published for 2000
LOR

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church, gives the most important data for assessing the changing characteristics of pastoral activity from 1978 to 2000. FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS PROFESSED RELIGIOUS PASTORAL WORKERS CANDIDATES SEMINARIANS MISSIONARIES CATECHISTS

5. Church History - MIGRNT16.HTM - 16th Plenary Meeting: Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants
LOR

Gathered in the Palazzo San Calisto in Vatican City for the 16th Plenary Meeting of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, held from 16-19 May 2004, the members and consultors of the Dicastery reflected on ecumenical, interreligious and intercultural dialogue in the world of human mobility. REFUGEES NOMADS TOURISM PILGRIMAGES APOSTLESHIP OF THE SEA ROAD CIVIL AVIATION EVANGELIZATION MISSIONARY ECCLESIAL COMMUNITIES ECUMENISM ECUMENICAL

6. Church History - JP20YRS.HTM - 20 years as Successor of Peter
L'Osservatore Romano

The Vatican newspaper provides a summary of the 20 years of the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. WOJTYLA

7. Church History - siststjoscluny.htm - 200th Anniversary: Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny
LOR

Here is an account of the founding of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, in post-revolutionary France (1807), where all religious orders had been suppressed. To the three vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, they added a fourth, to devote themselves to the instruction of youth. ANN MARIE JAVOUHEY RELIGIOUS

8. Church History - protomartrome.htm - 30 June: Commemorating the Protomartyrs of Rome
Fabrizio Bisconti

The sacrifice of the Protomartyrs of Rome is recalled with quotes from ancient pagan authorities. Blamed by Nero for the burning of Rome, Christians were subjected to many forms of torture, including being set on fire as torches to light Nero's garden. PETER PAUL TACITUS SUETONIUS

9. Church History - 33DAYJP1.HTM - 33 Days on the Chair of Peter
LOR

From October 1978, a summary of the short pontificate of Pope John Paul I, formerly Cardinal Albino Luciani, Patriarch of Venice. PAPACY

10. Church History - 40ECSUP6.HTM - 40th Anniversary of Ecclesiam Suam by Pope Paul VI
Prof. Andrea Riccardi

According to Professor Riccardi, Pope Paul VI's first encyclical, published while Vatican II was in session, defined his pontificate. It called for the Church to enter into dialogue with other religions, not to dilute the Gospel, but to "inject the Christian message into the stream of modern thought." His aspiration, drawn from Pius XI, has been carried forward by John Paul II. ECUMENISM ECUMENICAL INTERRELIGIOUS

11. Church History - zcardcorr.htm - A Cardinal's Correspondence
ZENIT

Brother Frank McGrath is the editor of the Oxford University Press series "The Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman" (1801-1890), which has published its 32nd volume. In this interview, Brother McGrath talks about how it took the persistence of an American Jesuit to initiate the project, and how it's taken over 50 years for the project to come to fruition. ANGLICANISM BIRMINGHAM ORATORY

12. Church History - HUGHHIST.TXT - A History of the Church: To the Eve of the Reformation
Philip Hughes

Volumes 1-3

13. Church History - HUGHHIST.ZIP - A History of the Church: To the Eve of the Reformation
Philip Hughes

Volumes 1-3

14. Church History - retroWYD05.htm - A Look Back at World Youth Day 2005
Fr. Sebastian Vazhakala, M.C.

A retrospective on World Youth Day 2005, in Cologne, Germany, is given by Fr. Vazhakala, Co-founder and Superior General of the Missionaries of Charity Contemplative Brothers and Priests, and Founder and Spiritual Director of the Lay Missionaries of Charity. CONFESSION EUCHARIST MOTHER TERESA BROTHER ROGER TAIZÉ

15. Church History - WYDTORON.HTM - A Look Back at World Youth Day, 2002
Fr Thomas Rosica, C.S.B.

Father Rosica, former National Director and CEO of World Youth Day 2002, recalls the dramatic encounter of youth with the Holy Father in Toronto, not with nostalgia but with praise and thanksgiving for the new wind that began to blow through the Church in Canada on that occasion. MEDIA MAGNIFICAT KAIROS

16. Church History - UKRAINE.HTM - A Monument to Heroism in Ukraine
Markijam Trofimiak, Bishop of Lutsk

The Bishop of Lutsk recalls the sufferings of the Catholic Church in Ukraine, under Soviet Communism, and how, with the lack of priests, Catholics fed their spiritual hunger with the Rosary and kept their faith alive. PRAYER PERSECUTION MARTYRS LITURGY

17. Church History - paulintegr.htm - A Pauline Integration of Christianity into Cultural and Juridical Structures
Juan Manuel De Prada

The universalism of St. Paul, who began Christianity's incorporation of pagan wisdom into its cultural patrimony, is presented as an example to modern Christians. Rather than shutting ourselves off from a neo-pagan world, we should enter into it and cleanse it from within. DIOGNETUS PHILOSOPHERS AREOPAGUS

18. Church History - zorthpapa.htm - A Russian Orthodox View of Papacy, and More
ZENIT

Dialogue between Catholics and Orthodox can be fruitful, though many hurdles still exist on the road to Eucharistic communion, says a leading prelate. Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev of Vienna and Austria, representative of the Russian Orthodox Church to the European Institutions, commented in this interview on papal primacy, ecumenism, totalitarian liberalism and other topics. ISLAM TERRORISM LIBERAL HUMANISM PROTESTANT RELATIVISM

19. Church History - bertoneurope.htm - Address to a Special Conference in Poland on The Religious Factor and the Future of Europe
Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone

On 15 September 2007, on the occasion of the Seventh International Conference taking place in Krakow, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State, inaugurated the third study session of the Conference on "The Religious Factor and the Future of Europe". Cardinal Bertone spoke on the role of Christianity can play in establishing an ethos in Europe protective of the criteria of justice from despotic powers. SECULARISM HUMAN DIGNITY ETHICAL RELATIVISM MATERIALISM ATHEISM POLITICS CULTURE DEMOCRACY MULTICULTURALISM

20. Church History - GRAFFITI.HTM - Ancient Graffiti in Roman Catacombs
Danilo Mazzoleni

The writer surveys ancient inscriptions left by pilgrims, to express their devotion or an invocation, while noting the difficulties in dating and deciphering these ancient records. ARCHAEOLOGY SAINTS

21. Church History - zanglicrossrds.htm - Anglicanism at the Crossroads
ZENIT

In this ZENIT article, the increasing disunity in the Anglican Communion raises doubts of its survival. Recent disputes concern the eligibility of women for the episcopate, and the ordination of an openly gay bishop in the U.S. Also at risk are ecumenical relations with the Catholic Church. HOMOSEXUALITY EPISCOPAL ENGLAND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

22. Church History - ANNUPONT.HTM - Annuario Pontificio 2002
LOR

Statistics drawn by L'Osservatore Romano from the 2002 Annuario show a significant turnaround after two decades of decline in vocations to the priesthood. BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS RELIGIOUS MISSIONARIES CATECHISTS

23. Church History - annupont07.htm - Annuario Pontificio 2007
LOR

Statistics drawn by L'Osservatore Romano from the 2007 Annuario show an increase in the Catholic world population, but no real increase proportional to the growth of world population in general. PRIESTS SEMINARIANS AMERICA AFRICA ASIA EUROPE OCEANIA

24. Church History - ANNU2002.HTM - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2002
LOR

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2002, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, supplies the data for an overview of the worldwide numerical strength of the Catholic Church as of 2002, with comparative figures from 1978 and 1990. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS RELIGIOUS SEMINARIANS CANDIDATES

25. Church History - annu2003 - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2003
LOR

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Vatican Publishing House, gives the most important data for assessing the the structural trends of the Church over the past 25 years. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS RELIGIOUS SEMINARIANS VOCATIONS

26. Church History - augustexts.htm - Augustinian Texts Discovered in Germany
Dorothea Weber and Clemens Weidmann

In recent years, many unpublished sermons and letters of St. Augustine have been discovered, most recently, in Erfurt, a series of sermons following the liturgical year. This collection seems to have been transferred from Northern Africa to Southern Italy, then to England, where the sermons were transcribed, and finally to Germany. MARTYRS RESURRECTION FATHERS

27. Church History - zlambspall.htm - Benedict XVI Blesses Lambs for Palliums
ZENIT

Pope Benedict XVI's blessing of two lambs, 21 January 2007, from whose wool the palliums worn by metropolitan archbishops will be woven, provides the occasion for a succinct explanation from ZENIT, of the meaning of the pallium. ST AGNES PAPACY

28. Church History - zgestlove.htm - Benedict XVI's Gesture of Love
ZENIT

The exchange of visits between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches is a "gesture of love," according to Father Giovanni Cereti, in an interview with ZENIT on the importance of Benedict XVI's four-day apostolic trip to Turkey, 28 November to 1 December 2006, which included a visit to the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Father Cereti is a Catholic theologian and lecturer of ecumenical theology at Venice's Institute of Ecumenical Studies, at Rome's Pontifical Theological Faculty Marianum and the Mater Ecclesiae Higher Institute of Religious Studies, connected to the Pontifical Angelicum University in Rome. ECUMENISM FILOQUE CONSTANTINOPLE ECCLESIOLOGY KOINONIA SCHISM FLORENCE

29. Church History - zben16vat2 - Benedict XVI, Vatican II and Modernity
ZENIT

According to theologian Tracey Rowland, 40 years of post-conciliar history and reflection on the 1965 pastoral constitution, Gaudium et Spes, have led many to conclude that the document had an inadequate understanding of culture, particularly that of liberal modernity. In a 2-part interview, she shared with ZENIT why a reinterpretation of the document is necessary to reorient the Church's encounter with liberal modern culture, and she discussed two schools of Thomism on the subject. SECULAR HUMANISM DE LUBAC JOHN PAUL II RELATIVISM

30. Church History - zdziwjp2.htm - Cardinal Dziwisz on John Paul II's 1st Poland Trip
ZENIT

The dismantling of the Berlin Wall didn't begin in Berlin. Rather it happened in 1979 in Poland, according to Pope John Paul II's longtime personal secretary, Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, in an interview with Marcin Przeciszewski and Tomasz Królak of the Polish Catholic agency Kai. ZENIT here presents that interview. MEXICO LIBERATION THEOLOGY COMMUNISM MARXISM OSTPOLITIK SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT EXORCISM DEVIL

31. Church History - zpopeaustr.htm - Cardinal Schönborn on the Pope in Austria
ZENIT

Cardinal Christoph Schönborn says Benedict XVI is the last of the great Second Vatican Council theologians, and that the Pope's words are always both important and fascinating. In view of Benedict XVI's visit to Austria 7-9 September 2007, the archbishop of Vienna and president of the Austrian bishops' conference spoke to ZENIT about the Pope, the man and the successor of Peter. PAPACY VATICAN II SECULAR SOCIETY FAMILY CHILDREN MARIAZELL

32. Church History - SUDANPE.HTM - Cardinal Wako of Khartoum, Sudan: Appeal for Peace
Francesco M. Valiante

An article describing the difficulties faced by the Church in Sudan, and the encouragement provided by Pope John Paul II, with his canonization of Josephine Bakhita and Daniel Comboni, and the gift of the country's first indigenous Cardinal, Archbishop Gabriel Zubeir Wako of Khartoum. EVANGELIZATION MISSIONARY VOCATIONS REFUGEES WAR

33. Church History - fantP10canlw.htm - Carlo Fantappiè's Study on Pius X and the Code of Canon Law
Gianpaolo Romanato

A monumental work on the 1917 Code of Canon Law, by Carlo Fantappiè, professor of canon law at the University of Urbino, is reviewed. According to Fantappiè, Pope Pius X, recognizing the major changes in relationship between Church and State following the French Revolution and the Napoleonic empire, called for a complete reformulation of Church law. LIBERAL GOVERNMENT NATION-STATES SARTO GASPARRI

34. Church History - cathpent.htm - Catholic and Pentecostal Relations
Fr. Juan Usma Gómez

Fr. Gómez, of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, summarizes the beginnings of Pentecostalism and its spread to other denominations. He sketches relations between Protestant Pentacostalism and the Charismatic movement in the Catholic Church, with particular focus on the divergent views of the "Baptism in the Holy Spirit." PROSELYTISM MISSIOLOGY CATHOLIC CHARISMATIC RENEWAL

35. Church History - ECUMCONF.HTM - Catholic Conference for Ecumenical Questions
Prof. Jan Jacobs

Professor Jacobs recounts the introduction of the Catholic Church into the ecumenical movement in the 1950s, with the formation of the Catholic Conference for Ecumenical Questions. The leadership of Yves Congar and Johannes Willebrands is highlighted. UNITY PROTESTANTS WCC WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES VATICAN II UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

36. Church History - CATHRUSS.HTM - Catholic Dioceses in Russia
LOR

In the face of charges that the establishment of Catholic dioceses in Russia is without precedent, L'Osservatore Romano sketches a brief history of the Catholic presence there under both the Czars and the Soviets. ORTHODOX CATHERINE NICHOLAS PROSELYTISM EVANGELISM

37. Church History - zcathorigeu.htm - Catholic Origins of the European Union
ZENIT

The original idea of the European Union has deep roots in Catholic social teaching, according to the author of a book on Robert Schumann, one of the founders of the institution. In this interview with ZENIT, Catholic historian Alan Fimister discusses the Catholic vision of the European Union's founders and what it means for a Catholic understanding of the European Union today. LEO XIII ROYALISM REPUBLICANISM THOMAS AQUINAS THOMISM MARITAIN DEMOCRACY

38. Church History - EGPTCATH.HTM - Catholics in Egypt Reflect Church's Rich and Varied Traditions
LOR

This article breaks down the Catholic presence in Egypt to seven groups with various heritages and traditions. RITE COPTIC MELKITE MARONITE SYRIA ARMENIA CHALDE

39. Church History - HCHALCED.TXT - Chalcedon, 451
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Conucil of Chalcedon, which defined against the Monophysites the traditional belief of the Church on the two natures of Christ. Chapter 4 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES CHALCEDON ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA JOHN OF ANTIOCH LEO I EUTYCHES DIOSCOROS FLAVIAN MONOPHYSITES MONOPHYSITISM EPHESUS LATROCINIUM LEO THE GREAT TOME OF LEO EUSEBIUS OF DORYLAEUM

40. Church History - HCHALCED.ZIP - Chalcedon, 451
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Conucil of Chalcedon, which defined against the Monophysites the traditional belief of the Church on the two natures of Christ. Chapter 4 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES CHALCEDON ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA JOHN OF ANTIOCH LEO I EUTYCHES DIOSCOROS FLAVIAN MONOPHYSITES MONOPHYSITISM EPHESUS LATROCINIUM LEO THE GREAT TOME OF LEO EUSEBIUS OF DORYLAEUM

41. Church History - ZLEGREG.HTM - Challenges for Legionaries and Regnum Christi
ZENIT

In a two-part interview with ZENIT, Father Álvaro Corcuera, who succeeded as general director of the Legionaries of Christ, to Father Marcial Maciel, founder of the congregation, says that their mission will remain the same: to bring people to a personal encounter with Christ. MISSIONARY EVANGELIZATION MEXICO

42. Church History - zchrstrelig.htm - Christ and Religions, According to Cardinal Poupard
ZENIT

Cardinal Paul Poupard, who has been president of the Pontifical Council for Culture since 1982, has been named president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue by Pope Benedict XVI. This additional appointment, according to the note of the Vatican press office, is in response to the desire "to foster more intense dialogue between the men of culture and distinguished members of different religions." Cardinal Poupard shared with perspective on the change with ZENIT. CURIA

43. Church History - zchurchgrow.htm - Church Growing Everywhere Except Europe
ZENIT

According to data taken from the latest edition [in 2005] of the Church's statistical yearbook, as of year-end 2003, baptized Catholics increased by 0.3%, and now comprise 17.23% of the world's population. The data were reported by Fides, an agency of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, on the occasion of World Mission Sunday 2005. BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS SEMINARIANS WOMEN RELIGIOUS CATECHISTS

44. Church History - CHIRELND.HTM - Church in Ireland: Divining the Future
ZENIT

Despite the decline of Ireland's ancient Catholic culture over the past few decades, Father Vincent Twomey, a lecturer in moral theology at Maynooth College and editor-in-chief of the Irish Theological Quarterly, shared with ZENIT his conviction that the faith and loyalty of many laity and clerics have kept the Church strong, with the potential of still bearing much fruit. MISSIONARIES CHARITABLE SOCIAL WORK VATICAN II CLERGY LITURGY DEVOTIONS EPISCOPAL CONFERENCES BISHOPS

45. Church History - chrchjewshintel.htm - Church's Advance of Jewish Intellectuals During the Rise of Racism
Paolo Vian

Dr. Vian describes the efforts made by Cardinal Giovanni Mercati, Librarian of the Holy Roman Church from 1936 to 1957, to find sanctuary, primarily in North America, for Jewish intellectuals, who had lost their positions in the mid to late '30s with the rise of racist political theory in Europe. RACISM ANTI-SEMITISM PIUS XI FASCISM HITLERISM NAZISM

46. Church History - pontp12.htm - Clarifying the Nature and Significance of Eugenio Pacelli's Pontificate
Giovanni Maria Vian

The Editor-in-Chief of L'Osservatore Romano recapitulates the emergence of the "Black Legend" about Pius XII in the years following World War II, with an outline of the new historiographical consensus on the importance of his pontificate. JEWS SHOAH NAZISM COMMUNISM JOHN XXIII PAUL VI HOCHHUTH

47. Church History - compapchina.htm - Commentary on the Papal Letter to the Church in the People's Republic of China
Cardinal Paul Kuo-hsi, S.J.

In his commentary on the Letter of Pope Benedict XVI to the Church in China (30 June 2007), Cardinal Kuo-hsi, Bishop emeritus of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, observes the pastoral concern of the Holy Father for the unity of the Church, and his encouragement of the faithful to forgive those who have lapsed under persecution. UNIVERSAL BISHOP PAPACY COMMUNION STATE CHINESE PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION

48. Church History - CATHORTH.HTM - Communique of Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Roman Catholic and the Orthodox Church
Joint International Commission

The eighth plenary session, meeting in Emmitsburg, Maryland, 9-19 July 2000, discussed the theme, the "Ecclesiological and Canonical Implications of Uniatism," i.e., of the reunion of certain eastern Churches, or parts of Churches, with Rome, independently of the larger Orthodoxy bodies with which they were once in communion. The session concluded without agreement on the issue. ECUMEN PATRIARCH

49. Church History - HCONSTA1.TXT - Constantinople I, 381
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the First General Council of Constantinople, which condemned Arianism, Apollinarism, and other forms of christological heresy. Chapter 2 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' This file is also contained in HCONSTA2.ZIP HUGHES CONSTANTINOPLE I ARIANISM APPOLINARISM

50. Church History - HCONSTA2.TXT - Constantinople II, 553
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the Second General Council of Constantinople, which condemned the notorious 'Three Chapters' in a continuation of the Monophysite controversy. The condemnations were approved under pressure by a captive Pope Vigilius. Chapter 5 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' The ZIP also contains a summary of the First Council of Constantinople. HUGHES CONSTANTINOPLE ACACIUS HENOTICON FELIX III THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA THEODORET OF CYRRHUS IBAS OF EDESSA JUSTINIAN THEODORA THR

51. Church History - HCONSTA2.ZIP - Constantinople II, 553
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the Second General Council of Constantinople, which condemned the notorious 'Three Chapters' in a continuation of the Monophysite controversy. The condemnations were approved under pressure by a captive Pope Vigilius. Chapter 5 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' The ZIP also contains a summary of the First Council of Constantinople. HUGHES CONSTANTINOPLE ACACIUS HENOTICON FELIX III THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA THEODORET OF CYRRHUS IBAS OF EDESSA JUSTINIAN THEODORA THR

52. Church History - CE_CREF.HTM - Counter-Reformation
Catholic Encyclopedia

An article on the Counter-Reformation from the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913). REFORMATION TRENT PIUS LOYOLA JESUITS LUTHER PROTESTANTS PROTESTANTISM

53. Church History - CE_CRUSA.HTM - Crusades
Catholic Encyclopedia

Ab article on the Crusades from the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913). CRUSADE CRUSADERS LOUIS KNIGHTS MALTA ISLAM MOSLEMS MOHAMMEDANS OTTOMAN JERUSALEM ACRE CONSTANTINOPLE

54. Church History - ZCRUSADE.HTM - Crusades: Truth and Black Legend
ZENIT

According to Italian Catholic writer Vittorio Messori, the Enlightenment cast a "black legend" shadow on the Crusades, and used it as a weapon in its psychological war against the Roman Catholic Church. In an article in "Corriere della Sera," Italy's most important newspaper, Messori wrote, "In order to complete the work of the Reformation, it was 18th century Europe that began the chain of 'Roman infamies' that have become dogma." ISLAM MOSLEM JERUSALEM SPAIN MOORS AFRICA

55. Church History - ZPONTJP2.HTM - Cuba's Cardinal Analyzes Impact of John Paul II's Pontificate
ZENIT

Cardinal Jaime Ortega Alamino, archbishop of Havana, assessed the 25 years of John Paul II's pontificate by describing it as "a colossal effort to take history out of its present inertia." In this interview with Spanish Radio-Television, the Cuban cardinal also analyzed the repercussions of John Paul II's visit to Cuba. PAPACY SOCIAL TEACHING POLITICS

56. Church History - ANCESTCH.HTM - Dialogue With Ancient Churches of the East
Fr Johan Bonny

Fr Bonny, of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, summarizes historical causes of division of Eastern Churches from the Catholic Church, and gives an update on current efforts to restore unity. ECUMEN ARMENIA MALANKARA SYRO-MALABAR ASSYRIA

57. Church History - FELIVAT2.HTM - Dissent and Collaboration After Vatican Council II
LOR

An article from L'Osservatore Romano (27 March 1969), summarizing a series of talks, given by Cardinal Pericles Felici on Vatican Radio, in which he outlined the Church's situation following Vatican II. TRADITION TRENT DISSENT LAITY BISHOPS

58. Church History - ZIMMACON.HTM - Dogma of Immaculate Conception Opened a New Era
ZENIT

Proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception was a providential event that reinvigorated "an exhausted Church." It reminded the faithful of "the existence of original sin and Christ's redemption," according to Italian journalist Vincenzo Sansonetti, in this interview with ZENIT. INEFFABILIS DEUS GUADALUPE

59. Church History - EVEISLAM.HTM - Eastern Christianity on the Eve of Islam
Dr. George Khoury

A survey of eastern Christian churches (separated from Rome) in the middle east at the birth of Islam. Taken from the magazine "Al-Bushra" created by Rev. Labib Kobti from the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. ARIUS APOLLINARIS NESTORIAN CHALCEDON MONOPHYSIT JACOBITE ARMENIA COPTIC ETHIOPIC MARONITE MELKITE

60. Church History - ISTNRELC.HTM - Ecumenical Celebration: Istanbul, Turkey
Cardinal Walter Kasper

On the occasion of the Feast of St Andrew, 30 November 2004, the Holy Father sent a Delegation to Istanbul, Turkey, led by Cardinal Walter Kasper, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. During an Ecumenical Celebration held in the Cathedral of Saint George, the Cardinal delivered the following discourse, with particular reference to the relics of St. John Chrysostom and St. Gregory Nazianzen, which the Holy Father had just returned to Constantinople. ECUMENISM DIALOGUE ORTHODOXY COMMUNION KOINONIA

61. Church History - eculegjp2 - Ecumenical Legacy of Pope John Paul II
Bishop Brian Farrell, L.C.

In his pontificate, John Paul II made Christian unity a "demanding priority." Bishop Farrell, Secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, relates what the Holy Father did to promote a "calm, clear, truthful vision" of what divides Christians, in the conviction that this would help to reunite them. ECUMENICAL DIALOGUE MOTHER OF GOD OF KAZAN FUNERAL

62. Church History - EGPTMNK.HTM - Egypt: Cradle of Christian Monasticism
Vittorino Grossi

A summary of the rise and role of monasticism in the early Egyptian Church. COPT MANICHAEAN PACHOM ANTHONY SHENOUTE MONOPHYSITE

63. Church History - HEPHESUS.TXT - Ephesus, 431
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Council of Ephesus, which condemned the heresy of Nestorius, who separated Christ's humanity and his divinity by claiming that Mary should not be called Mother of God but only Mother of Christ. Chapter 3 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES EPHESUS NESTORIUS NESTORIANISM ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA CELESTINE I JOHN OF ANTIOCH THEOTOKOS

64. Church History - HEPHESUS.ZIP - Ephesus, 431
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Council of Ephesus, which condemned the heresy of Nestorius, who separated Christ's humanity and his divinity by claiming that Mary should not be called Mother of God but only Mother of Christ. Chapter 3 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES EPHESUS NESTORIUS NESTORIANISM ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA CELESTINE I JOHN OF ANTIOCH THEOTOKOS

65. Church History - nostraetat40.htm - For the 40th Anniversary of Nostra Aetate
Archbishop Michael L. Fitzgerald, M.Afr.

Archbishop Fitzgerald, President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, examines the continuing relevance of The Declaration on the Relations of the Church to Non-Christian Religions, forty years after it was approved by the Vatican II Fathers, 28 October 1965. UNITY DIALOGUE

66. Church History - Epiphmagi.htm - For the Solemnity of the Epiphany of the Lord
Hans-Joachim Kracht

The "Adoration of the Wisemen," celebrated on the Solemnity of Epiphany, is examined for its meaning in theology, art, and popular devotion. The history of the Magi's relics is traced from Jerusalem to Cologne. GENTILES THREE KINGS STAR OF BETHLEHEM GASPAR MELCHIOR BALTHAZAR

67. Church History - zforgivehate.htm - Forgiving Hate
ZENIT

Father Jean Bernard (1907-1994), a native of Luxembourg, was the general secretary of the international Catholic Cinema Office in Brussels when the Nazis invaded Luxembourg, Belgium and Holland in 1940. Father Bernard was arrested and taken to Dachau, where he remained until he was freed, in August 1942. His experience at the camp is the subject of his memoir "Priestblock 25487." In this interview with ZENIT, William Doino explains why this memoir offers important insight into the relationship of the Church with Nazi Germany. HITLER HOLOCAUST CLERGYMEN PIUS XII

68. Church History - LATPACTS.HTM - Forty Years After the Lateran Pacts
LOR

In 1969, on the 40th anniversary of the Lateran Pacts, L'Osservatore Romano recalled how the signing of the Pacts ended decades of difficulties for the Papacy and the Church in Italy, and began a new era in the history of the Church and of the Italian People. VATICAN PIUS XI PIUS XII

69. Church History - PLNDJP2.HTM - From Poland to Rome
LOR

An article from October 1978, in L'Osservatore Romano, giving the biography of Cardinal Karol Wotyla, after his election as Supreme Pontiff in succession to Pope John I. PAPACY

70. Church History - FUNERJP1.HTM - Funeral Mass for Pope John Paul I
Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri

The funeral Mass for Pope John Paul I was celebrated 4 October 1978. In his homily, Cardinal Confalonieri described the departed Pontiff as "a meteor which unexpectedly lights up the heavens and then disappears, leaving us amazed and astonished." PAPACY

71. Church History - zChristiansChina.htm - Future of Christians in China
ZENIT

The Church in China exists among lights and shadows, said an Italian reporter who recently spent three weeks in the country meeting with priests, nuns and lay people. Following his trip, Gerolamo Fazzini, co-editor of Mondo e Missione, of the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions, wrote six reports, on as many Chinese cities, for the Italian Catholic episcopate's newspaper Avvenire. RELIGIOUS RIGHTS FREEDOM CHINESE CATHOLICS' PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION UNDERGROUND CHURCH BILLINGS METHOD NFP NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING

72. Church History - ZJP2WEIG.HTM - George Weigel on John Paul II’s Impact
ZENIT

In this ZENIT interview, George Weigel, a senior fellow of the Ethics and Public Policy Center in Washington, D.C., and papal biographer, explains became "a kind of one-man moral reference point for the entire world." He believed that Christ is the answer to all the world's problems. EUROPE COMMUNISM THEOLOGY OF THE BODY MARRIAGE SEXUALITY DIVINE MERCY MARY ECCLESIOLOGY ORTHODOXY

73. Church History - zproofp12.htm - Group Gives New Proof of Pius XII's Help for Jews
ZENIT

Recently uncovered documents show gestures of friendship and protection that Pius XII showed to Jews before, during and after World War II. The discoveries were made by the German historian and advisor, Michael Hesemann, who found a number of documents in the Vatican Secret Archives that certified Pope Pacelli's numerous interventions in favor of Jews. NAZIS HITLER PALESTINE

74. Church History - habpapexhib.htm - Habemus Papam Exhibition
Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone

On 7 December 2006, the Secretary of State, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, presided at the inauguration of the Exhibition: "'Habemus Papam': Pontifical elections from St. Peter to Benedict XVI", which consists of a large collection of artworks that illustrate this theme and focus on the Papal Conclave. The Cardinal underlined God's guidance of the Conclave, to assure continuance of the papal succession. POPES

75. Church History - VILLAS.HTM - Historic Villas Overlook Lake Albano
Dr Hans-Joachim Kracht

Dr. Kracht, editor of the German edition of L'Osservatore Romano, provides history and description of Castel Gandolfo, the Pope's summer residence, which includes several villas, a dairy farm, and an observatory. VATICAN

76. Church History - pryrunity.htm - Historical Profile: Founder of the Octave of Prayer for Christian Unity
James F. Puglisi, S.A.

Father Puglisi, Minister General, Franciscan Friars of the Atonement, tells the story of the founder of the Society, Episcopal clergyman, Father Paul Wattson. Father Wattson, together with fellow Episcopalian Lurana White, founded the Society, brought it home to Rome, and successfully promoted the Octave of Prayer for Christian Unity. ANGLICAN COMMUNION ORDERS ST FRANCIS PAPACY CHAIR OF PETER APOSTOLICAE CURAE

77. Church History - KAZAKHST.HTM - History of Catholic Church in Kazakhstan
LOR

L'Osservatore Romano sketches the long history of the Catholic Church in Kazakhstan, from the 4th century, when a bishop's see already existed there, to the present. NESTORIAN FRANCISCAN CHINA ISLAM

78. Church History - histunsustp12.htm - Hitler's Pope? A Judgment Historically Unsustainable
Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B.

Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State, on 6 November 2008, opened in Rome, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, the Congress "the Inheritance of the Magisterium of Pius XII", organized on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the death of Eugenio Pacelli. In his speech, the Cardinal recalled the heroism of Pius XII in the face of great difficulties. PACELLI NAZIS SHOAH SECOND WORLD WAR GERMANY RACISM JEWS

79. Church History - zholyseejews.htm - Holy See and the Jewish Question
ZENIT

The publication of a new book has renewed the debate about Pope Pius XII's process of beatification. La Santa Sede e la questione ebraica (1933-1945) (The Holy See and the Jewish Question (1933-1945)) is written by Alessandro Duce, professor of history of international relations at the University of Parma, and published by Studium. To have a broader idea of the question, ZENIT interviewed Duce. NAZIS ANTISEMITISM HOLOCAUST

80. Church History - HLYSEWW2.HTM - Holy See's Impartiality and Dedication in the World War
Burkhart Schneider S.J.

In 1969, the Vatican published the fifth of a series of volumes containing documents (July 1941-October 1942) showing the care with which the Holy See tried not to encourage, but to contain and shorten World War II. NAZISM BOLSHEVISM COMMUNISM

81. Church History - frjosewtn25.htm - Homily for EWTN's 25th Anniversary Mass
Father Joseph Mary Wolfe, MFVA

On the occasion of EWTN's 25th anniversary, 15 August 2006, Fr. Joseph preached the homily at the televised morning Mass. He observed how appropriate for Mother Angelica, foundress of the network, to repeat the words of the Magnificat from the Gospel reading of the day. It was Mother's fiat, in imitation of the Blessed Mother's, that enabled God to intervene in the founding of EWTN. TELEVISION MEDIA EVANGELIZATION EUROPE

82. Church History - 33pontjp1.htm - Honoring the 33-Day Pontificate of John Paul I
Francesco Taffarel

In quotations from Pope John Paul I, the article gives his perspective on the Second Vatican Council, the desire for holiness, the Church, the family, the laity, women, the Mass, and the aftermath of the Council. ALBINO LUCIANI VATICAN II BISHOPS YOUTH ST TERESA THÉRÈSE FATHER JOHN NEPOMUCENE NEUMANN OBEDIENCE

83. Church History - knessetjp2 - Honouring John Paul II at the Knesset
Archbishop Pietro Sambi

On 12 July 2005, in the prestigious Shagall Hall of the Knesset, Archbishop Pietro Sambi, Apostolic Nuncio in Israel, gave this discourse on the occasion of the commemoration of Pope John Paul II's Visit to the Knesset, and the release of a stamp by the Ministry of Communications, marked with an image of John Paul II. SHOAH JEWS ANTI-SEMITISM FUNDAMENTAL AGREEMENT INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE FUNDAMENTALISM TERRORISM

84. Church History - humvit40.htm - Humanae Vitae Marks 40
Giovanni Maria Vian

This article reviews the wide-spread opposition to Paul VI's Encyclical, Humanae Vitae, published in 1968. Despite the majority decision of the Papal Commission in favor of contraception, and the strong cultural trend supporting it, the Pope opposed it, consistent with the teachings of preceding popes who had addressed the issue. MARRIAGE SEXUALITY

85. Church History - ORPACELI.HTM - In the Light of Fatima Towards the Third Millennium: Pius XII, Father, Teacher and Friend of our Time
Emilia Paola Pacelli

Emilia Pacelli explores the providential connections between Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Pacelli) and the apparitions at Fatima.

86. Church History - abpsyrmal - Installation: First Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Church
LOR

The elevation of Mar Baselios to Major Archiepiscopal dignity, 14 May 2005, for the Syro-Malankara Church in India, is described with a short history of this Church since reunion with Rome was initiated by members of the Order of the Imitation of Christ in 1930. EPARCHIES ORIENTAL CHURCHES

87. Church History - intcardbert.htm - Interview with Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone
LOR

Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State, visited Armenia and Azerbaijan from 4 to 9 March 2008. The following is a translation from Italian of the exclusive interview which the Cardinal on his return granted to L'Osservatore Romano, Vatican Radio and the Vatican Television Centre. ECUMENISM INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE ISLAM MUSLIMS MARTYRDOM

88. Church History - ELECPOPE.HTM - Jean Cardinal Villot
Homily at the Mass for the Election of the Pope

On 14 October 1978, in his homily at the Mass for election of a Pope, before the election of Cardinal Karol Wotyla, Cardinal Villot took for his text some words of Christ from His discourse at the Last Supper. PAPACY

89. Church History - ZJP2DIPL.HTM - John Paul II's Legacy in Diplomacy
ZENIT

John Paul's diplomatic legacy will remind the world that every person bears the image of our Creator and loving God. So says Jesuit Father Robert John Araujo, former legal adviser to the permanent mission of the Holy See to the United Nations, professor at Gonzaga University School of Law. He shared with ZENIT how John Paul II helped to establish and strengthen diplomatic relations, mediate disputes and uphold the dignity of the human person wherever possible. CULTURE OF DEATH RIGHTS DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

90. Church History - 25ANNJP2.HTM - John Paul II: Letter of God
Professor Mario Agnes

The Editor-in-Chief L'Osservatore Romano celebrates the 25 years of John Paul II's pontificate. It has been "a journey through the geography of the faith, the geography of situations, the geography of daily life, the geography of suffering, of disappointment, ... and of the hopes of every person, of every people, of every nation." The Pope himself has been a letter from God: "he delivers himself to the expectations and hopes of individuals and peoples. He delivers himself in Christ's name; and in Christ's name he claims and proclaims respect for the dignity and freedom of every person and every people." PAPACY

91. Church History - zjp2times.htm - John Paul II: Of Our Times, For Our Times
ZENIT

Pope John Paul II was a man of our times and for our times, affirmed an internationally renowned scholar of his thought. ZENIT spoke with Rodrigo Guerra on the occasion of the third anniversary of the Polish Pontiff's death. Guerra, a professor, author and member of the Pontifical Academy for Life, tells why John Paul II is a point of reference for the third millennium. REASON PERSONALISM CULTURE

92. Church History - BUSHJP2.HTM - John Paul II: Servant of God, Hero of History
President George W. Bush

The Pope John Paul II Cultural Center in Washington DC, USA, was officially opened on 22 March 2001, in the presence of seven Cardinals and U.S. President George W. Bush. This address was given by President Bush during the ceremony. COMMUNINISM NAZISM LIFE

93. Church History - HLATERA4.TXT - Lateran IV, 1215
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the Fourth General Council of the Lateran, which reformed Church life and, in its doctrinal pronouncement, first sanctioned the term 'transubstantiation.' Chapter 12 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES LATERAN INNOCENT III STEPHEN LANGTON ALIBIGENSIANISM CATHARISM FREDERICK OF SICILY MAGNA CARTA SIMON DE MONTFORT TRANSUBSTANTIATION HERESY DIOCESAN SYNOD

94. Church History - zstationchrchs.htm - Lenten Tradition of Station Churches Lives On
ZENIT

Benedict XVI celebrates Mass this Ash Wednesday at the Basilica of Santa Sabina, marking the start of Lent and the ancient tradition of the station churches in Rome. Following the station church tradition, the faithful make their way to a different church each of the 40 days of Lent for Mass and the singing of the litany of the saints. MARTYRS INDULGENCE

95. Church History - LEO13.HTM - Leo XIII - Pontiff of a New Era
LOR

In an article from 1978, L'Osservatore Romano praises the success of Pope Leo XIII in countering the false ideas circulating as a result of historical upheavals (including the French revolution) with true ideas, drawn from the philosophy of St Thomas Aquinas. NEW ORDER ENLIGHTENMENT WORK INNOCENT III

96. Church History - LETTRJ23.HTM - Letters of Pope John XXIII to His Family
Archbishop Loris Francesco Capovilla

From the introduction to a collection of Pope John's letters to his family (1902-1962), which Archbishop Capovilla graciously allowed L'Osservatore Romano (January 1969) to publish in advance. In his introduction, the Archbishop explains the origin and the nature of the work and the light it sheds on Pope John's background and character. HOLINESS POOR FAMILY CHARITY

97. Church History - PIUS12.HTM - Library Documents on Pius XII and the Holocaust
EWTN

Index page to a series of articles responding to accusations of antisemitism and compliance with Hitler and the Nazis before and during World War II. On the contrary, the evidence shows that Pius XII and the Vatican did more to help the Jews than all other institutions combined.

ARTICLES:
Cornwell’s Pope: A Nasty Caricature of a Noble and Saintly Man - ZENIT
Did Pius XII Remain Silent? – Fr William Saunders
Difficult Relations Between Church and Nazism - ZENIT
Eichmann’s Diary Reveals Church’s Assistance to Jews - ZENIT
Historical Truth of Pius XII’s Work – ZENIT. Re: Sister Margaret Marchione’s book, Pius XII: Architect of Peace, looks at the Holocaust.
Jewish Recognition of Pope Pius XII’s Support - ZENIT
Jewish-Catholic Commission to Study World War II - ZENIT
New Studies Document Pius XII’s Opposition to Nazism – ZENIT
Pius XII and the Holocaust - The Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights
Pius XII and the Jews - National Association of Catholic Families
Pius XII Rehabilitated by Jewish Historian – ZENIT
Pius XII: the Martyrdom of Silence - Dr Emilia Paola Pacelli
Pius XII’s 1941 Letter Protested Treatment of Jews - ZENIT
Pius XII’s Cause of Beatification Progresses – ZENIT
Saviour of the Jews – Michael O’Carroll C.S.Sp.
The Myth in the Light of the Archives – Peirre Blet, S.J.
World Press Unmasks Fallacies in Book Defaming Pius XII – ZENIT
Most of Rome's Jews Were Saved From Hitler's Final Solution - LOR
The Good Samaritan: Jewish Praise For Pope Pius XII - Dimitri Cavalli
Rabbi defends Pius XII against criticisms - Rabbi David G. Dalin
Review of Pierre Blet's Book - Konrad Repgen
Pius XII Saved More Jews Than Schindler - LOR
For Berlin, Pius XII Was a Subversive - ZENIT
The Commission That Couldn't Shoot Straight - Dimitri Cavalli
A "Righteous Gentile" Defends Pius XII - ZENIT
Pius XII's Directive Helped Save 800 Jews - ZENIT
Vatican Told Nuncio to Forgo Praise of Hitler - ZENIT
On Hitler, the Holy See and the Jews - ZENIT
Pius XII's Aid to Jews Stirred Protests - ZENIT
Pius XII as a Righteous Gentile - ZENIT
Pius XII's Massive Crusade - ZENIT
Holy See and the Jewish Question - ZENIT
The Encyclical that Infuriated Hitler - ZENIT
More Testimonies Defend Pius XII - ZENIT
Cardinal Bertone on Pius XII - Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone
Group Gives New Proof of Pius XII's Help for Jews - ZENIT
Clarifying the Nature and Significance of Eugenio Pacelli's Pontificate - Giovanni Maria Vian
New Evidence Says Pius XII Helped Jews - ZENIT
NUREMBURG GERMANY ISRAEL PAPACY ANTI-CATHOLIC ANTISEMITISM FASCISM REICH CORNWALL WWII WW2 BLACK LEGEND

98. Church History - INQUINDX.HTM - Library Documents on the Inquisition
Various

An index page to a series of documents on the Inquisition, clarifying the facts and debunking myths. While not a shining example of Church policy, it was not nearly as bad as supposed by the misinformed. HERESY SCHISM CATHARI WALDENSIANS ALBIGENSIANS TURKS JEWS MUSLIMS JUDAISM ISLAM PROTESTANTS CONVERSOS GREGORY IX HOLY OFFICE SPANISH AUTO-DA-FE DIALOGUE RECONCILIATION PENANCE BLACK LEGEND TORTURE MOORS ANTI-SEMITISM MARRANOS RACISM MORISCOS DOMINICANS FRANCISCANS

99. Church History - LUTHER.TXT - Luther on the Eve of His Revolt
M. J. LaGrange

Published in 1918 by the Cathedral Library Assn. This book first, considers Luther's 'Commentary' as an exegetical work, second, it studies the intellectual and moral dispositions of Luther, in so far as they may be gathered from his work on this Epistle to the Romans. SCHOLIA GLOSSES ST. THOMAS SCRIPTURE ST. AUGUSTINE FATHERS HUMANIST

100. Church History - LUTHER.ZIP - Luther on the Eve of His Revolt
M. J. LaGrange

Published in 1918 by the Cathedral Library Assn. This book first, considers Luther's 'Commentary' as an exegetical work, second, it studies the intellectual and moral dispositions of Luther, in so far as they may be gathered from his work on this Epistle to the Romans. SCHOLIA GLOSSES ST. THOMAS SCRIPTURE ST. AUGUSTINE FATHERS HUMANIST

101. Church History - MLUTH.TXT - Luther Writes Obituary of His Own Church
Fr. William Most

Notes on Martin Luther's moral problems, with quotations from Luther himself. LUTHER FAITH JUSTIFICATION SIN OBEDIENCE SCRIPTURE SALVATION

102. Church History - LUTHER95.TXT - Luther's 95 Theses
Martin Luther

Provided by Larry Price. LUTHER THESES REFORMATION

103. Church History - ORPAUL6.HTM - Memories of Paul VI
Most Rev. Jacques Martin

The Prefect of the Pontifical Household, a close associate of the Holy Father, reminisces about Pope Paul VI shortly after the Popes death on August 6th, 1978. PAPACY

104. Church History - TSUNINDI.HTM - Miracles and Horrors
National Catholic Register

In this report from Vailankanni, India, we learn of a miraculous deliverance of the Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health from the devastating effects of the tsunamis, caused by the earthquake in the Indian Ocean, 26 December 2005. A short article is appended in which the Basilica is described as the Lourdes of the East, for the many healings reported there. SHRINE NATURAL DISASTERS

105. Church History - zaftcrus.htm - Modern Aftermath of the Crusades
ZENIT

The Crusades may be causing more devastation today than they ever did in the three centuries when most of them were fought, according to one expert. Robert Spencer, author of "Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades)," claims that the damage is not in terms of lives lost and property destroyed but is a more subtle destruction. Spencer shared with ZENIT how false ideas about the Crusades are being used by extremists to foment hostility to the West today. MUSLIMS TERRORISM JIHAD

106. Church History - ZPRIESTS.HTM - More Diocesan, but Fewer Religious, Priests in Church
ZENIT

The latest "Annuario Pontificio" reports there are more diocesan priests, fewer religious priests, and about the same number of Catholics worldwide, compared with a year earlier. CENSUS VOCATIONS SEMINARIANS AFRICA AMERICAS ASIA EUROPE

107. Church History - ROMEJEWS.HTM - Most of Rome's Jews Were Saved From Hitler's Final Solution
LOR

In an interview, given to the German Catholic News Agency (KNA) on 7 November 2000, by Mr Nikolaus Kunkel, a German army officer testifies to Pius XII’s actions to save Roman Jews during the Second World War. HOLOCAUST RACISM NAZISM HIMMLER DEPUTY

108. Church History - znecrop.htm - Necropolis Seen as Proof 1st Christians Were Right
Marta Lago

Touring a necropolis beneath the Vatican is a chance to go back in time, to see the faith of the first Christians, says the archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica. As reported in ZENIT, Cardinal Angelo Comastri reflected on lessons to be gleaned from these tours, after presentation of the restoration of the Valerii Mausoleum, dating from the second century. TOMB POPE

109. Church History - znewevp12.htm - New Evidence Says Pius XII Helped Jews
ZENIT

A foundation that promotes interreligious dialogue announced that it has more than 2,300 pages of original documents illustrating Pope Pius XII's efforts to help Jews in the face of Nazism. Gary Krupp, president of the New York-based Pave the Way Foundation, affirmed this in a statement to ZENIT, stating also that the documents from the years 1940-1945 will be made available to the public for research. PACELLI HISTORIANS

110. Church History - VATCNLAW.HTM - New Fundamental Law Promulgated for Vatican City State
LOR

In the Supplement to Acta Apostolicae Sedis, where the laws of Vatican City State are regularly published, the text of a new Fundamental Law of Vatican City State appeared on 1 February, replacing the preceding one (the first) promulgated in 1929 by Pope Pius XI of venerable memory. GOVERNMENT PAPACY

111. Church History - movecoms.htm - New Movements and Communities
EWTN

The Vatican has published a directory of new Church movements and ecclesial communities. The volume, published by the Pontifical Council for the Laity through the Vatican Publishing House, presents the descriptions, histories and other data of "Associations of the Faithful." This index page lists descriptions of the New Movements and Communities, taken from the directory, as provided by ZENIT. AMIGONIAN COOPERATORS ATD FOURTH WORLD BREAD OF LIFE COMMUNITY CATHOLIC CHARISMATIC RENEWAL SERVICES CATHOLIC INTEGRATED COMMUNITY CATHOLIC MOVEMENT FOR INTELLECTUAL AND CULTURAL AFFAIRS CHEMIN NEUF COMMUNITY CHRISTIAN LIFE COMMUNITY CHRISTIAN LIFE MOVEMENT COMMUNION AND LIBERATION COMMUNITY OF THE BEATITUDES COOPERATORS OF OPUS DEI COUPLES FOR CHRIST EMMANUEL COMMUNITY FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC PAROCHIAL YOUTH MOVEMENTS FONDACIO, CHRISTIANS FOR THE WORLD FORUM OF CATHOLIC ACTION FOYERS DE CHARITÉ FRATERNITY OF CHARISMATIC COVENANT COMMUNITIES FRATERNITY OF CHARLES DE FOUCAULD HERALDS OF THE GOSPEL HEART'S HOME IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY, MOTHER OF MERCY ASSOCIATION INDEPENDENT CHRISTIAN YOUTH INSTITUTE FOR WORLD EVANGELIZATION INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCE OF CATHOLIC KNIGHTS INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CATERINATI INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHARITIES INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FAITH AND LIGHT INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MISSIONARIES OF POLITICAL CHARITY INTERNATIONAL CATHOLIC CONFERENCE OF GUIDING INTERNATIONAL CATHOLIC CONFERENCE OF SCOUTING INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF CATHOLIC MEN LAY CLARETIAN MOVEMENT L'ARCHE COMMUNITIES LEGION OF MARY SCHOENSTATT MOVEMENT UNION OF EUROPEAN GUIDES AND SCOUTS

112. Church History - HNICAEA1.TXT - Nicaea I, 325
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the First General Council of Nicaea, which condemned the Arian heresy (denial of Christ's divinity) and wrote the Nicene Creed. Chapter 1 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES NICAEA I ARIUS ARIANISM CONSTANTINE HOMOOUSIOS SILVESTER I

113. Church History - HNICAEA1.ZIP - Nicaea I, 325
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the First General Council of Nicaea, which condemned the Arian heresy (denial of Christ's divinity) and wrote the Nicene Creed. Chapter 1 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES NICAEA I ARIUS ARIANISM CONSTANTINE HOMOOUSIOS SILVESTER I

114. Church History - chrstnsmslms.htm - Nostra Aetate: 40 Years Later
Khaled Akasheh

This article summarizes the history of dialogue between Christians and Muslims, from the beginning of Islam to the formation of commissions in the present day to promote good relations. Of historical importance was the publication of Nostra Aetate, Vatican II's Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions. Also noted are elements for concern, primarily religious fundamentalism. TERRORISM ISLAMICIZATION RELIGIOUS LIBERTY MISSION EVANGELIZATION INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE

115. Church History - manmissionp6.htm - Not a Monk but a Man of Mission
Michele Giulio Masciarelli

Occasioned by the annual commemoration of Paul VI (2005), the writer pays tribute to "a father of the contemporary Church and a master of wisdom and holiness in our time." He was at once strongly meditative and actively apostolic, with a pastoral concern for all mankind. JOY EUCHARIST VATICAN II

116. Church History - zcathpente.htm - On Catholics and Pentecostals
Father Juan Usma Gómez

ZENIT presents a report "Catholics and Pentecostals: A Historical Overview," by Father Juan Usma Gómez, of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. Through dialogue, Catholics and Pentecostals are coming to understand better what they have in common and where they differ. BAPTISM IN THE HOLY SPIRIT PROSELYTISM MISSIOLOGY CHARISMATIC

117. Church History - HCOUNINT.TXT - On Councils and General Councils
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Defines the General Council and analyzes its chief functions and its place in the life of the Church. Introduction to 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' Also includes Appendix I: Some Notes about Further Reading and Appendix II: Works Cited in the Footnotes. HUGHES COUNCILS CHURCH HISTORY

118. Church History - HCOUNINT.ZIP - On Councils and General Councils
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Defines the General Council and analyzes its chief functions and its place in the life of the Church. Introduction to 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' Also includes Appendix I: Some Notes about Further Reading and Appendix II: Works Cited in the Footnotes. HUGHES COUNCILS CHURCH HISTORY

119. Church History - ZHITHSJW.HTM - On Hitler, the Holy See and the Jews
ZENIT

An interview with historian Father Giovanni Sale about the findings published in his book, Hitler, la Santa Sede e gli Ebrei, in which he analyzed the relations between The Vatican and the Third Reich during 1933-1945. WORLD WAR II PIUS XI XII NAZIS HOLOCAUST JEWS

120. Church History - NEWMNCAR.HTM - On the 125th Anniversary of John Henry Newman's Becoming a Cardinal
Hermann Geissler

One hundred twenty-five years ago, Ven. John Henry Newman was made a Cardinal by Pope Leo XIII. In honor of this anniversary, the author illustrates the Servant of God's dedication to the Truth by describing important stages in Newman's life, including his "first conversion," his part in the Oxford Movement, and his conversion to the Catholic Church. LIBERALISM CREED VIA MEDIA DOCTRINAL DEVELOPMENT APOLOGETICS

121. Church History - zcusthlylnd.htm - On the Custody of the Holy Land
Father José Rodríguez Carballo

This is an address Father José Rodríguez Carballo, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, delivered 19 Nov. 2006 at the opening of the International Congress of the Commissaries of the Holy Land, which took place in Jerusalem. The Minister General summarizes the history of the Franciscans in the Holy Land, and outlines the present challenges. FRIARS MINOR FRANCIS OF ASSISI EVANGELIZATION INCULTURATION CONVERSION PILGRIMAGE

122. Church History - spirdirctb16 - On the Papacy of the Spiritual Director, Benedict XVI
Francesco M. Valiante

If John Paul II was seen as a tireless parish priest for the world, Benedict XVI may be seen as a "caring spiritual director" for the People of God. This article illustrates, from the homilies and addresses of Benedict's first months, how he has invited the needy to rise from their fallen state and take flight on the wings of faith and reason. INTELLECTUALISM SECULARISM WORD OF GOD

123. Church History - priestiraq.htm - One Day in the Life of a Priest in Iraq
Father John J. Gayton

Father Gayton, a military chaplain writing from Fallujah, Iraq, describes the daily danger, injury, and death faced by U.S. Marines. As he ministers to them, their faith ministers to him. MASS CONFESSION WAR ST. MICHAEL

124. Church History - ZCALJEWS.HTM - Origins of a Sinister Calumny Against the Jews
ZENIT

In a ZENIT interview, Massimo Introvigne, founder and director of the Center of Studies on New Religions, reveals the origin of a medieval calumny against the Jews, that they used the blood of Christians in certain of their rituals. SIMON OF TRENTO MAGISTERIUM ANTISEMITISM

125. Church History - ZORTHDX.HTM - Orthodox Christians Number 200 Million Worldwide
ZENIT

The article recalls the early centuries of the Church in the Eastern Empire, and provides a brief description of the various branches of Orthodoxy today. CONSTANTINOPLE GREEK RUSSIA

126. Church History - UKRACATH.HTM - Overview of Christian History in Ukraine
LOR

A summary of significant events in the history of the Church in Ukraine, with attention to relations between Catholics and Orthodox, an emphasis on the trials of the 20th century, and present expectations of a brighter future. CONSTANTIN KIEV MOSCOW GREEK UNION FLORENCE NAZI COMMUN

127. Church History - SYRIAHIS.HTM - Overview of Religious History of Syria
LOR

L'Osservatore Romano gives a list of significant events in the history of the Church in Syria, from the conversion of St. Paul on the road to Damascus, to the present. JACOBITE MELKITE ORTHODOX ARMENIAN CHALDEAN MARONITE MUSLIM ISLAM SUNNI SHIITE DRUZE

128. Church History - zpapcoatarms.htm - Papal Coat of Arms Still Relevant
ZENIT

Ecclesiastical heraldry is as relevant today as it ever was, and should be valued as part of the Church's rich cultural and artistic patrimony, according to Michael McCarthy, founder and proprietor of Australia's Thylacine Press. In this interview with ZENIT, he spoke about the place of ecclesiastical heraldry in the modern Church. POPES BISHOPS

129. Church History - ZLANCIAN.HTM - Physician Tells of Eucharistic Miracle of Lanciano
ZENIT

In November 1970, Dr. Edoardo Linoli, professor of anatomy and pathological histology, and of chemistry and clinical microscopy, was entrusted with a scientific analysis of the relics of the miracle at Lanciano, Italy. In May 2005, Dr. Linoli participated in a congress on Eucharistic miracles, organized by the Science and Faith master's program of Rome's Regina Apostolorum Pontifical University. In this interview with ZENIT, he described the results of his analysis, as presented to the scientific community in March 1971. CONSECRATION HOST BLOOD SHROUD OF TURIN

130. Church History - PIUSIX.HTM - Pius IX: A Long and Difficult Pontificate
Cardinal Pietro Palazzini

Pius IX's Pontificate took place in the great transition from a Church consolidated in traditionally Catholic countries to the modern Church, more and more sharply separated from the State. This article, written in 1978 for the great pontiff's centenary, recalls how he helped keep the Church on course in this difficult period. UTOPIA LIBERALISM SOCIALISM IMMACULATE CONCEPTION SYLLABUS OF ERRORS COMMUNISM

131. Church History - zpiusxi.htm - Pius XI Revealed
ZENIT

The Vatican Secret Archives, opened 18 September 2006, include millions of letters relating to the pontificate of Pope Pius XI, covering events such as the Catholic Church's persecution in Mexico and Spain, the advent of Fascism and Nazism, and the spread of Communism in Europe. In this interview with ZENIT, Matteo Luigi Napolitano, associate professor at the University of Molise, comments on the first steps of analyzing the documents found in the archives. HITLER MUSSOLINI FRANCO GERMANY ITALY PIUS XII

132. Church History - zp12rightgen.htm - Pius XII as a Righteous Gentile
ZENIT

Despite what some modern critics say, Pope Pius XII launched a multifaceted response to the Nazi campaign against the Jews. So says Ronald Rychlak, an adviser to the Holy See's delegation to the United Nations, and University of Mississippi law professor. Rychlak shared with ZENIT some of the information he has amassed in defense of Pius XII and the Church, and how Catholics can respond to detractors. HOLOCAUST HITLER ANTISEMITISM

133. Church History - P12RABBI.HTM - Pius XII Saved More Jews Than Schindler
LOR

In an interview conducted by L'Osservatore Romano (5 September 2001), historian Rabbi David Dalin defends Pope Pius XII against revisionist historians, who charge him with not doing enough to defend the Jews against Nazi persecution. HOLOCAUST ANTISEMITISM RACISM

134. Church History - zp12crus.htm - Pius XII's Massive Crusade
ZENIT

As the 50th anniversary of the death of Pope Pius XII approaches, errors regarding his life and involvement with the Holocaust continue to persist, says historian Sister Margherita Marchione. Sister Marchione described for ZENIT the Pope's tireless efforts to save Jews and reunite prisoners of war with their families. WORLD WAR II NAZIS HOLOCAUST JEWS VATICAN SECRET ARCHIVES

135. Church History - PONECCAC.HTM - Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy Celebrates 300 Years
Archbishop Nikola Eterovic

Archbishop Eteroviæ, Titular Archbishop of Siscia, reviews a book published in 2003 by the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, on 300 years of Vatican diplomacy. In the course of his review, the Archbishop indicates the important role the Academy has played in this time period, under 22 Pontiffs. POLITICS HOLY SEE MAGISTERIUM APOSTOLIC NUNCIOS NATURAL LAW EDUCATION

136. Church History - intrejp2.htm - Pope John Paul II and Interreligious Dialogue
Archbishop Michael L. Fitzgerald, M.Afr.

Archbishop Fitzgerald, President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, recapitulates the pontificate of John Paul II, with respect to the Pope's outreach to non-Christians, particularly Jews and Muslims. MISSIONARY PROCLAMATION SEEDS OF THE WORD JUBILEE PILGRIMAGE HOLY LAND

137. Church History - JP2ARMEN.HTM - Pope John Paul II in Armenia
EWTN

Homilies and addresses by the Holy Father during his pastoral visit to Armenia, 25-27 September 2001, with a summary of the religious history of the country. GREGORY ILLUMINATOR CHALCEDON TURKS GENOCIDE MARTYR SOVIET UNION MECHITAR CATHOLICOS ECUMEN UNITY EVANGEL DIGNITY SOLIDARITY

138. Church History - JP2KZKST.HTM - Pope John Paul II in Kazakhstan
EWTN

A list of homilies and addresses by the Holy Father during his pastoral visit to Kazakhstan, 22-25 September 2001. Includes a sketch of the long history of the Church there. MARY MUSLIM ISLAM ORTHODOX EVANGEL INTERRELIGIOUS MARTYR COMMUNIS MISSION ECUMEN CONVERSION DIALOGUE

139. Church History - PONTFP12.HTM - Pope Pius XII
LOR

From 1978, twenty years after the death of Pius XII, three articles: "On the Twentieth Anniversary of His Death," by Cardinal Giuseppe Siri; "Dawn of a Pontificate," by Angelo Martini; and "Apostolic Activity of Pius XII," by Paolo Molinari, reflect on the character, personality, and legacy of the venerated Pontiff. PACELLI PAPACY WORLD WAR II VATICAN II

140. Church History - zvalgrail.htm - Pope Venerates Holy Grail
ZENIT

On his visit to Spain, to address the Fifth World Meeting of Families, July 2006, Pope Benedict XVI venerated the Chalice believed by many to be the Holy Grail. According to author and professor Salvador Antuñano Alea, the Last Supper's holy chalice, kept in the cathedral of Valencia, bases its probability on tradition and "very reasonable archaeological and historical evidence" but for Christians what is most important is "its condition as a sacred icon." RELIC ARCHAEOLOGY ROMAN CANON

141. Church History - zfathnoncaths.htm - Pope's Study of Church Fathers Not Just for Catholics
ZENIT

Benedict XVI's Wednesday-audience series on the Apostolic Fathers can give us hope for unity among Christians, says a Catholic theologian who was once an evangelical Protestant minister. In this interview with ZENIT, David Warner, senior fellow of the St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology in Steubenville, Ohio, discusses how reading Church Fathers led to his return to the Catholic Church and offers some reflections on the Pope's teachings. PATRISTICS GNOSTICS ECUMENISM ORTHODOXY

142. Church History - PROPSAIN.HTM - Prophets or Saints
Cardinal G. M. Garrone

In this LOR article from 10 April 1969, Cardinal Garrone urged a return to essentials of the faith, including deep prayer, in order to weather the storm of uncertainties that followed Vatican II. HOLINESS MAGISERIUM

143. Church History - zreasonrelig.htm - Reasonable Religion
ZENIT

The conventional wisdom that Western success depended on overcoming religious barriers to progress is "utter nonsense," says Rodney Stark, a professor of social sciences at Baylor University. Professor Stark maintains that, in contrast to other beliefs that emphasize mystery and intuition, Christian theology privileges reason. This factor — not geography, a more productive agricultural system, or the Protestant Reformation — is behind the rise of the West, he argues. PROGRESS SCIENCE CAPITALISM PROTESTANTISM FREEDOM EQUALITY DEMOCRACY

144. Church History - kasp100yrs.htm - Reflection on 100 Years of Prayer for Christian Unity
Cardinal Walter Kasper

In observation of the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, 18 to 25 January 2008, Cardinal Kasper reflected on the history of the ecumenical movement, highlighting some of its key figures. He also spoke of the heart of the movement, which is prayer, since Christian unity can be attained only by God's gift. WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES COUTURIER WATTSON COMMUNION

145. Church History - zkaspcons.htm - Reflection on Eve of the Consistory
Cardinal Walter Kasper

On 23 November 2007, eve of the consistory for the elevation of cardinals, Cardinal Walter Kasper, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, delivered an address to the cardinals-designate on the current state of ecumenism, considered under three headings: "Churches of the first millennium," "ecclesial communities born from the Reformation," and "charismatics and Pentecostals." ORTHODOX PRE-CHALCEDONIAN UNIATISM PROTESTANT

146. Church History - zregensrev.htm - Regensburg Revisited
ZENIT

When one interprets Benedict XVI's Regensburg lecture, 12 September 2006, as simply an address on Islam, one misses the point, says Father James Schall, professor of political philosophy at Georgetown University. In this 3-part interview with ZENIT, Father Schall comments on the Pope's remarks regarding Islam question, but then more importantly, the deeper point of the lecture. MUSLIMS SCIENCE GREEK PHILOSOPHY VOLUNTARISM DE-HELLENIZATION NATURAL LAW ATHEISM

147. Church History - ARMENIA.HTM - Religious History of Armenia
LOR

L'Osservatore Romano provides a summary of the history of the Church in Armenia, from prechristian times to the present. GREGORY ILLUMINATOR CHALCEDON TURKS GENOCIDE SOVIET UNION MECHITAR CATHOLICOS

148. Church History - rememJPI.htm - Remembering Pope John Paul I: 26 August - 28 September 1978
Francesco Taffarel

Father Taffarel, personal secretary to Albino Luciani, who became Pope John Paul I, recalls the future Holy Father's thoughts about how people need to keep and live the Lord's Day. PASCH PASSOVER EASTER FAMILY SUNDAY

149. Church History - ROMORTH.HTM - Romanian Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches
Mons. Eleuterio F. Fortino

Mons. Fortino, Undersecretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, recounts the history of relations between the Romanian Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church (both Latin- and Byzantine-rite), since the Romanian Church was raised to the rank of a Patriarchate in 1925. ECUMENISM COMMUNISM DIALOGUE TEOCTIST JOHN PAUL II

150. Church History - zromvat.htm - Rome and Vatican City: 80 Years of Joint Work
ZENIT

Vatican City State has had an important role for Rome, particularly during World War II, says French philosopher and economist, Jean Dominique Durand, recently appointed consultor of the Pontifical Council for Culture. ZENIT spoke with him about the history of Vatican State, its dependence on the Italian state and its relationship with Rome during its 80 years of independence. CURIA GERMANS

151. Church History - RTREF.TXT - Roots of the Reformation
Karl Adam

Published in 1951 by Sheed & Ward. This consists of the author's chapters on the origin and results of the Reformation from 'One and Holy.' ROME GERMANY MIDDLE AGES ABUSE POPE PAPACY CLERGY LUTHER OCKHAM

152. Church History - RTREF.ZIP - Roots of the Reformation
Karl Adam

Published in 1951 by Sheed & Ward. This consists of the author's chapters on the origin and results of the Reformation from 'One and Holy.' ROME GERMANY MIDDLE AGES ABUSE POPE PAPACY CLERGY LUTHER OCKHAM

153. Church History - 2annergmigr.htm - Second Anniversary of Erga Migrantes Caritas Christi
Archbishop Agostino Marchetto

Written by the Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, this article records the increasing shift in populations, a majority moving to Europe and North America. There is a consequent increase of nonchristian religions, in traditionally Christian lands, and a need for the Church to reach out to them. To Oriental Catholics also, pastoral attention must be given. ECUMENISM IMMIGRATION EASTERN RITE REFUGEES

154. Church History - zsecstate.htm - Secretary of State: a Top Collaborator
ZENIT

ZENIT summarizes the origins of the Secretariat of State in the Roman Curia, an office often described as second only to the Papacy itself. FIRST SECTION FOR GENERAL AFFAIRS SECOND SECTION FOR RELATIONS WITH STATES

155. Church History - frjosewtn25vsp.htm - Solemn Vespers for EWTN's 25th Anniversary
Father Joseph Mary Wolfe, MFVA

At Solemn Vespers for the Feast of the Assumption 2006, bringing to an end the year-long celebration of EWTN's 25th anniversary, Fr. Joseph observed that the network's mission was begun and sustained through adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. He also reminded EWTN's employees that Mother Angelica's fiat to God, which began the network, must be echoed by the network's employees, in order for the work to continue and come to fruition. MEDIA TELEVISION EVANGELIZATION

156. Church History - reflb16letchin.htm - Some Reflections on Benedict XVI's Letter to the Church in China
Savio Hon Tai-Fai, S.D.B.

A member of the International Theological Commission, Hong Kong, reflects on the impact of Pope Benedict's Letter to the Church in China, including the reaction of the Chinese government and what obstacles remain, to cooperation between the government and the Holy See. PETER PAPACY SHESHAN PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION CCCP

157. Church History - STCATHSN.HTM - St Catherine's: Age-Old Place of Prayer
LOR

Here is a short summary of the significance of St. Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai, visited by the Holy Father in his Jubilee Pilgrimage. JUSTINIAN ORTHODOX CODEX

158. Church History - STHOFRNX.HTM - St Thomas, Apostle & St Francis Xavier
Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe

On 17 November 2002, in the Cathedral of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, preached a homily at the Eucharistic Celebration for the 1950th anniversary of the arrival in India of St Thomas the Apostle and the 450th anniversary of the death of St Francis Xavier, in which he recounted the history of the two great missionary saints. INCULTURATION ECUMENICAL JESUITS ST THOMAS CHRISTIANS MOTHER TERESA ORIENTAL CHURCH EVANGELIZATION

159. Church History - francsmuslm.htm - St. Francis and Christian-Muslim Relations
ZENIT

In the 13th century, St. Francis of Assisi ventured into Muslim territory to visit the caliph of Egypt and preach the Gospel. His example may provide a good role model for modern interreligious dialogue today, according to Lawrence Cunningham, professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. He shared with ZENIT how St. Francis considered himself to be a spiritual crusader, and how his peaceful and truthful approach helped in his outreach to Muslims. CRUSADES MARTYRDOM MARTYRS ISLAM ECUMENISM INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE

160. Church History - usrelpan.htm - Survey on the U.S. Religious Panorama
LOR

More than one-quarter of American adults have left the faith in which they were brought up. This is one of the most important findings of a survey published 25 February 2008 by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. The "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" was based on interviews with more than 35,000 Americans aged 18 and up, giving it greater credibility than most opinion polls. CATHOLIC PROTESTANT ORTHODOX NON-AFFILIATED ATHEIST AGNOSTIC MUSLIM HINDU HISPANIC

161. Church History - zsynbishops.htm - Synod of Bishops: Origin and Procedure
ZENIT

Two articles from ZENIT on the Synod of Bishops, which is an assembly of Bishops from around the world, with the task of helping the Pope to govern the Church by rendering their counsel on topics of universal importance. The first article explains the formation of the Synod after Vatican II, the second describes the process from choice of topic to submission of the final report to the Holy Father. LINEAMENTA INSTRUMENTUM LABORIS

162. Church History - 29annp6.hmt - The 29th Anniversary of the Death of Pope Paul VI: 6 August 1978
Michele Giulio Masciarelli

The legacy of Pope Paul VI is recalled, with particular emphasis on his teachings on dialogue, death, Vatican II. Dialogue with God should precede dialogue with each other, leading to a culture of dialogue as a precondition for communion. Death must not be banished from public consciousness, but looked in the eye. And it was Pope Montini who directed the Council to reflect on Christ and the Church. CULTURAL RELATIVISM

163. Church History - CAMPNEBO.HTM - The Archaeological Campaign on Mount Nebo
Michele Piccirillo, O.F.M.

Brother Michele describes the ongoing efforts to restore parts of early Christian churches and chapels (6th-8th centuries) on and around Mount Nebo, from where Moses viewed the Promised Land, shortly before his death. ARCHAEOLOGY ART

164. Church History - racialaws.htm - The Catholic Church and Racial Laws
Sergio Pagano

Drawing on the Vatican Secret Archives, Bishop Pagano documents the opposition by Pius XI to the racial laws established in Italy by Mussolini, following Hitler's lead in Germany. RACISM ANTISEMITISM FASCISM NAZISM JEWS

165. Church History - HRREVOLU.TXT - The Catholic Human Rights Revolution
George Weigel

An analysis of the importance of Vatican II's "Declaration on Religious Freedom" and Pope John Paul II's subsequent emphasis on it, to the Catholic understanding of the state. Taken from the July/August 1996 issue of "Crisis" magazine."

166. Church History - XMASTREE.HTM - The Christmas Tree: Legends, Traditions, History
Lino Lozza

The writer, after giving legendary accounts of the origin of the Christmas tree, describes its prechristian background, how it came to be associated with the Birth of Christ, and how the custom of decorating a tree at Christmas spread across Europe and beyond. MIDDLE AGES MYSTERY PLAYS TREE OF LIFE BONIFACE LITERATURE

167. Church History - HCOUNCIL.TXT - The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870
Msgr. Philip Hughes

A comprehensive survey of the origins, accomplishments and significance of the twenty General Council of the Church. Explains the nature and function of General Councils, and tells how each was called and what it accomplished, in the context of the climate of the times, the men who took part, and the intellectual currents which lay behind the final pronouncements. HUGHES COUNCILS NICAEA NICEA CONSTANTINOPLE EPH

168. Church History - HCOUNCIL.ZIP - The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870
Msgr. Philip Hughes

A comprehensive survey of the origins, accomplishments and significance of the twenty General Council of the Church. Explains the nature and function of General Councils, and tells how each was called and what it accomplished, in the context of the climate of the times, the men who took part, and the intellectual currents which lay behind the final pronouncements. HUGHES COUNCILS NICAEA NICEA CONSTANTINOPLE EPH

169. Church History - NMBRGROW.HTM - The Church's Numerical Strength Continues to Grow
LOR

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae, recently published, gives Church statistics for 1998, providing a quantitative overview of the Catholic Church according to different continents and countries. This article shows the most significant trends. BISHOP PRIEST SEMINAR DEACON RELIGIOUS MISSION CATECHIS

170. Church History - armsb16.htm - The Coat of Arms of His Holiness, Benedict XVI
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo

With a summarized overview of ecclesiastical heraldry, the coat of arms of His Holiness, Benedict XVI, is described and explained. SHIELD RANK TITLE KEYS TIARA MITRE PALLIUM MOTTO

171. Church History - CARDINAL.HTM - The College of Cardinals
Vatican Information Service

This informative article gives the origin, makeup, and work of the College of Cardinals. CONSISTORY DICASTERY CONCLAVE

172. Church History - DEATHJP1.HTM - The Death of Pope John Paul I
LOR

The death notice of Pope John Paul I, giving particulars of when, where, and how he died. PAPACY

173. Church History - christindia.htm - The First Encounter of Christianity with India
George Nedungatt, S.J.

These are excerpts from the text of one of the interventions given at the Congress "Ad ulteriores gentes: The Christians in the East (1st-7th c.)", held in Rome on 13 and 14 March 2009 at the Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient (ISIAO). Father Nedungatt examines the evidence for the Gospel first being brought to India by the Apostle Thomas. UDAYAPUR PORTUGUESE HINDU

174. Church History - GENCOUNC.TXT - The General Councils of the Church
John L. Murphy

What constitutes a General Council? When are they held? Why? What have been their results and their effects on later times? These are the basic questions which this book answers. It is a brief and compact yet surprisingly thorough and popular presentation of the personalities, issues, and results of the twenty General Councils held during the past two thousand years.

175. Church History - GENCOUNC.ZIP - The General Councils of the Church
John L. Murphy

What constitutes a General Council? When are they held? Why? What have been their results and their effects on later times? These are the basic questions which this book answers. It is a brief and compact yet surprisingly thorough and popular presentation of the personalities, issues, and results of the twenty General Councils held during the past two thousand years.

176. Church History - gospelcongo.htm - The Gospel in Sub-Saharan Africa
Egidio Picucci

Father Piccuci traces the history of Christianity in the Congo, from the 16th century to modern times. The efforts of the Capuchins and other religious orders to evangelize were complicated by the competing ambitions of Portugal and Spain. SLAVERY ANGOLA MISSIONARY

177. Church History - ZGRAIL.HTM - The Holy Grail: Fact or Fiction?
ZENIT

The story of the Holy Grail has spawned numerous works of fiction and fantasy. One scholar, Janice Bennett, author of St. Laurence and the Holy Grail, believes the cup's history can be traced from St. Peter's journey to Rome, to St. Laurence in the third century, and then to its final resting place in Spain. She shared with ZENIT why she believes that the Holy Chalice of Valencia is the same cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper. EUCHARIST RELICS MASS

178. Church History - hspatmosc - The Holy See and Patriarchate of Moscow
Józef M. Maj, S.J.

Fr. Maj gives a review of the 2004 agenda of "events that marked the bilateral contact between the Holy See and Moscow." In light of these events, it can be said that "our mutual relations have broadened considerably," though much work remains to be done. RUSSIAN ORTHODOXY PROSELYTISM UNIATISM MOTHER OF GOD OF KAZAN

179. Church History - ORIGARAB.TXT - The Origins of Middle Eastern Arab Christianity
Dr. George Khoury

Taken from the magazine "Al-Bushra" created by Rev. Labib Kobti from the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

180. Church History - PENALAWS.HTM - The Penal Laws
Patrick Barry

An illuminating article on the historical background of the penal laws enacted in England and Wales, in the 16th and 17th centuries, under which Catholics were persecuted and martyred, with particular reference to the 85 martyrs beatified by Pope John Paul II on 22 November 1987. HENRY VIII ELIZABETH I PIUS V JAMES I CHARLES I II OATES RECUSANTS PROTESTANT ANGLICAN PURITANS CIVIL WAR COMMONWEALTH GUNPOWDER PLOT GUY FAWKES TITUS OATES

181. Church History - PRIESTDY.HTM - The Priest Today
Mons. Maurice Maziers

The Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1968 responded to questions on the difficulties faced by priests in an era of turbulent change. He spoke of the joy of being a priest, which can displace any anxiety. MEDIA SACRED HEART MISSION

182. Church History - ZROSARY.HTM - The Rosary Predated St. Dominic
ZENIT

The Rosary, called "Mary's Psalter," continued to develop after its popularization by St. Dominic. This article notes high points in the Rosary's history, particularly between the 12th and 15th centuries. ALAIN DE LA ROCHE ALBERTO DA CASTELLO PIUS V

183. Church History - SUMMER44.HTM - The Silent Summer of '44
Giuseppina Sciascia

An account of the heroism of a community of Carthusians in 1944 Italy, who, contrary to their rule of enclosure, opened their doors to persecuted Jews and Italians and hid them from Nazi SS. After discovery, the Carthusians were subjected to torture, and finally martyred. FASCISM MARTYRDOM

184. Church History - TEACHJP2.HTM - The Teaching of John Paul II
Andrea Riccardi

Professor Riccardi gives an overview of the Holy Father's approach to his pontificate. He emphasized the Church's need to focus on the Gospel and to communicate it to the world. He confronted the world's problems not as a politician, but as a pastor, with a personal touch. Above all, he was a man of faith, who coveyed his faith by the life he lived. COMMUNISM DIALOGUE

185. Church History - PALLIUM.HTM - The Value and Meaning of the New Rules Concerning the Pallium
Marcello Costalunga

An explanation and some background of Pope Paul VI's Motu Proprio, which limited use of the Pallium to Metropolitans and the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. No longer will it be conferred merely for honorary purposes, but as a sign of metropolitical jurisdiction and special communion with the Successor of Peter. ARCHBISHOPS SUPREME PONTIFFS

186. Church History - brogtaize.htm - Tribute To Brother Roger, Founder of Taizé
Giampaolo Mattei

This tribute to Brother Roger, the 90-year old religious who was stabbed to death 16 Aug 2005 by an apparently unstable 36-year-old Romanian woman, recounts the history of the Taizé Community, which he founded. ECUMENICAN ECUMENISM FRANCISCAN RULE

187. Church History - b16twofriends.htm - Two Old Friends: Benedict XVI and Jacob Neusner
Andrea Monda

During his historic Visit to the United States, Pope Benedict met with Jacob Neusner, a learned Rabbi with whom the Holy Father had corresponded for 15 years. Their first, face-to-face meeting took place on 17 April 2008, when the Pope met with the Jewish Community in Washington, D.C. JUDAISM DIALOGUE

188. Church History - REAGJP2A.HTM - U.S. President's Address to the Pope, 1982
President Ronald Reagan

On 7 June 1982, Pope John Paul II received a visit from the President of the United States, Ronald Reagan, who was accompanied by his wife Nancy and an official party including the Secretary of State and the President's Chief of Staff. In the President's address, he praised the Holy Father for his moral leadership in the world, and echoed their joint concern for the destiny of Poland, foreshadowing a historic collaboration in undermining Communist control in Eastern Europe. See Pope's address. LIBERTY SOLIDARITY AMERICA

189. Church History - REAGJP2B.HTM - U.S. President's Address to the Pope, 1987
President Ronald Reagan

On 6 June 1987, the Holy Father received in audience Mr. Ronald Reagan, President of the United States of America. The President, addressing the Holy Father, expressed the hope that oppressed peoples everywhere would soon obtain their freedom, and freedom of religion in particular. See Pope's address. PROSPERITY POLAND COMMUNISM

190. Church History - vatfinan04 - Vatican Financial Report for 2004
LOR

L'Osservatore Romano reports the details of the Vatican financial report for 2004, presented on 8 July 2005 at the 39th Meeting of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Financial problems of the Holy See. The meeting was chaired by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, Secretary of State. PETER'S PENCE MEDIA DICASTERIES MISSION EVANGELIZATION

191. Church History - ZCRSADES.HTM - What the Crusades Were Really Like
ZENIT

The Crusaders were not unprovoked aggressors, greedy marauders or medieval colonialists, as portrayed in some history books. Thomas Madden, chair of St. Louis University's history department, argues that the Crusaders did not profit from their ventures by earthly riches or land, but rather fought defensive wars against an aggressive enemy. He also differentiates between the Crusades and the current war on terrorism. MUSLIMS EUROPE HOLY LAND JERUSALEM JEWS

192. Church History - zeffJoN.htm - Zeffirelli Recalls Paul VI's Help With Jesus of Nazareth
ZENIT

When the television miniseries Jesus of Nazareth was released 30 years ago, Pope Paul VI personally thanked Franco Zeffirelli for his work. But the series was a success only because of the Pontiff's help, the director said, recalling what went on behind the scenes during the filming. MEDIA CINEMA

193. Church History - ZP12J800.HTM - ZENIT
Pius XII's Directive Helped Save 800 Jews

Newly found evidence shows that Pius XII helped spare the lives of 800 Jews in the Italian cities of Livorno, Lucca and Pisa, when he asked various Church groups to help preserve them from Nazi persecution in 1943 and 1944. ANTISEMITISM HOLOCAUST