This is an index of all files in the EWTN "Church History" Document Library as of 1/11/2017 sorted by library and title


1. Church History - ANNU2001.HTM - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2001

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2001, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, gives a more or less complete picture of the comparative data necessary for a correct understanding of the Catholic Church's numerical strength throughout the world. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS RELIGIOUS SEMINARIANS CANDIDATES

2. Church History - annu2004.htm - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2004

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2004, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, supplies the data for an overview of the worldwide numerical strength of the Catholic Church as of 2004, with comparative figures from 1978 and 1988. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS PROFESSED RELIGIOUS CANDIDATES

3. Church History - annu2005.htm - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2005
L'Osservatore Romano

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2005, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, supplies the data for an overview of the worldwide numerical strength of the Catholic Church as of 2005, with comparative figures from 2000 and 2004. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS PROFESSED RELIGIOUS CANDIDATES

4. Church History - annu2007.htm - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2007

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2007, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Vatican Publishing House, supplies the data for an overview of the worldwide numerical strength of the Catholic Church as of 2007, with comparative figures from 2000. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS NON-ORDAINED MALE RELIGIOUS CANDIDATES WOMEN RELIGIOUS

5. Church History - ANNU2000.HTM - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae: Published for 2000

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church, gives the most important data for assessing the changing characteristics of pastoral activity from 1978 to 2000. FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS PROFESSED RELIGIOUS PASTORAL WORKERS CANDIDATES SEMINARIANS MISSIONARIES CATECHISTS

6. Church History - 11feb.htm - 11 February

This is an article, translated from Italian, published in L'Osservatore Romano Italian Daily edition on 11 February 2011, the 82nd anniversary of the creation of Vatican City State set up by the Lateran Pacts. PIUS IX VICTOR EMMANUEL II RISORGIMENTO VILLA MADAME AGREEMENT FREEDOM OF RELIGION

7. Church History - MIGRNT16.HTM - 16th Plenary Meeting: Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants

Gathered in the Palazzo San Calisto in Vatican City for the 16th Plenary Meeting of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, held from 16-19 May 2004, the members and consultors of the Dicastery reflected on ecumenical, interreligious and intercultural dialogue in the world of human mobility. REFUGEES NOMADS TOURISM PILGRIMAGES APOSTLESHIP OF THE SEA ROAD CIVIL AVIATION EVANGELIZATION MISSIONARY ECCLESIAL COMMUNITIES ECUMENISM ECUMENICAL

8. Church History - zcant1adv11.htm - 1st Advent Sermon, 2011
Father Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M. Cap.

In his first Advent sermon for 2011, Capuchin Father Raniero Cantalamessa, preacher of the pontifical household, begins a survey of Church history, with a focus on key principles governing the spread of the Gospel, in light of which the New Evangelization may proceed. In the first three centuries, paramount was the confidence that the seed sown would grow by the power of God. HARNACK MISSION PROPHETS BISHOPS CONSTANTINE LOVE CHARITY UNIVERSALITY SECULARISM

9. Church History - JP20YRS.HTM - 20 years as Successor of Peter
L'Osservatore Romano

The Vatican newspaper provides a summary of the 20 years of the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. WOJTYLA

10. Church History - siststjoscluny.htm - 200th Anniversary: Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny

Here is an account of the founding of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, in post-revolutionary France (1807), where all religious orders had been suppressed. To the three vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, they added a fourth, to devote themselves to the instruction of youth. ANN MARIE JAVOUHEY RELIGIOUS

11. Church History - partyplats12.htm - 2012 Major Party Platforms

EWTN offers a comparison between the platforms of the Republican and Democratic Parties for 2012, on three non-negotiable Principles of the Moral Law: Life, Marriage & Family, and Human Freedom. PLATFORM REPUBLICAN DEMOCRAT DEMOCRATIC 2012 US ELECTION

12. Church History - zcant2adv11.htm - 2nd Advent Sermon, 2011
Father Raniero Cantalamessa

In his second Advent sermon for 2011, Capuchin Father Raniero Cantalamessa, preacher of the pontifical household, continues his survey of Church history, considering the second great wave of Evangelization in the history of the Church, that which followed the fall of the Roman Empire and the mix of nations caused by the Barbarian invasions. AUGUSTINE ARIANISM CLOVIS CYRIL METHODIUS INCULTURATION PATRICK BENEDICT MONASTICISM MARY

13. Church History - protomartrome.htm - 30 June: Commemorating the Protomartyrs of Rome
Fabrizio Bisconti

The sacrifice of the Protomartyrs of Rome is recalled with quotes from ancient pagan authorities. Blamed by Nero for the burning of Rome, Christians were subjected to many forms of torture, including being set on fire as torches to light Nero's garden. PETER PAUL TACITUS SUETONIUS

14. Church History - 33DAYJP1.HTM - 33 Days on the Chair of Peter

From October 1978, a summary of the short pontificate of Pope John Paul I, formerly Cardinal Albino Luciani, Patriarch of Venice. PAPACY

15. Church History - zcant3adv11.htm - 3rd Advent Sermon, 2011
Father Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M. Cap.

In his third Advent sermon for 2011, Capuchin Father Raniero Cantalamessa, preacher of the pontifical household, continues his survey of Church history, by examining the first evangelization of the American continent. GUADALUPE COLUMBUS DOMINICANS EXTRA ECCLESIAM NULLA SALUS FRANCISCANS JESUITS AUGUSTINIANS LATINA AMERICA CONQUISTADORS CHARISMATIC RELIGIOUS SECULARIZATION

16. Church History - 40ECSUP6.HTM - 40th Anniversary of Ecclesiam Suam by Pope Paul VI
Prof. Andrea Riccardi

According to Professor Riccardi, Pope Paul VI's first encyclical, published while Vatican II was in session, defined his pontificate. It called for the Church to enter into dialogue with other religions, not to dilute the Gospel, but to "inject the Christian message into the stream of modern thought." His aspiration, drawn from Pius XI, has been carried forward by John Paul II. ECUMENISM ECUMENICAL INTERRELIGIOUS

17. Church History - zcant4adv11.htm - 4th Advent Sermon, 2011
Father Raniero Cantalamessa, OFM Cap

In his fourth Advent sermon for 2011, Capuchin Father Raniero Cantalamessa, preacher of the pontifical household, concludes his survey of Church history, by examining the new evangelization, which is addressed to the western world that has been secularized and in some respects is post-Christian. LAITY KERYGMA GOSPEL SECULARISM PROCLAMATION KIERKEGAARD FAMILY

18. Church History - zvatradio.htm - 80-Year-Old Radio of the World Celebrates Its Protector

In honor of St Gabriel, Vatican Radio’s patron, ZENIT looks at the unique contribution to the common good made by Vatican Radio since its inauguration in 1931. COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA PIUS XI XII WORLD WAR II JOHN PAUL II

19. Church History - 80vatradio.htm - 80th Anniversary of Vatican Radio
Mons. Peter Bryan Wells

Celebrations for the 80th anniversary of Vatican Radio took place on 10 February 2011, at the Conference Hall of the Vatican Museums, led by Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo, President of the Governorate, Fr Federico Lombardi, SJ, Director of the Radio, Antonio Paolucci, Director of the Vatican Museums and Mons. Peter Bryan Wells, Assessor of the Secreteriat of State. The following is translation of Mons. Well's speech, which was given in Italian. MEDIA COMMUNICATION CELL PHONES SOCIAL NETWORKS

20. Church History - helmsmanp12.htm - A Brave Helmsman

The debate concerning Pius XII is alive in North America, as illustrated by the powerful biography by Canadian historian Robert Ventresca. The associate professor at King's University College, Western Ontario, recently published his book Soldier of Christ: The Life of Pope Pius XII at Harvard University Press. Professor Ventresca is interviewed by Andrea Galli of L'Osservatore Romano. HITLER NAZIS SHOA PACELLI WORLD WAR II

21. Church History - bridgeast.htm - A Bridge to Christians in the East
Cardinal Leonardo Sandri

Cardinal Sandri, Prefect of the Congregation for the Eastern Churches, at a conference for the Year of Faith at the Pontifical Romanian College, Rome, on 18 April 2013, spoke on the participation of the Oriental Fathers at the Second Vatican Council. ORTHODOXY EASTERN ORIENTAL RITES ECUMENISM CANONS UNITY

22. Church History - zcardfreed.htm - A Cardinal Freedom-Fighter

For five decades and with great faith and courage, Cardinal József Mindszenty fought at great personal cost for religious freedom in his native Hungary, offering a witness to the kind of heroism that might be needed in today’s increasingly tyrannical secularist societies. In an interview with Tibor Zinner, a professor of legal history, ZENIT recalls the Cardinal's fight for human rights. MARXISM COMMUNISM PERSECUTION

23. Church History - zcardcorr.htm - A Cardinal's Correspondence

Brother Frank McGrath is the editor of the Oxford University Press series "The Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman" (1801-1890), which has published its 32nd volume. In this interview, Brother McGrath talks about how it took the persistence of an American Jesuit to initiate the project, and how it's taken over 50 years for the project to come to fruition. ANGLICANISM BIRMINGHAM ORATORY

24. Church History - compreconcil.htm - A Compass for Reconciliation
Rabbi David Rosen

Rabbi David Rosen gives a Jewish response to the document The Gifts of God are Irrevocable, published by the Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews for the 50th Anniversary of Nostra Aetate. ISRAEL JUDAISM RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ILC COMPLEMENTARITY KINGDOM

25. Church History - conventvat.htm - A Convent in the Vatican
Giulia Galeotti

The article provides a history and description of the convent of Mater Ecclesiae, built by John Paul II within the Vatican territory, where Benedict XVI took up residence after concluding his pontificate. POOR CLARES, DISCALCED CARMELITES BENEDICTINES VISITANDINE SISTERS

26. Church History - corresfathp6.htm - A Conversation of Souls
Paolo Vian

An account is given of the spiritual closeness between Giovanni Battista Montini (Paul VI), and his father, Giorgio, as illustrated by their letters, some of which have been only recently published. FAMILY EUROPE ITALY SUFFERING

27. Church History - africtertull.htm - A Genius From the Outskirts
Marco Rizzi

The Italian daily, "Corriere della Sera", has brought out a new edition of The Apology of Tertullian for the Christians in its series I classici del pensiero libero. Greci e latini, published in 1996 by the Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli. The following is a translation from Italian of the Preface written especially for this editorial project. MYSTERION SACRAMENTUM MARTYR RIGORISM MONTANISM APOLOGETICUM

28. Church History - zarmenchurch.htm - A History of the Armenian Church

In connection with Pope Francis' Apostolic Visit to Armenia, 24-26 June 2016, the Vatican press office offered a brief history of the Armenian Apostolic Church. URARTU MAGI THADDEUS BARTHOLOMEW GREGORY ILLUMINATOR CHALCEDON MONOPHYSITISM CATHOLICOS ORTHODOX

29. Church History - HUGHHIST.TXT - A History of the Church: To the Eve of the Reformation
Philip Hughes

Volumes 1-3

30. Church History - HUGHHIST.ZIP - A History of the Church: To the Eve of the Reformation
Philip Hughes

Volumes 1-3

31. Church History - UKHolySee.htm - A Hundred Years of Diplomacy
Nigel Marcus Baker

The British Ambassador to the Holy See, in reference to the hundredth anniversary of the outbreak of World War I, recalls that this War occasioned the restoration of diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and the Holy See, after 350 years of estrangement. WARS OF RELIGION ELIZABETH I PIUS V REFORMATION

32. Church History - retroWYD05.htm - A Look Back at World Youth Day 2005
Fr. Sebastian Vazhakala, M.C.

A retrospective on World Youth Day 2005, in Cologne, Germany, is given by Fr. Vazhakala, Co-founder and Superior General of the Missionaries of Charity Contemplative Brothers and Priests, and Founder and Spiritual Director of the Lay Missionaries of Charity. CONFESSION EUCHARIST MOTHER TERESA BROTHER ROGER TAIZÉ

33. Church History - UKRAINE.HTM - A Monument to Heroism in Ukraine
Markijam Trofimiak, Bishop of Lutsk

The Bishop of Lutsk recalls the sufferings of the Catholic Church in Ukraine, under Soviet Communism, and how, with the lack of priests, Catholics fed their spiritual hunger with the Rosary and kept their faith alive. PRAYER PERSECUTION MARTYRS LITURGY

34. Church History - paulintegr.htm - A Pauline Integration of Christianity into Cultural and Juridical Structures
Juan Manuel De Prada

The universalism of St. Paul, who began Christianity's incorporation of pagan wisdom into its cultural patrimony, is presented as an example to modern Christians. Rather than shutting ourselves off from a neo-pagan world, we should enter into it and cleanse it from within. DIOGNETUS PHILOSOPHERS AREOPAGUS

35. Church History - piouswoman.htm - A Pious Woman of Well-to-do Rome
Fabrizio Bisconti

The growth of devotion to the Saints, and especially to the Apostles, is evidenced in their likenesses, found painted in Roman burial chambers from the 4th century. ICONS CATACOMBS SHRINES MARTYRS TOMBS CUBICULA THECLA HOLY LAND RELICS

36. Church History - mambaustr.htm - A Place of Importance on the Map
Cardinal Dominique Mamberti

On 24 November 2014, the Secretary for the Holy See’s Relations with States visited the Australian Catholic University, Sydney, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of diplomatic relations between Australia and the Holy See and of the centenary of the establishment of the Apostolic Delegation to Australasia. Published here is a large part of the Archbishop’s address. BOTANY BAY JAMES DIXON JOHN JOSEPH THERRY PHILIP CONNOLLY JOHN BEDE POLDING CATHERINE CHISHOLM MARY MACKILLOP MIGRANTS LLOYD THOMSON PAUL VI JOHN PAUL II BENEDICT XVI PAUL GALLAGHER

37. Church History - zorthpapa.htm - A Russian Orthodox View of Papacy, and More

Dialogue between Catholics and Orthodox can be fruitful, though many hurdles still exist on the road to Eucharistic communion, says a leading prelate. Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev of Vienna and Austria, representative of the Russian Orthodox Church to the European Institutions, commented in this interview on papal primacy, ecumenism, totalitarian liberalism and other topics. ISLAM TERRORISM LIBERAL HUMANISM PROTESTANT RELATIVISM

38. Church History - electjp1.htm - A Strengthening of Spirit
Vincenzo Bertolone

"The Church, in this common effort to be responsible and so respond to the pressing problems of the day, is called to give to the world that 'strengthening of the spirit' which is so needed and which alone can assure salvation". These are words uttered by Albino Luciani on the day after his election as Pope John Paul I. HUMILITY MARRIAGE FAMILY

39. Church History - chrchiraq.htm - A Testament to the Spiritual Power of Oriental Christianity
Anthony O'Mahony

Anthony O'Mahony, a Reader in the History of Christianity, Heythrop College, University of London, reviews and summarizes the book, Christianity in Iraq: Its origins and development to the Present Day, by Chaldean Christian Suha Rassam. Based on the book, O'Mahony highlights the resiliance and historical importance of Oriental Christianity. MIDDLE EAST ISLAM MUSLIMS ARABS DIASPORA ARMENIANS SYRIACS CHALCEDON ECUMENISM

40. Church History - gravwavs.htm - A Triumph in Physics
Guy Consolmagno

The Director of the Vatican Observatory reports on the first observation of gravitational waves by scientists at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). These waves conformed to Albert Einstein's explanation of gravity in his Theory of General Relativity 100 years ago. SPACE-TIME WARP

41. Church History - bertoneurope.htm - Address to a Special Conference in Poland on The Religious Factor and the Future of Europe
Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone

On 15 September 2007, on the occasion of the Seventh International Conference taking place in Krakow, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State, inaugurated the third study session of the Conference on "The Religious Factor and the Future of Europe". Cardinal Bertone spoke on the role of Christianity can play in establishing an ethos in Europe protective of the criteria of justice from despotic powers. SECULARISM HUMAN DIGNITY ETHICAL RELATIVISM MATERIALISM ATHEISM POLITICS CULTURE DEMOCRACY MULTICULTURALISM

42. Church History - stpetrtomb.htm - All the Mystery Surrounding St Peter's Tomb
Bruno Bartoloni

This is a translation from Italian of excerpts from the book, "Le orecchie del Vaticano," which recounts the story of the excavation of St Peter's tomb. PIUS XI PIUS XII DE ROSSI TROPHAEUM GAII GUARDUCCI

43. Church History - GRAFFITI.HTM - Ancient Graffiti in Roman Catacombs
Danilo Mazzoleni

The writer surveys ancient inscriptions left by pilgrims, to express their devotion or an invocation, while noting the difficulties in dating and deciphering these ancient records. ARCHAEOLOGY SAINTS

44. Church History - zanglicrossrds.htm - Anglicanism at the Crossroads

In this ZENIT article, the increasing disunity in the Anglican Communion raises doubts of its survival. Recent disputes concern the eligibility of women for the episcopate, and the ordination of an openly gay bishop in the U.S. Also at risk are ecumenical relations with the Catholic Church. HOMOSEXUALITY EPISCOPAL ENGLAND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

45. Church History - ANNUPONT.HTM - Annuario Pontificio 2002

Statistics drawn by L'Osservatore Romano from the 2002 Annuario show a significant turnaround after two decades of decline in vocations to the priesthood. BISHOPS PRIESTS PERMANENT DEACONS RELIGIOUS MISSIONARIES CATECHISTS

46. Church History - annupont07.htm - Annuario Pontificio 2007

Statistics drawn by L'Osservatore Romano from the 2007 Annuario show an increase in the Catholic world population, but no real increase proportional to the growth of world population in general. PRIESTS SEMINARIANS AMERICA AFRICA ASIA EUROPE OCEANIA

47. Church History - annupont09.htm - Annuario Pontificio 2009

Statistics drawn by L'Osservatore Romano from the 2009 Annuario show an increase in the Catholic world population, an increase in the numbers of Bishops and priests, though a decline in religious sisters. BAPTIZED AMERICA ASIA OCEANIA EUROPE AFRICA DEACONS

48. Church History - ANNU2002.HTM - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2002

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2002, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana, supplies the data for an overview of the worldwide numerical strength of the Catholic Church as of 2002, with comparative figures from 1978 and 1990. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS RELIGIOUS SEMINARIANS CANDIDATES

49. Church History - annu2003 - Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae 2003

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae, compiled by the Central Office for Statistics of the Church and published by the Vatican Publishing House, gives the most important data for assessing the the structural trends of the Church over the past 25 years. BAPTIZED FAITHFUL BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS RELIGIOUS SEMINARIANS VOCATIONS

50. Church History - puginarch.htm - Architect to the English Catholic Revival
Roderick O'Donnell FSA

Marking the 200th anniversary of the birth of Augustus Pugin, the great English Catholic architect, this article relates his conversion to Catholicism and his place in England's Catholic revival. GOTHIC HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT BIG BEN ST CHAD ST GILES LITURGICAL MOVEMENT ST COLMAN HOLY CROSS CATHEDRAL

51. Church History - augustexts.htm - Augustinian Texts Discovered in Germany
Dorothea Weber and Clemens Weidmann

In recent years, many unpublished sermons and letters of St. Augustine have been discovered, most recently, in Erfurt, a series of sermons following the liturgical year. This collection seems to have been transferred from Northern Africa to Southern Italy, then to England, where the sermons were transcribed, and finally to Germany. MARTYRS RESURRECTION FATHERS

52. Church History - zlambspall.htm - Benedict XVI Blesses Lambs for Palliums

Pope Benedict XVI's blessing of two lambs, 21 January 2007, from whose wool the palliums worn by metropolitan archbishops will be woven, provides the occasion for a succinct explanation from ZENIT, of the meaning of the pallium. ST AGNES PAPACY

53. Church History - zgestlove.htm - Benedict XVI's Gesture of Love

The exchange of visits between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches is a "gesture of love," according to Father Giovanni Cereti, in an interview with ZENIT on the importance of Benedict XVI's four-day apostolic trip to Turkey, 28 November to 1 December 2006, which included a visit to the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Father Cereti is a Catholic theologian and lecturer of ecumenical theology at Venice's Institute of Ecumenical Studies, at Rome's Pontifical Theological Faculty Marianum and the Mater Ecclesiae Higher Institute of Religious Studies, connected to the Pontifical Angelicum University in Rome. ECUMENISM FILOQUE CONSTANTINOPLE ECCLESIOLOGY KOINONIA SCHISM FLORENCE

54. Church History - zben16vat2 - Benedict XVI, Vatican II and Modernity

According to theologian Tracey Rowland, 40 years of post-conciliar history and reflection on the 1965 pastoral constitution, Gaudium et Spes, have led many to conclude that the document had an inadequate understanding of culture, particularly that of liberal modernity. In a 2-part interview, she shared with ZENIT why a reinterpretation of the document is necessary to reorient the Church's encounter with liberal modern culture, and she discussed two schools of Thomism on the subject. SECULAR HUMANISM DE LUBAC JOHN PAUL II RELATIVISM

55. Church History - zeursoul.htm - Britain's Chief Rabbi Calls Europe To Rediscover Its Soul

In an address given by Britain's chief rabbi, at a conference held 1/16/2012 at Rome's Pontifical Gregorian University, Lord Jonathan Sachs explained how the free market and democratic capitalism were fostered by the Judeo-Christian culture. Europe can't disregard these roots and maintain a healthy economic, political and cultural future. ECONOMY CREDIT FREE MARKET DIGNITY

56. Church History - incensidols.htm - Burning Incense Before Idols
Colin Donovan, STL

Colin Donovan, Vice President for Theology at EWTN, compares ancient Rome's mandate requiring all to burn incense to idols to the current U.S. government's mandate forcing American citizens to act contrary to their consciences in providing health care covering contraception and abortifacients to all employees. HEALTH CARE MATERIAL COOPERATION STERILIZATION

57. Church History - zgiftpeter.htm - Cardinal Collins: Grateful for the Gift of Peter

Cardinal Thomas Collins, archbishop of Toronto, describes his experience of the papal conclave (March 2013). These days, he says, have given him a deeper appreciation for the gift of Peter to the Church. This was the first conclave for Cardinal Collins, 66, who was named a cardinal in 2012. ZENIT asked him to share his experience with us. POPE FRANCIS HOLY SPIRIT REASON INSPIRATION MARY SOUTH AMERICA PETRINE MINISTRY

58. Church History - zcottconfl.htm - Cardinal Cottier on Conflicts in the Church

At age 90, Cardinal Georges Cottier has a rich perspective on the developments of the past and the path of the future. In this third part of his dialogue with ZENIT, he speaks about the sins of today for which future generations will ask forgiveness, and also offers advice for youth. The first portions of this interview can be read here and here. ABORTION EMBRYO ARMS TRADE WAR DEMOCRACY GENDER FEMINISIM MARRIAGE OF PRIESTS YOUTH

59. Church History - zcottevang.htm - Cardinal Cottier on Evangelization

Swiss Cardinal Georges Cottier, OP, was a university professor for decades, former secretary of the International Theological Commission and former papal theologian, very close to the thought of the present Pope. ZENIT spoke to the 90-year-old cardinal on the assimilation of Vatican II over the past 50 years. RELIGIOUS LIBERTY CHURCH GOSPEL PROCLAMATION CATECHESIS

60. Church History - zcottforgiv.htm - Cardinal Cottier on Pope John Paul's Request for Forgiveness

In this interview with ZENIT, held in his residence in the Vatican, Cardinal Georges Cottier, former papal theologian, spoke with nostalgia of his “boss,” Pope John Paul II, recognizing that many of his acts as Pontiff were a legacy of the spirit of Vatican II, while others were marked by an intuition, which later opened paths to humanity in its search for peace and understanding. HOPE CATECHISM RATZINGER SLAVERY INQUISITION ANTI-SEMITISM ASSISI MUSLIMS PEACE

61. Church History - zdziwjp2.htm - Cardinal Dziwisz on John Paul II's 1st Poland Trip

The dismantling of the Berlin Wall didn't begin in Berlin. Rather it happened in 1979 in Poland, according to Pope John Paul II's longtime personal secretary, Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, in an interview with Marcin Przeciszewski and Tomasz Królak of the Polish Catholic agency Kai. ZENIT here presents that interview. MEXICO LIBERATION THEOLOGY COMMUNISM MARXISM OSTPOLITIK SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT EXORCISM DEVIL

62. Church History - zdziwpope.htm - Cardinal Dziwisz: The New Pope Will Also Enrich the Church

Here is a draft translation from Polish of an interview Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz gave to the catholic weekly Niedziela, regarding the pontificate of Benedict XVI. Cardinal Dziwisz was the personal secretary of Pope John Paul II, and was made a cardinal in 2006. RATZINGER CONCLAVE HOLY SPIRIT

63. Church History - zbastpaul.htm - Cardinal Monterisi: Francis Is Awakening Fervor

On Sunday, 21 April 2013, Pope Francis took possession of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, the third of the four papal basilicas. ZENIT spoke with the former archpriest of the basilica, about its history, the monks there, the tomb of Saint Paul, as well as the ceremony in which the Holy Father took possession of it. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS CONSTANTINE LEO GREAT GALLA PLACIDA POPE FRANCIS

64. Church History - zpopeaustr.htm - Cardinal Schönborn on the Pope in Austria

Cardinal Christoph Schönborn says Benedict XVI is the last of the great Second Vatican Council theologians, and that the Pope's words are always both important and fascinating. In view of Benedict XVI's visit to Austria 7-9 September 2007, the archbishop of Vienna and president of the Austrian bishops' conference spoke to ZENIT about the Pope, the man and the successor of Peter. PAPACY VATICAN II SECULAR SOCIETY FAMILY CHILDREN MARIAZELL

65. Church History - SUDANPE.HTM - Cardinal Wako of Khartoum, Sudan: Appeal for Peace
Francesco M. Valiante

An article describing the difficulties faced by the Church in Sudan, and the encouragement provided by Pope John Paul II, with his canonization of Josephine Bakhita and Daniel Comboni, and the gift of the country's first indigenous Cardinal, Archbishop Gabriel Zubeir Wako of Khartoum. EVANGELIZATION MISSIONARY VOCATIONS REFUGEES WAR

66. Church History - fantP10canlw.htm - Carlo Fantappiè's Study on Pius X and the Code of Canon Law
Gianpaolo Romanato

A monumental work on the 1917 Code of Canon Law, by Carlo Fantappiè, professor of canon law at the University of Urbino, is reviewed. According to Fantappiè, Pope Pius X, recognizing the major changes in relationship between Church and State following the French Revolution and the Napoleonic empire, called for a complete reformulation of Church law. LIBERAL GOVERNMENT NATION-STATES SARTO GASPARRI

67. Church History - castgandolf.htm - Castel Gandolfo and the Popes

L'Osservatore Romano provides an overview of the history of Castel Gandolfo, the summer residence of the Popes, from its foundation c. 1200 by the Gandolfi family of Genoa, to its acquisition by the Holy See in 1604, to the present. LATERAN TREATY PACTS PAPAL STATES VILLA PONTIFICIA PONTIFICAL VILLA NAPOLEON

68. Church History - cathpent.htm - Catholic and Pentecostal Relations
Fr. Juan Usma Gómez

Fr. Gómez, of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, summarizes the beginnings of Pentecostalism and its spread to other denominations. He sketches relations between Protestant Pentacostalism and the Charismatic movement in the Catholic Church, with particular focus on the divergent views of the "Baptism in the Holy Spirit." PROSELYTISM MISSIOLOGY CATHOLIC CHARISMATIC RENEWAL

69. Church History - zstats2016,htm - Catholic Church Statistics 2016
Fides News Service

As conveyed by ZENIT, Fides News Service offers some statistics chosen to give a panorama of the missionary Church all over the world. The tables are taken from the latest edition of the “Church’s Book of Statistics” published (updated to 31 December 2014) regarding members of the Church, church structures, healthcare, welfare and education. POPULATION PRIESTS MISSIONS BISHOPS PERMANENT DEACONS RELIGIOUS SECULAR INSTITUTES MISSIONARIES CATECHISTS SEMINARIANS CHARITIES

70. Church History - ECUMCONF.HTM - Catholic Conference for Ecumenical Questions
Prof. Jan Jacobs

Professor Jacobs recounts the introduction of the Catholic Church into the ecumenical movement in the 1950s, with the formation of the Catholic Conference for Ecumenical Questions. The leadership of Yves Congar and Johannes Willebrands is highlighted. UNITY PROTESTANTS WCC WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES VATICAN II UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

71. Church History - CATHRUSS.HTM - Catholic Dioceses in Russia

In the face of charges that the establishment of Catholic dioceses in Russia is without precedent, L'Osservatore Romano sketches a brief history of the Catholic presence there under both the Czars and the Soviets. ORTHODOX CATHERINE NICHOLAS PROSELYTISM EVANGELISM

72. Church History - zcathorigeu.htm - Catholic Origins of the European Union

The original idea of the European Union has deep roots in Catholic social teaching, according to the author of a book on Robert Schumann, one of the founders of the institution. In this interview with ZENIT, Catholic historian Alan Fimister discusses the Catholic vision of the European Union's founders and what it means for a Catholic understanding of the European Union today. LEO XIII ROYALISM REPUBLICANISM THOMAS AQUINAS THOMISM MARITAIN DEMOCRACY

73. Church History - byzantart.htm - Catholic Symbolism in Byzantine Art
Christopher Evan Longhurst

This article is a reflection on Byzantine art, how it differs from western religious art, with an explanation of how it may be viewed to spiritual advantage by western eyes. ICONS ICONOGRAPHY IMAGERY MIMESIS

74. Church History - cathengid.htm - Catholicism at the Root of the English Identity
Mark Langham and Justin Bedford

A Member of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and the Deputy Head of Mission, British Embassy to the Holy See, describes how the faith that once experienced exclusion and martyrdom has now become a unifying element among the English people. CATHOLICISM VENERABLE ENGLISH COLLEGE REFORMATION

75. Church History - EGPTCATH.HTM - Catholics in Egypt Reflect Church's Rich and Varied Traditions

This article breaks down the Catholic presence in Egypt to seven groups with various heritages and traditions. RITE COPTIC MELKITE MARONITE SYRIA ARMENIA CHALDE

76. Church History - HCHALCED.TXT - Chalcedon, 451
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Conucil of Chalcedon, which defined against the Monophysites the traditional belief of the Church on the two natures of Christ. Chapter 4 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES CHALCEDON ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA JOHN OF ANTIOCH LEO I EUTYCHES DIOSCOROS FLAVIAN MONOPHYSITES MONOPHYSITISM EPHESUS LATROCINIUM LEO THE GREAT TOME OF LEO EUSEBIUS OF DORYLAEUM

77. Church History - HCHALCED.ZIP - Chalcedon, 451
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Conucil of Chalcedon, which defined against the Monophysites the traditional belief of the Church on the two natures of Christ. Chapter 4 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES CHALCEDON ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA JOHN OF ANTIOCH LEO I EUTYCHES DIOSCOROS FLAVIAN MONOPHYSITES MONOPHYSITISM EPHESUS LATROCINIUM LEO THE GREAT TOME OF LEO EUSEBIUS OF DORYLAEUM

78. Church History - ZLEGREG.HTM - Challenges for Legionaries and Regnum Christi

In a two-part interview with ZENIT, Father Álvaro Corcuera, who succeeded as general director of the Legionaries of Christ, to Father Marcial Maciel, founder of the congregation, says that their mission will remain the same: to bring people to a personal encounter with Christ. MISSIONARY EVANGELIZATION MEXICO

79. Church History - zchrstrelig.htm - Christ and Religions, According to Cardinal Poupard

Cardinal Paul Poupard, who has been president of the Pontifical Council for Culture since 1982, has been named president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue by Pope Benedict XVI. This additional appointment, according to the note of the Vatican press office, is in response to the desire "to foster more intense dialogue between the men of culture and distinguished members of different religions." Cardinal Poupard shared with perspective on the change with ZENIT. CURIA

80. Church History - oltaper.htm - Christ the Light of the World
Fr Jason Jones

Fr Jones, Rector of the Shrine of Our Lady of the Taper, Diocese of Menevia, tells the history of this National Shrine for Catholics in Wales. The original image, from the 12th century, was destroyed by Cromwell in the 16th century. It was described as Our Lady seated, holding a candle, with the Christ Child on her knee. The present image was dedicated in 1986. PILGRIMAGE MYSTERIES OF LIGHT CARDIGAN BENEDICTINES EPIPHANY CANDLEMAS

81. Church History - zchurchgrow.htm - Church Growing Everywhere Except Europe

According to data taken from the latest edition [in 2005] of the Church's statistical yearbook, as of year-end 2003, baptized Catholics increased by 0.3%, and now comprise 17.23% of the world's population. The data were reported by Fides, an agency of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, on the occasion of World Mission Sunday 2005. BISHOPS PRIESTS DEACONS SEMINARIANS WOMEN RELIGIOUS CATECHISTS

82. Church History - zcamhist.htm - Church in Cambodia: Teaching History

The communist regimes in Cambodia took the lives of 2 million people, and also robbed the nation of its culture and history. Young people today have no link to their heritage. That's one reason that education is the priority for the tiny Catholic Church in Cambodia, says Bishop Olivier Schmitthaeusler, Vicar Apostolic of Phnom Penh. BUDDHISM KHMER ROUGE EVANGELIZATION PROSELYTISM SECTS

83. Church History - CHIRELND.HTM - Church in Ireland: Divining the Future

Despite the decline of Ireland's ancient Catholic culture over the past few decades, Father Vincent Twomey, a lecturer in moral theology at Maynooth College and editor-in-chief of the Irish Theological Quarterly, shared with ZENIT his conviction that the faith and loyalty of many laity and clerics have kept the Church strong, with the potential of still bearing much fruit. MISSIONARIES CHARITABLE SOCIAL WORK VATICAN II CLERGY LITURGY DEVOTIONS EPISCOPAL CONFERENCES BISHOPS

84. Church History - chrchjewshintel.htm - Church's Advance of Jewish Intellectuals During the Rise of Racism
Paolo Vian

Dr. Vian describes the efforts made by Cardinal Giovanni Mercati, Librarian of the Holy Roman Church from 1936 to 1957, to find sanctuary, primarily in North America, for Jewish intellectuals, who had lost their positions in the mid to late '30s with the rise of racist political theory in Europe. RACISM ANTI-SEMITISM PIUS XI FASCISM HITLERISM NAZISM

85. Church History - pontp12.htm - Clarifying the Nature and Significance of Eugenio Pacelli's Pontificate
Giovanni Maria Vian

The Editor-in-Chief of L'Osservatore Romano recapitulates the emergence of the "Black Legend" about Pius XII in the years following World War II, with an outline of the new historiographical consensus on the importance of his pontificate. JEWS SHOAH NAZISM COMMUNISM JOHN XXIII PAUL VI HOCHHUTH

86. Church History - caldeycent.htm - Commemoration of the Centenary of the Monks' Conversion on Caldey
Bishop Hugh Gilbert, OSB

The Bishop of Aberdeen describes the difficult journey of the Anglican monks of the Island of Caldey, recalling the wanderings of Israel before reaching the promised land. The centenary of the monks crossing the Jordan into full communion with the Catholic Church was celebrated on 5 March 2013. PIUS X BENEDICTINES COLUMBA MARMION

87. Church History - compapchina.htm - Commentary on the Papal Letter to the Church in the People's Republic of China
Cardinal Paul Kuo-hsi, S.J.

In his commentary on the Letter of Pope Benedict XVI to the Church in China (30 June 2007), Cardinal Kuo-hsi, Bishop emeritus of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, observes the pastoral concern of the Holy Father for the unity of the Church, and his encouragement of the faithful to forgive those who have lapsed under persecution. UNIVERSAL BISHOP PAPACY COMMUNION STATE CHINESE PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION

88. Church History - CATHORTH.HTM - Communique of Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Roman Catholic and the Orthodox Church
Joint International Commission

The eighth plenary session, meeting in Emmitsburg, Maryland, 9-19 July 2000, discussed the theme, the "Ecclesiological and Canonical Implications of Uniatism," i.e., of the reunion of certain eastern Churches, or parts of Churches, with Rome, independently of the larger Orthodoxy bodies with which they were once in communion. The session concluded without agreement on the issue. ECUMEN PATRIARCH

89. Church History - aud42P12.htm - Confidential Audience in 1942 with Pius XII
Paolo Dezza

On 28 June 1964 "L'Osservatore della Domenica" published the account by Fr Paolo Dezza, SJ — Rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University from 1941-1951 — of a highly confidential Audience granted to him by Pope Pius XII. This is a translation of his article, which was written in Italian. NAZIS COMMUNISM RUSSIA HITLER ZOLLI JEWS ANTI-SEMITISM

90. Church History - HCONSTA1.TXT - Constantinople I, 381
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the First General Council of Constantinople, which condemned Arianism, Apollinarism, and other forms of christological heresy. Chapter 2 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' This file is also contained in HCONSTA2.ZIP HUGHES CONSTANTINOPLE I ARIANISM APPOLINARISM

91. Church History - HCONSTA2.TXT - Constantinople II, 553
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the Second General Council of Constantinople, which condemned the notorious 'Three Chapters' in a continuation of the Monophysite controversy. The condemnations were approved under pressure by a captive Pope Vigilius. Chapter 5 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' The ZIP also contains a summary of the First Council of Constantinople. HUGHES CONSTANTINOPLE ACACIUS HENOTICON FELIX III THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA THEODORET OF CYRRHUS IBAS OF EDESSA JUSTINIAN THEODORA THR

92. Church History - HCONSTA2.ZIP - Constantinople II, 553
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the Second General Council of Constantinople, which condemned the notorious 'Three Chapters' in a continuation of the Monophysite controversy. The condemnations were approved under pressure by a captive Pope Vigilius. Chapter 5 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' The ZIP also contains a summary of the First Council of Constantinople. HUGHES CONSTANTINOPLE ACACIUS HENOTICON FELIX III THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA THEODORET OF CYRRHUS IBAS OF EDESSA JUSTINIAN THEODORA THR

93. Church History - CE_CREF.HTM - Counter-Reformation
Catholic Encyclopedia

An article on the Counter-Reformation from the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913). REFORMATION TRENT PIUS LOYOLA JESUITS LUTHER PROTESTANTS PROTESTANTISM

94. Church History - CE_CRUSA.HTM - Crusades
Catholic Encyclopedia


95. Church History - ZCRUSADE.HTM - Crusades: Truth and Black Legend

According to Italian Catholic writer Vittorio Messori, the Enlightenment cast a "black legend" shadow on the Crusades, and used it as a weapon in its psychological war against the Roman Catholic Church. In an article in "Corriere della Sera," Italy's most important newspaper, Messori wrote, "In order to complete the work of the Reformation, it was 18th century Europe that began the chain of 'Roman infamies' that have become dogma." ISLAM MOSLEM JERUSALEM SPAIN MOORS AFRICA

96. Church History - ZPONTJP2.HTM - Cuba's Cardinal Analyzes Impact of John Paul II's Pontificate

Cardinal Jaime Ortega Alamino, archbishop of Havana, assessed the 25 years of John Paul II's pontificate by describing it as "a colossal effort to take history out of its present inertia." In this interview with Spanish Radio-Television, the Cuban cardinal also analyzed the repercussions of John Paul II's visit to Cuba. PAPACY SOCIAL TEACHING POLITICS

97. Church History - ANCESTCH.HTM - Dialogue With Ancient Churches of the East
Fr Johan Bonny

Fr Bonny, of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, summarizes historical causes of division of Eastern Churches from the Catholic Church, and gives an update on current efforts to restore unity. ECUMEN ARMENIA MALANKARA SYRO-MALABAR ASSYRIA

98. Church History - zukranchrch.htm - Discovering an Eastern Church

ZENIT asked historian Father Athanasius McVay, a Ukrainian-Greek Catholic priest, to shed light on the history and culture of the Ukrainian Church, the largest Eastern Church in the US. Fr McVay is chair of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto. UNIATE LITURGY UKRAINE PERSECUTION IMMIGRATION EXARCATES

99. Church History - dishonesty.htm - Dishonesty and Misinformation
Bernard-Henri Levy

As this article shows, the mass media have misinformed the public regarding the actions and attitudes of two Popes, Benedict XVI and Pius XII, toward the Jewish people. NAZIS ANTI-SEMITISM SHOAH HOCHHUTH

100. Church History - FELIVAT2.HTM - Dissent and Collaboration After Vatican Council II

An article from L'Osservatore Romano (27 March 1969), summarizing a series of talks, given by Cardinal Pericles Felici on Vatican Radio, in which he outlined the Church's situation following Vatican II. TRADITION TRENT DISSENT LAITY BISHOPS

101. Church History - zdivremar.htm - Divorce and Remarriage in the Early Church?
Antonio Grappone

ZENIT gives an examination of the discipline of the early Church with regard to the "twice-married," and whether this expression referred to persons who had divorced and remarried. DIGAMOS MONOGAMOS NOVATIONISTS MARRIAGE INDISSOLUBILITY MONTANISTS

102. Church History - zjwpalp12.htm - Documents: Pius XII Favored a Jewish Homeland in Palestine

Pave the Way Foundation, an organization researching the history of Pius XII's relationship with the Jews says that a series of documents recently uncovered show a pattern of direct actions by Archbishop Eugenio Pacelli (the future Pope) that culminated in the establishment of the modern State of Israel. ZIONISM ANTI-SEMITISM

103. Church History - ZIMMACON.HTM - Dogma of Immaculate Conception Opened a New Era

Proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception was a providential event that reinvigorated "an exhausted Church." It reminded the faithful of "the existence of original sin and Christ's redemption," according to Italian journalist Vincenzo Sansonetti, in this interview with ZENIT. INEFFABILIS DEUS GUADALUPE

104. Church History - EVEISLAM.HTM - Eastern Christianity on the Eve of Islam
Dr. George Khoury

A survey of eastern Christian churches (separated from Rome) in the middle east at the birth of Islam. Taken from the magazine "Al-Bushra" created by Rev. Labib Kobti from the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. ARIUS APOLLINARIS NESTORIAN CHALCEDON MONOPHYSIT JACOBITE ARMENIA COPTIC ETHIOPIC MARONITE MELKITE

105. Church History - ISTNRELC.HTM - Ecumenical Celebration: Istanbul, Turkey
Cardinal Walter Kasper

On the occasion of the Feast of St Andrew, 30 November 2004, the Holy Father sent a Delegation to Istanbul, Turkey, led by Cardinal Walter Kasper, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. During an Ecumenical Celebration held in the Cathedral of Saint George, the Cardinal delivered the following discourse, with particular reference to the relics of St. John Chrysostom and St. Gregory Nazianzen, which the Holy Father had just returned to Constantinople. ECUMENISM DIALOGUE ORTHODOXY COMMUNION KOINONIA

106. Church History - eculegjp2 - Ecumenical Legacy of Pope John Paul II
Bishop Brian Farrell, L.C.

In his pontificate, John Paul II made Christian unity a "demanding priority." Bishop Farrell, Secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, relates what the Holy Father did to promote a "calm, clear, truthful vision" of what divides Christians, in the conviction that this would help to reunite them. ECUMENICAL DIALOGUE MOTHER OF GOD OF KAZAN FUNERAL

107. Church History - EGPTMNK.HTM - Egypt: Cradle of Christian Monasticism
Vittorino Grossi

A summary of the rise and role of monasticism in the early Egyptian Church. COPT MANICHAEAN PACHOM ANTHONY SHENOUTE MONOPHYSITE

108. Church History - HEPHESUS.TXT - Ephesus, 431
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Council of Ephesus, which condemned the heresy of Nestorius, who separated Christ's humanity and his divinity by claiming that Mary should not be called Mother of God but only Mother of Christ. Chapter 3 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES EPHESUS NESTORIUS NESTORIANISM ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA CELESTINE I JOHN OF ANTIOCH THEOTOKOS

109. Church History - HEPHESUS.ZIP - Ephesus, 431
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the General Council of Ephesus, which condemned the heresy of Nestorius, who separated Christ's humanity and his divinity by claiming that Mary should not be called Mother of God but only Mother of Christ. Chapter 3 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES EPHESUS NESTORIUS NESTORIANISM ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA CELESTINE I JOHN OF ANTIOCH THEOTOKOS

110. Church History - genealf1.htm - Episcopal Genealogy of Pope Francis
Mariano Dell'Omo

The episcopal lineage of Pope Francis is shown to be the same as that of the Popes in whose pontificates he has lived, with the single exception of Pius XI. PAUL IV VI CLEMENT XI XIII BENEDICT XIII XIV XVI JOHN PAUL I II PIUS XII

111. Church History - venengcol.htm - Every Drop of Blood the Seed of a Future Harvest
David Howell

A second year seminarian, from the Archdiocese of Southwark, studying at the Venerable English College in Rome, describes the original impact and continuing influence of the English martyrs, who died, between 1581 and 1679, for their fidelity to the Catholic Faith. MARTYRS' DAY RICHARD SHERWIN EVANGELIZATION LUKE KIRBY HENRY MORSE MASS POLYDORE PLASDEN DAVID LEWIS EDMUND CAMPION HENRY WALPOLE

112. Church History - sovdenp12.htm - Everyone Knew Until the Soviets Began to Deny It
Dalya Alberge

Pius XII has long been vilified as "Hitler's pope", accused of failing publicly to condemn the genocide of Europe's Jews. Now a British author has unearthed extensive material that Vatican insiders believe will restore his reputation, revealing the part that he played in saving lives and opposing Nazism. GORDON THOMAS RYCHLAK DOINO JEWHURST

113. Church History - vatfinan08.htm - Financial Statement for 2008

L'Osservatore Romano reports the details of the Vatican financial report for 2008, presented on 1-3 July 2009 at the 43rd Meeting of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Financial problems of the Holy See. The meeting was chaired by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, SDB, Secretary of State. PETER'S PENCE BUDGET REVENUE EXPENSES

114. Church History - nostraetat40.htm - For the 40th Anniversary of Nostra Aetate
Archbishop Michael L. Fitzgerald, M.Afr.

Archbishop Fitzgerald, President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, examines the continuing relevance of The Declaration on the Relations of the Church to Non-Christian Religions, forty years after it was approved by the Vatican II Fathers, 28 October 1965. UNITY DIALOGUE

115. Church History - Epiphmagi.htm - For the Solemnity of the Epiphany of the Lord
Hans-Joachim Kracht

The "Adoration of the Wisemen," celebrated on the Solemnity of Epiphany, is examined for its meaning in theology, art, and popular devotion. The history of the Magi's relics is traced from Jerusalem to Cologne. GENTILES THREE KINGS STAR OF BETHLEHEM GASPAR MELCHIOR BALTHAZAR

116. Church History - zforgivehate.htm - Forgiving Hate

Father Jean Bernard (1907-1994), a native of Luxembourg, was the general secretary of the international Catholic Cinema Office in Brussels when the Nazis invaded Luxembourg, Belgium and Holland in 1940. Father Bernard was arrested and taken to Dachau, where he remained until he was freed, in August 1942. His experience at the camp is the subject of his memoir "Priestblock 25487." In this interview with ZENIT, William Doino explains why this memoir offers important insight into the relationship of the Church with Nazi Germany. HITLER HOLOCAUST CLERGYMEN PIUS XII

117. Church History - LATPACTS.HTM - Forty Years After the Lateran Pacts

In 1969, on the 40th anniversary of the Lateran Pacts, L'Osservatore Romano recalled how the signing of the Pacts ended decades of difficulties for the Papacy and the Church in Italy, and began a new era in the history of the Church and of the Italian People. VATICAN PIUS XI PIUS XII

118. Church History - corunum40yrs.htm - Forty Years at the Service of the Charitable Works of the Church
Cardinal Robert Sarah

Cardinal Sarah, President of the Pontifical Council "Cor Unum," recalls the establishment of this Council by Paul VI on 15 July 1971. The new dicastery was, and is, intended to balance care for the needy with missionary zeal, and to be “a meeting point, for dialogue and coordination among the many charitable organizations of the Church.” CHARITY COMMUNION EVANGELIZATION

119. Church History - zscotrome.htm - FORUM: Celebrating St. Andrew, Scotland in Rome
Fr Daniel Fitzpatrick

Here are the reflections of Fr Daniel Fitzpatrick, Rector of the Pontifical Scots College in Rome, on the history of the College and Scotland's relationship with the Holy See. Fr. Fitzpatrick is guest blogger for Ambassador Nigel Baker. JAMES VI NINIAN JACOBITE

120. Church History - frconfal.htm - Fr Confalonieri's Legacy in the Australian Church
Stefano Girola

An account is given of the work of 19th century Italian missionary Fr Angelo Bartolomeo Confalonieri with the Aborigines of northern Australia. Though he died young, unused to the rigor of their nomadic ways, his mission had a lasting influence. EVANGELIZATION INCULTURATION

121. Church History - francignat.htm - Francis, Ignatius and Reform
Kevin L. Flannery, SJ

A Jesuit reflects on a Pope who, while himself a Jesuit, took the name of Francis, after the Poor Man of Assisi, and how his "apostolic simplicity" has shown that one can be a man of the poor without being a Marxist. IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA FRANCIS OF ASSISI OUR LADY OF MONTSERRAT

122. Church History - PLNDJP2.HTM - From Poland to Rome

An article from October 1978, in L'Osservatore Romano, giving the biography of Cardinal Karol Wotyla, after his election as Supreme Pontiff in succession to Pope John I. PAPACY

123. Church History - FUNERJP1.HTM - Funeral Mass for Pope John Paul I
Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri

The funeral Mass for Pope John Paul I was celebrated 4 October 1978. In his homily, Cardinal Confalonieri described the departed Pontiff as "a meteor which unexpectedly lights up the heavens and then disappears, leaving us amazed and astonished." PAPACY

124. Church History - zChristiansChina.htm - Future of Christians in China

The Church in China exists among lights and shadows, said an Italian reporter who recently spent three weeks in the country meeting with priests, nuns and lay people. Following his trip, Gerolamo Fazzini, co-editor of Mondo e Missione, of the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions, wrote six reports, on as many Chinese cities, for the Italian Catholic episcopate's newspaper Avvenire. RELIGIOUS RIGHTS FREEDOM CHINESE CATHOLICS' PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION UNDERGROUND CHURCH BILLINGS METHOD NFP NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING

125. Church History - ZJP2WEIG.HTM - George Weigel on John Paul II’s Impact

In this ZENIT interview, George Weigel, a senior fellow of the Ethics and Public Policy Center in Washington, D.C., and papal biographer, explains became "a kind of one-man moral reference point for the entire world." He believed that Christ is the answer to all the world's problems. EUROPE COMMUNISM THEOLOGY OF THE BODY MARRIAGE SEXUALITY DIVINE MERCY MARY ECCLESIOLOGY ORTHODOXY

126. Church History - zproofp12.htm - Group Gives New Proof of Pius XII's Help for Jews

Recently uncovered documents show gestures of friendship and protection that Pius XII showed to Jews before, during and after World War II. The discoveries were made by the German historian and advisor, Michael Hesemann, who found a number of documents in the Vatican Secret Archives that certified Pope Pacelli's numerous interventions in favor of Jews. NAZIS HITLER PALESTINE

127. Church History - habpapexhib.htm - Habemus Papam Exhibition
Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone

On 7 December 2006, the Secretary of State, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, presided at the inauguration of the Exhibition: "'Habemus Papam': Pontifical elections from St. Peter to Benedict XVI", which consists of a large collection of artworks that illustrate this theme and focus on the Papal Conclave. The Cardinal underlined God's guidance of the Conclave, to assure continuance of the papal succession. POPES

128. Church History - zhidmonast.htm - Hidden Monastery in Rome Possesses Rich History

Hidden away behind the wall of a modern Roman hospital stand the remains of an old monastery, which, for centuries reaching back to the lifetime of Saint Clare of Assisi, once housed a community of Poor Clare sisters. Joan Lloyd, a retired professor of art history who has done extensive study on San Cosimato, spoke with ZENIT about the monastery. HOSPITALITY GREGORY XI SIXTUS IV

129. Church History - VILLAS.HTM - Historic Villas Overlook Lake Albano
Dr Hans-Joachim Kracht

Dr. Kracht, editor of the German edition of L'Osservatore Romano, provides history and description of Castel Gandolfo, the Pope's summer residence, which includes several villas, a dairy farm, and an observatory. VATICAN

130. Church History - pryrunity.htm - Historical Profile: Founder of the Octave of Prayer for Christian Unity
James F. Puglisi, S.A.

Father Puglisi, Minister General, Franciscan Friars of the Atonement, tells the story of the founder of the Society, Episcopal clergyman, Father Paul Wattson. Father Wattson, together with fellow Episcopalian Lurana White, founded the Society, brought it home to Rome, and successfully promoted the Octave of Prayer for Christian Unity. ANGLICAN COMMUNION ORDERS ST FRANCIS PAPACY CHAIR OF PETER APOSTOLICAE CURAE

131. Church History - histnotabus.htm - History Must Not Be Abused

L'Osservatore Romano responds to a clumsy attempt on the part of the London daily, The Guardian, to indict the Holy See of complicity with the Fascist regime under Mussolini. LATERAN PACTS ROMAN QUESTION ALLIES

132. Church History - dialeastwest.htm - History of a Dialogue
Christiaan Kappes

This article recalls various attempts through history to reconcile Eastern Orthodoxy and the Roman Catholic Church. Attention is given to the impact of St Thomas Aquinas on Orthodox theologians. A colloquium is planned for June 2012, in which the topic of study is the Scholastic influence on Byzantine theology. PALAMAS MARK OF EPHESUS COUNCIL OF FLORENCE SCHOLARIOS

133. Church History - KAZAKHST.HTM - History of Catholic Church in Kazakhstan

L'Osservatore Romano sketches the long history of the Catholic Church in Kazakhstan, from the 4th century, when a bishop's see already existed there, to the present. NESTORIAN FRANCISCAN CHINA ISLAM

134. Church History - histunsustp12.htm - Hitler's Pope? A Judgment Historically Unsustainable
Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B.

Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State, on 6 November 2008, opened in Rome, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, the Congress "the Inheritance of the Magisterium of Pius XII", organized on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the death of Eugenio Pacelli. In his speech, the Cardinal recalled the heroism of Pius XII in the face of great difficulties. PACELLI NAZIS SHOAH SECOND WORLD WAR GERMANY RACISM JEWS

135. Church History - zholyseejews.htm - Holy See and the Jewish Question

The publication of a new book has renewed the debate about Pope Pius XII's process of beatification. La Santa Sede e la questione ebraica (1933-1945) (The Holy See and the Jewish Question (1933-1945)) is written by Alessandro Duce, professor of history of international relations at the University of Parma, and published by Studium. To have a broader idea of the question, ZENIT interviewed Duce. NAZIS ANTISEMITISM HOLOCAUST

136. Church History - HLYSEWW2.HTM - Holy See's Impartiality and Dedication in the World War
Burkhart Schneider S.J.

In 1969, the Vatican published the fifth of a series of volumes containing documents (July 1941-October 1942) showing the care with which the Holy See tried not to encourage, but to contain and shorten World War II. NAZISM BOLSHEVISM COMMUNISM

137. Church History - frjosewtn25.htm - Homily for EWTN's 25th Anniversary Mass
Father Joseph Mary Wolfe, MFVA

On the occasion of EWTN's 25th anniversary, 15 August 2006, Fr. Joseph preached the homily at the televised morning Mass. He observed how appropriate for Mother Angelica, foundress of the network, to repeat the words of the Magnificat from the Gospel reading of the day. It was Mother's fiat, in imitation of the Blessed Mother's, that enabled God to intervene in the founding of EWTN. TELEVISION MEDIA EVANGELIZATION EUROPE

138. Church History - 33pontjp1.htm - Honoring the 33-Day Pontificate of John Paul I
Francesco Taffarel

In quotations from Pope John Paul I, the article gives his perspective on the Second Vatican Council, the desire for holiness, the Church, the family, the laity, women, the Mass, and the aftermath of the Council. ALBINO LUCIANI VATICAN II BISHOPS YOUTH ST TERESA THÉRÈSE FATHER JOHN NEPOMUCENE NEUMANN OBEDIENCE

139. Church History - knessetjp2 - Honouring John Paul II at the Knesset
Archbishop Pietro Sambi

On 12 July 2005, in the prestigious Shagall Hall of the Knesset, Archbishop Pietro Sambi, Apostolic Nuncio in Israel, gave this discourse on the occasion of the commemoration of Pope John Paul II's Visit to the Knesset, and the release of a stamp by the Ministry of Communications, marked with an image of John Paul II. SHOAH JEWS ANTI-SEMITISM FUNDAMENTAL AGREEMENT INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE FUNDAMENTALISM TERRORISM

140. Church History - jubmidmod.htm - Hospitality for Pilgrims in Rome
Anna Foa

Professor Anna Foa provides a summary of the colorful history of the Jubilee, from the Middle Ages to modern times. PILGRIMAGE INNS INNKEEPERS VANNOZZA CAETANI PLENARY INDULGENCE PHILIP NERI QUEEN CHRISTINA WOMEN

141. Church History - zstratp12.htm - How a Strategy of Silence Saved Thousands of Jews

The Pave the Way Foundation has initiated a document retrieval project to reveal as much information and as many testimonies as possible regarding the papacy of Pope Pius XII, the World War II Pontiff. New findings have revealed documents and testimony, which clearly show that on Oct. 16, 1943, it was the intentional lack of a public denunciation by Pope Pius XII against the arrest of the Roman Jews, which saved their lives and enabled their rescue. HITLER NAZIS

142. Church History - ztombphilip.htm - How I Discovered the Tomb of the Apostle Philip

Renzo Allegri, for ZENIT, interviews archaeologist Francesco D’Andria about the recent discovery of the tomb of the Apostle Philip in Hierapolis, Phrygia, where tradition says he died. PILGRIMAGE MARTYRION

143. Church History - monasteur.htm - How Monasticism Built Europe
Mons. Timothy Verdon

Monsignor Verdon, Canon of Florence Cathedral, describes how St. Benedict planted the seeds for the social, cultural, and economic transformation of Europe. MONASTERY LOMBARDS CHARLEMAGNE

144. Church History - humvit40.htm - Humanae Vitae Marks 40
Giovanni Maria Vian

This article reviews the wide-spread opposition to Paul VI's Encyclical, Humanae Vitae, published in 1968. Despite the majority decision of the Papal Commission in favor of contraception, and the strong cultural trend supporting it, the Pope opposed it, consistent with the teachings of preceding popes who had addressed the issue. MARRIAGE SEXUALITY

145. Church History - zherop12.htm - I Grew Up Hating Pius XII, Then Learned This Man Was a Hero

Gary Krupp, an American Jewish expert on Pope Pius XII, knighted to the Order of St. Gregory the Great under Pope John Paul II, considers the wartime Pope a hero, despite those who accuse him of failing to help the Jews. NAZIS HOLOCAUST PAVE THE WAY FOUNDATION BODMER PAPYRUS MUHAMMAD COVENANTS OF PROTECTION MAIMONIDES

146. Church History - germjew34.htm - In 1934 the Pope Hired a German Jew
Paolo Vian

In 1934,archaeologist Hermine Speier was asked by Pius XI to reorganize the Vatican Museums' photographic archive. During the Nazi persecution of the Jews, she was hidden with the nuns in the Catacombs of Priscilla. After the war, she converted to Catholicism, and her sitting room became the gathering place of "the best of the German presence in Rome.... Notables, artists, diplomats, politicians, men of varied culture, and even various bishops and cardinals." WORLD WAR II HITLER HUMANISM

147. Church History - harmonyjp2.htm - In Harmony With Young People
Nicola Gori

One of the best eyewitnesses of Karol Wojtyla's episcopate in Poland and of his 27 years as Pope of Rome is his secretary, Stanislaw Dziwisz. In an interview granted to LOR just weeks before Divine Mercy Sunday — when John Paul II, together with John XXIII, was to be raised to the altars of the Church — the Cardinal remembers key moments in the life of Karol Wojtyla and his connection to World Youth Day. DEATH BERGOGLIO POPE FRANCIS KRAKOW

148. Church History - greg1b16.htm - In the Footsteps of Gregory the Great
Pietro Meloni

The Bishop emeritus of Nuoro, Sicily, reflects on St Gregory the Great's ideal of ministry, and how it has been incarnated in the life of Benedict XVI. HUMILITY PETER PAPACY EPISCOPATE

149. Church History - zstepstpaul.htm - In the Footsteps of St. Paul
Bishop James Conley

In a column for the Southern Nebraska Register, Bishop Conley of Lincoln, Nebraska, responds to Tertullian's question, "What does Athens have to do with Jerusalem?" Much indeed, the Bishop writes, since Greek culture helped enable the spread of the Gospel throughout the West. PHILOSOPHY PERSECUTION EVANGELIZATION

150. Church History - ORPACELI.HTM - In the Light of Fatima Towards the Third Millennium: Pius XII, Father, Teacher and Friend of our Time
Emilia Paola Pacelli

Emilia Pacelli explores the providential connections between Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Pacelli) and the apparitions at Fatima.

151. Church History - abpsyrmal - Installation: First Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Church

The elevation of Mar Baselios to Major Archiepiscopal dignity, 14 May 2005, for the Syro-Malankara Church in India, is described with a short history of this Church since reunion with Rome was initiated by members of the Order of the Imitation of Christ in 1930. EPARCHIES ORIENTAL CHURCHES

152. Church History - stpaulabbey.htm - Interview with Abbot Edmund Power, OSB, on St Paul's Abbey
Kate Marcelin-Rice

The Abbott of St Paul's Abbey in Rome is interviewed by L'Osservatore Romano regarding the history of the Abbey and its present activities. ECUMENISM TERRITORIAL ABBEY BENEDICTINES PILGRIMS CONFESSIONS BEDA COLLEGE

153. Church History - zganswein.htm - Interview with Archbishop Georg Gänswein

In an interview, conducted for ZENIT by Jaume F. Vaello, Archbishop Gänswein, Prefect of the Papal Household under two Popes, answers questions on how the pontificates of Francis and Benedict differ, Benedict's renunciation, and the challenges the Church faces today. RELATIVISM ENCOUNTER JOHN PAUL II PERSECUTION FAMILY

154. Church History - mejiainterv.htm - Interview with Cardinal Jorge María Mejía

A pioneer of dialogue with the Jews, a great expert in the Jewish culture and language, a witness of the Second Vatican Council and a protagonist of the post-conciliar period with long years of service at the Holy See behind him — the Argentine Cardinal Jorge María Mejía, 86, Archivist and Librarian of Holy Roman Church emeritus, spoke with Nicola Cori of the Italian daily edition of L'Osservatore Romano. VATICAN II JUDAISM JOHN PAUL II DAY OF PRAYER ASSISI GANTIN

155. Church History - intcardbert.htm - Interview with Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone

Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, Secretary of State, visited Armenia and Azerbaijan from 4 to 9 March 2008. The following is a translation from Italian of the exclusive interview which the Cardinal on his return granted to L'Osservatore Romano, Vatican Radio and the Vatican Television Centre. ECUMENISM INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE ISLAM MUSLIMS MARTYRDOM

156. Church History - zislamplan.htm - Is Islam Part of God's Plan?

The coexistence of Christians and Muslims can act as a stimulus to deeper understanding, says a Jesuit priest who is an expert in Islamic studies. This is the opinion of Father Samir Khalil Samir, an Islamic scholar and Catholic theologian born in Egypt and based in the Middle East for more than 20 years. ENLIGHTENMENT QURAN MOHAMMED

157. Church History - ztriblor.htm - It Should Be Called the Friend of Truth
Antonio Gaspari

Writing for ZENIT, Antonio Gaspari pays tribute to L'Osservatore Romano, often called "the Pope's newspaper," which has just celebrated its 150th anniversary. ZANCHINI BASTIA TOTALITARIANISM FASCISM NAZIS PIUS XII

158. Church History - japcatac.htm - Japanese Catacombs
Cristian Martini Grimaldi

The discovery of man-made chapels dug out of volcanic rock in the forests of Taketa sheds light on the way Japanese Christians hid their faith in the time of persecution (16th & 17th centuries). FRANCIS XAVIER BUDDHISM NAGASAKI INRI

159. Church History - ELECPOPE.HTM - Jean Cardinal Villot
Homily at the Mass for the Election of the Pope

On 14 October 1978, in his homily at the Mass for election of a Pope, before the election of Cardinal Karol Wotyla, Cardinal Villot took for his text some words of Christ from His discourse at the Last Supper. PAPACY

160. Church History - childrenp10.htm - Jesus and the Children
Cardinal Antonio Cañizares Llovera

To honor the centenary of the Decree "Quam Singulari Christus Amore," promulgated by St Pius X (8 August 1910), Cardinal Antonio Cañizares Llovera, Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship, reflects on the Decree which lowered the age for First Communion to seven years. EUCHARIST CATECHESIS

161. Church History - jwfamp12.htm - Jewish Families Hidden by Pius XII
Giovanni Preziosi

The following extracts, translated from an article published in the Italian daily of L'Osservatore Romano on 11 May 2011, show the solicitude of Pope Pacelli for the Jews, as recorded in the Journal of the House of Villa Lante. NAZIS PERSECUTION

162. Church History - zschwrtz.htm - Jewish Shroud Expert Teaches at Pontifical University

Barrie Schwortz was the Official Documenting Photographer for the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), the team that conducted the first in-depth scientific examination of the Shroud in 1978. In this interview, Schwortz tells ZENIT how Shroud science has influenced his own faith. STERA SINDONOLOGY RADIOCARBON DATING JEWISH

163. Church History - ZJP2DIPL.HTM - John Paul II's Legacy in Diplomacy

John Paul's diplomatic legacy will remind the world that every person bears the image of our Creator and loving God. So says Jesuit Father Robert John Araujo, former legal adviser to the permanent mission of the Holy See to the United Nations, professor at Gonzaga University School of Law. He shared with ZENIT how John Paul II helped to establish and strengthen diplomatic relations, mediate disputes and uphold the dignity of the human person wherever possible. CULTURE OF DEATH RIGHTS DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

164. Church History - 25ANNJP2.HTM - John Paul II: Letter of God
Professor Mario Agnes

The Editor-in-Chief L'Osservatore Romano celebrates the 25 years of John Paul II's pontificate. It has been "a journey through the geography of the faith, the geography of situations, the geography of daily life, the geography of suffering, of disappointment, ... and of the hopes of every person, of every people, of every nation." The Pope himself has been a letter from God: "he delivers himself to the expectations and hopes of individuals and peoples. He delivers himself in Christ's name; and in Christ's name he claims and proclaims respect for the dignity and freedom of every person and every people." PAPACY

165. Church History - zjp2times.htm - John Paul II: Of Our Times, For Our Times

Pope John Paul II was a man of our times and for our times, affirmed an internationally renowned scholar of his thought. ZENIT spoke with Rodrigo Guerra on the occasion of the third anniversary of the Polish Pontiff's death. Guerra, a professor, author and member of the Pontifical Academy for Life, tells why John Paul II is a point of reference for the third millennium. REASON PERSONALISM CULTURE

166. Church History - BUSHJP2.HTM - John Paul II: Servant of God, Hero of History
President George W. Bush

The Pope John Paul II Cultural Center in Washington DC, USA, was officially opened on 22 March 2001, in the presence of seven Cardinals and U.S. President George W. Bush. This address was given by President Bush during the ceremony. COMMUNINISM NAZISM LIFE

167. Church History - zkazak.htm - Kazakhstan's Deep Christian Roots

In this interview, Bishop Athanasius Schneider, General Secretary of the Kazak Bishops' conference, spoke about his experience of the Catholic Church while living under the Communist regime, the path that led him to his present assignment, and the needs of the community in Kazakhstan. COMMUNISM STALIN ATHEISM MATERIALISM HOLY COMMUNION IN THE HAND ON THE TONGUE

168. Church History - HLATERA4.TXT - Lateran IV, 1215
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the Fourth General Council of the Lateran, which reformed Church life and, in its doctrinal pronouncement, first sanctioned the term 'transubstantiation.' Chapter 12 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES LATERAN INNOCENT III STEPHEN LANGTON ALIBIGENSIANISM CATHARISM FREDERICK OF SICILY MAGNA CARTA SIMON DE MONTFORT TRANSUBSTANTIATION HERESY DIOCESAN SYNOD

169. Church History - zcomashes.htm - Leading a Church Out of Communist Ashes

Before Communism was introduced to Romania in 1948, the Greek Catholic Church there numbered some 1.5 million members. After 50 years of severe persecution, that number is today reduced to about 700,000. Mark Riedemann, for Where God Weeps, spoke with the bishop of Cluj-Gherla in Romania, Bishop Florentin Crihalmeanu. BYZANTINE COUNCIL OF FLORENCE ORTHODOX FORGIVENESS

170. Church History - zstationchrchs.htm - Lenten Tradition of Station Churches Lives On

Benedict XVI celebrates Mass this Ash Wednesday at the Basilica of Santa Sabina, marking the start of Lent and the ancient tradition of the station churches in Rome. Following the station church tradition, the faithful make their way to a different church each of the 40 days of Lent for Mass and the singing of the litany of the saints. MARTYRS INDULGENCE

171. Church History - LEO13.HTM - Leo XIII - Pontiff of a New Era

In an article from 1978, L'Osservatore Romano praises the success of Pope Leo XIII in countering the false ideas circulating as a result of historical upheavals (including the French revolution) with true ideas, drawn from the philosophy of St Thomas Aquinas. NEW ORDER ENLIGHTENMENT WORK INNOCENT III

172. Church History - LETTRJ23.HTM - Letters of Pope John XXIII to His Family
Archbishop Loris Francesco Capovilla

From the introduction to a collection of Pope John's letters to his family (1902-1962), which Archbishop Capovilla graciously allowed L'Osservatore Romano (January 1969) to publish in advance. In his introduction, the Archbishop explains the origin and the nature of the work and the light it sheds on Pope John's background and character. HOLINESS POOR FAMILY CHARITY

173. Church History - PIUS12.HTM - Library Documents on Pius XII and the Holocaust

Index page to a series of articles responding to accusations of antisemitism and compliance with Hitler and the Nazis before and during World War II. On the contrary, the evidence shows that Pius XII and the Vatican did more to help the Jews than all other institutions combined.

Cornwell’s Pope: A Nasty Caricature of a Noble and Saintly Man - ZENIT
Did Pius XII Remain Silent? – Fr William Saunders
Difficult Relations Between Church and Nazism - ZENIT
Eichmann’s Diary Reveals Church’s Assistance to Jews - ZENIT
Historical Truth of Pius XII’s Work – ZENIT. Re: Sister Margaret Marchione’s book, Pius XII: Architect of Peace, looks at the Holocaust.
Jewish Recognition of Pope Pius XII’s Support - ZENIT
Jewish-Catholic Commission to Study World War II - ZENIT
New Studies Document Pius XII’s Opposition to Nazism – ZENIT
Pius XII and the Holocaust - The Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights
Pius XII and the Jews - National Association of Catholic Families
Pius XII Rehabilitated by Jewish Historian – ZENIT
Pius XII: the Martyrdom of Silence - Dr Emilia Paola Pacelli
Pius XII’s 1941 Letter Protested Treatment of Jews - ZENIT
Pius XII’s Cause of Beatification Progresses – ZENIT
Saviour of the Jews – Michael O’Carroll C.S.Sp.
The Myth in the Light of the Archives – Peirre Blet, S.J.
World Press Unmasks Fallacies in Book Defaming Pius XII – ZENIT
Most of Rome's Jews Were Saved From Hitler's Final Solution - LOR
The Good Samaritan: Jewish Praise For Pope Pius XII - Dimitri Cavalli
Rabbi defends Pius XII against criticisms - Rabbi David G. Dalin
Review of Pierre Blet's Book - Konrad Repgen
Pius XII Saved More Jews Than Schindler - LOR
For Berlin, Pius XII Was a Subversive - ZENIT
The Commission That Couldn't Shoot Straight - Dimitri Cavalli
A "Righteous Gentile" Defends Pius XII - ZENIT
Pius XII's Directive Helped Save 800 Jews - ZENIT
Vatican Told Nuncio to Forgo Praise of Hitler - ZENIT
On Hitler, the Holy See and the Jews - ZENIT
Pius XII's Aid to Jews Stirred Protests - ZENIT
Pius XII as a Righteous Gentile - ZENIT
Pius XII's Massive Crusade - ZENIT
Holy See and the Jewish Question - ZENIT
The Encyclical that Infuriated Hitler - ZENIT
More Testimonies Defend Pius XII - ZENIT
Cardinal Bertone on Pius XII - Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone
Group Gives New Proof of Pius XII's Help for Jews - ZENIT
Clarifying the Nature and Significance of Eugenio Pacelli's Pontificate - Giovanni Maria Vian
New Evidence Says Pius XII Helped Jews - ZENIT
Note Concerning Decree on the Heroic Virtues of Pius XII - Fr Federico Lombardi SJ
Priest Gives Proof of Pius XII's Aid to Jews - ZENIT
And more...

174. Church History - INQUINDX.HTM - Library Documents on the Inquisition


175. Church History - zdechristian.htm - Living in a De-Christianized Society
Father John Flynn, LC

Fr Flynn addresses the decline of Christianity and moral values in Britain. The number of faithful has been decreasing for some time now, and religious leaders warn of the consequences of the loss of common values. ATHEISM ANGLICANS MORALITY RELIGION CULTURE MARRIAGES

176. Church History - zencycsb16.htm - Looking Back: Benedict XVI's Encyclicals

Benedict XVI left office after having given the best of himself, which included three encyclicals from the "theologian Pope." Here's a look at Deus Caritas Est, Spe Salvi and Caritas in Veritate, presented by ZENIT. LOVE EROS CHARITY JUSTICE FAITH REASON HOPE ENLIGHTENMENT MARX SUFFERING TRUTH RELIGIOUS FREEDOM GLOBALIZATION FAMILY ECONOMY

177. Church History - LUTHER.TXT - Luther on the Eve of His Revolt
M. J. LaGrange

Published in 1918 by the Cathedral Library Assn. This book first, considers Luther's 'Commentary' as an exegetical work, second, it studies the intellectual and moral dispositions of Luther, in so far as they may be gathered from his work on this Epistle to the Romans. SCHOLIA GLOSSES ST. THOMAS SCRIPTURE ST. AUGUSTINE FATHERS HUMANIST

178. Church History - LUTHER.ZIP - Luther on the Eve of His Revolt
M. J. LaGrange

Published in 1918 by the Cathedral Library Assn. This book first, considers Luther's 'Commentary' as an exegetical work, second, it studies the intellectual and moral dispositions of Luther, in so far as they may be gathered from his work on this Epistle to the Romans. SCHOLIA GLOSSES ST. THOMAS SCRIPTURE ST. AUGUSTINE FATHERS HUMANIST

179. Church History - MLUTH.TXT - Luther Writes Obituary of His Own Church
Fr. William Most

Notes on Martin Luther's moral problems, with quotations from Luther himself. LUTHER FAITH JUSTIFICATION SIN OBEDIENCE SCRIPTURE SALVATION

180. Church History - LUTHER95.TXT - Luther's 95 Theses
Martin Luther


181. Church History - zmakespace.htm - Making Spaces to Meet God

Building a church or monastery is a task that requires more than blueprints and construction materials, since the finished product is a refuge where man goes to encounter eternity, according to artist Breda Catherine Ennis. Ennis, professor of Fine Arts at the American University of Rome and the European University of Rome, spoke with ZENIT about sacred architecture. LITURGY ARTISTS PAINTING

182. Church History - zcslann.htm - Marking the Anniversary of CS Lewis' Death
Michael Dauphinais, Ph.D.

Michael Dauphinais, Ph.D., Vice President for Academic Affairs, Dean of Faculty, and Associate Professor of Theology at Ave Maria University, commemorates the anniversary of the death of CS Lewis, describing for ZENIT the lasting impact of his writings on both Catholics and Protestants. REASON IMAGINATION MYTH JOY APOLOGETICS LIBERALISM

183. Church History - zmarygoldage.htm - Mary's Golden Age
Antonio Gaspari

To mark the 70th anniversary of Pius XII's Encyclical, Summi Pontificatus, a conference was held, reflecting on his Marian devotion and doctrine. This article reviews the Marian focus of the pontificate of Pius XII, especially in his dogmatic definition of the Assumption. FATIMA ROSARY

184. Church History - ORPAUL6.HTM - Memories of Paul VI
Most Rev. Jacques Martin

The Prefect of the Pontifical Household, a close associate of the Holy Father, reminisces about Pope Paul VI shortly after the Popes death on August 6th, 1978. PAPACY

185. Church History - TSUNINDI.HTM - Miracles and Horrors
National Catholic Register

In this report from Vailankanni, India, we learn of a miraculous deliverance of the Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health from the devastating effects of the tsunamis, caused by the earthquake in the Indian Ocean, 26 December 2005. A short article is appended in which the Basilica is described as the Lourdes of the East, for the many healings reported there. SHRINE NATURAL DISASTERS

186. Church History - croatp12.htm - Mission in Croatia on Behalf of Pius XII
Giovanni Preziosi

While the Second World War was blazing on the European continent, Benedictine abott, Monsignor Giuseppe Ramiro Marcone, was sent, in the summer of 1941, by the Holy See to the Croatian episcopate, as an Apostolic Visitor, to look after the Catholic interests in that country. As a result of this mission, the lives of many Jews, headed for Auschwitz, were saved. NAZIS HOLOCAUST

187. Church History - zaftcrus.htm - Modern Aftermath of the Crusades

The Crusades may be causing more devastation today than they ever did in the three centuries when most of them were fought, according to one expert. Robert Spencer, author of "Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades)," claims that the damage is not in terms of lives lost and property destroyed but is a more subtle destruction. Spencer shared with ZENIT how false ideas about the Crusades are being used by extremists to foment hostility to the West today. MUSLIMS TERRORISM JIHAD

188. Church History - ZPRIESTS.HTM - More Diocesan, but Fewer Religious, Priests in Church

The latest "Annuario Pontificio" reports there are more diocesan priests, fewer religious priests, and about the same number of Catholics worldwide, compared with a year earlier. CENSUS VOCATIONS SEMINARIANS AFRICA AMERICAS ASIA EUROPE

189. Church History - morthnwrdsf1.htm - More Than Words
John Paul Wauck

A professor of Social Communications at the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, Rome, analyzes the extraordinary impression that Pope Francis has made on the faithful from the moment of his appearance on the balcony after his election. HIMILITY CONFESSION SOCCER FAN SIMPLICITY EXAMPLE

190. Church History - ROMEJEWS.HTM - Most of Rome's Jews Were Saved From Hitler's Final Solution

In an interview, given to the German Catholic News Agency (KNA) on 7 November 2000, by Mr Nikolaus Kunkel, a German army officer testifies to Pius XII’s actions to save Roman Jews during the Second World War. HOLOCAUST RACISM NAZISM HIMMLER DEPUTY

191. Church History - znecrop.htm - Necropolis Seen as Proof 1st Christians Were Right
Marta Lago

Touring a necropolis beneath the Vatican is a chance to go back in time, to see the faith of the first Christians, says the archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica. As reported in ZENIT, Cardinal Angelo Comastri reflected on lessons to be gleaned from these tours, after presentation of the restoration of the Valerii Mausoleum, dating from the second century. TOMB POPE

192. Church History - znewevp12.htm - New Evidence Says Pius XII Helped Jews

A foundation that promotes interreligious dialogue announced that it has more than 2,300 pages of original documents illustrating Pope Pius XII's efforts to help Jews in the face of Nazism. Gary Krupp, president of the New York-based Pave the Way Foundation, affirmed this in a statement to ZENIT, stating also that the documents from the years 1940-1945 will be made available to the public for research. PACELLI HISTORIANS

193. Church History - VATCNLAW.HTM - New Fundamental Law Promulgated for Vatican City State

In the Supplement to Acta Apostolicae Sedis, where the laws of Vatican City State are regularly published, the text of a new Fundamental Law of Vatican City State appeared on 1 February, replacing the preceding one (the first) promulgated in 1929 by Pope Pius XI of venerable memory. GOVERNMENT PAPACY

194. Church History - movecoms.htm - New Movements and Communities


195. Church History - newnorciaaust.htm - New Norcia in Australia: An Example of Monastic Life
Stefano Girola

The history of the founding of the Benedictine monastery, New Norcia, in 1847, in the State of Western Australia, is recounted by an Honorary Fellow at the School of Theology, Australian Catholic University. SERRA SALVADO ST BENEDICT BRADY ABORIGINES TORRES

196. Church History - newmbrits.htm - Newman Leads the British
Matthew Fforde

Matthew Fforde, an Oxford educated Catholic scholar, now teaching contemporary history at Libera Università Maria SS. Assunta (LUMSA) in Rome, describes the influence of Bl. John Henry Newman on the literary movement to halt the de-Christianisation of Western society by imbuing high culture with a Christian perspective. ANGLICANS PROTESTANTS UNITED KINGDOM LITERACY 19TH CENTURY ACTON ELIOT DICKENS ROSETTI BELLOC CHESTERTON TOLKEIN CS LEWIS

197. Church History - newmcounc.htm - Newman on Councils and Their Aftermaths
Ian Ker

On 22 and 23 November 2010, an International Symposium, with the theme "The Primacy of God in the Life and Writings of Blessed John Henry Newman," was held at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, organized by the International Centre of Newman Friends. Among the various speakers, Prof. Ian Ker, author of a biography on Newman, gave a paper on the increase in understanding of Church Councils with the passage of time. VATICAN I II DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE CHURCH INFALLIBILITY LUMEN GENTIUM EVANGELIZATION ECCLESIAL MOVEMENTS

198. Church History - HNICAEA1.TXT - Nicaea I, 325
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the First General Council of Nicaea, which condemned the Arian heresy (denial of Christ's divinity) and wrote the Nicene Creed. Chapter 1 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES NICAEA I ARIUS ARIANISM CONSTANTINE HOMOOUSIOS SILVESTER I

199. Church History - HNICAEA1.ZIP - Nicaea I, 325
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Background and history of the First General Council of Nicaea, which condemned the Arian heresy (denial of Christ's divinity) and wrote the Nicene Creed. Chapter 1 of 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' HUGHES NICAEA I ARIUS ARIANISM CONSTANTINE HOMOOUSIOS SILVESTER I

200. Church History - 90yrservice.htm - Ninety Years of Service
Supreme Knight Carl Anderson

This is the speech of Supreme Knight Carl Anderson at the Opening of the Knights of Columbus Exhibit at the Capitoline Museums in Rome, 9 June 2010. The history of the Knights is recounted, highlighting their role in Rome during the Second World War. NAZIS CHARITY GALEAZZI

201. Church History - chrstnsmslms.htm - Nostra Aetate: 40 Years Later
Khaled Akasheh

This article summarizes the history of dialogue between Christians and Muslims, from the beginning of Islam to the formation of commissions in the present day to promote good relations. Of historical importance was the publication of Nostra Aetate, Vatican II's Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions. Also noted are elements for concern, primarily religious fundamentalism. TERRORISM ISLAMICIZATION RELIGIOUS LIBERTY MISSION EVANGELIZATION INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE

202. Church History - manmissionp6.htm - Not a Monk but a Man of Mission
Michele Giulio Masciarelli

Occasioned by the annual commemoration of Paul VI (2005), the writer pays tribute to "a father of the contemporary Church and a master of wisdom and holiness in our time." He was at once strongly meditative and actively apostolic, with a pastoral concern for all mankind. JOY EUCHARIST VATICAN II

203. Church History - zaframcath.htm - Nun Speaks of African-American Catholics' Untold Stories

The United States celebrates Black History Month each February as a way to deepen the public's knowledge and understanding of the culture, achievements and struggles of African-Americans. U.S. Ambassador Miguel Diaz and his wife, Marian, invited Sister Phelps, who became the first black Adrian Dominican in 1959, to share the "untold stories" of African-American Catholics at the Angelicum. SLAVERY SEGREGATION RACISM

204. Church History - oberam.htm - Oberammergau and the Passion Play
Kate Marcelin-Rice

This article recalls the traditional origin of the Passion Play at Oberammergau, Bavaria, and gives interesting facts about productions through the years. BUBONIC PLAGUE VOW

205. Church History - zcathpente.htm - On Catholics and Pentecostals
Father Juan Usma Gómez

ZENIT presents a report "Catholics and Pentecostals: A Historical Overview," by Father Juan Usma Gómez, of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. Through dialogue, Catholics and Pentecostals are coming to understand better what they have in common and where they differ. BAPTISM IN THE HOLY SPIRIT PROSELYTISM MISSIOLOGY CHARISMATIC

206. Church History - HCOUNINT.TXT - On Councils and General Councils
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Defines the General Council and analyzes its chief functions and its place in the life of the Church. Introduction to 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' Also includes Appendix I: Some Notes about Further Reading and Appendix II: Works Cited in the Footnotes. HUGHES COUNCILS CHURCH HISTORY

207. Church History - HCOUNINT.ZIP - On Councils and General Councils
Msgr. Philip Hughes

Defines the General Council and analyzes its chief functions and its place in the life of the Church. Introduction to 'The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870.' Also includes Appendix I: Some Notes about Further Reading and Appendix II: Works Cited in the Footnotes. HUGHES COUNCILS CHURCH HISTORY

208. Church History - ZHITHSJW.HTM - On Hitler, the Holy See and the Jews

An interview with historian Father Giovanni Sale about the findings published in his book, Hitler, la Santa Sede e gli Ebrei, in which he analyzed the relations between The Vatican and the Third Reich during 1933-1945. WORLD WAR II PIUS XI XII NAZIS HOLOCAUST JEWS

209. Church History - NEWMNCAR.HTM - On the 125th Anniversary of John Henry Newman's Becoming a Cardinal
Hermann Geissler

One hundred twenty-five years ago, Ven. John Henry Newman was made a Cardinal by Pope Leo XIII. In honor of this anniversary, the author illustrates the Servant of God's dedication to the Truth by describing important stages in Newman's life, including his "first conversion," his part in the Oxford Movement, and his conversion to the Catholic Church. LIBERALISM CREED VIA MEDIA DOCTRINAL DEVELOPMENT APOLOGETICS

210. Church History - zcusthlylnd.htm - On the Custody of the Holy Land
Father José Rodríguez Carballo

This is an address Father José Rodríguez Carballo, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, delivered 19 Nov. 2006 at the opening of the International Congress of the Commissaries of the Holy Land, which took place in Jerusalem. The Minister General summarizes the history of the Franciscans in the Holy Land, and outlines the present challenges. FRIARS MINOR FRANCIS OF ASSISI EVANGELIZATION INCULTURATION CONVERSION PILGRIMAGE

211. Church History - spirdirctb16 - On the Papacy of the Spiritual Director, Benedict XVI
Francesco M. Valiante

If John Paul II was seen as a tireless parish priest for the world, Benedict XVI may be seen as a "caring spiritual director" for the People of God. This article illustrates, from the homilies and addresses of Benedict's first months, how he has invited the needy to rise from their fallen state and take flight on the wings of faith and reason. INTELLECTUALISM SECULARISM WORD OF GOD

212. Church History - priestiraq.htm - One Day in the Life of a Priest in Iraq
Father John J. Gayton

Father Gayton, a military chaplain writing from Fallujah, Iraq, describes the daily danger, injury, and death faced by U.S. Marines. As he ministers to them, their faith ministers to him. MASS CONFESSION WAR ST. MICHAEL

213. Church History - ZCALJEWS.HTM - Origins of a Sinister Calumny Against the Jews

In a ZENIT interview, Massimo Introvigne, founder and director of the Center of Studies on New Religions, reveals the origin of a medieval calumny against the Jews, that they used the blood of Christians in certain of their rituals. SIMON OF TRENTO MAGISTERIUM ANTISEMITISM

214. Church History - ZORTHDX.HTM - Orthodox Christians Number 200 Million Worldwide

The article recalls the early centuries of the Church in the Eastern Empire, and provides a brief description of the various branches of Orthodoxy today. CONSTANTINOPLE GREEK RUSSIA

215. Church History - UKRACATH.HTM - Overview of Christian History in Ukraine

A summary of significant events in the history of the Church in Ukraine, with attention to relations between Catholics and Orthodox, an emphasis on the trials of the 20th century, and present expectations of a brighter future. CONSTANTIN KIEV MOSCOW GREEK UNION FLORENCE NAZI COMMUN

216. Church History - SYRIAHIS.HTM - Overview of Religious History of Syria

L'Osservatore Romano gives a list of significant events in the history of the Church in Syria, from the conversion of St. Paul on the road to Damascus, to the present. JACOBITE MELKITE ORTHODOX ARMENIAN CHALDEAN MARONITE MUSLIM ISLAM SUNNI SHIITE DRUZE

217. Church History - zpapcoatarms.htm - Papal Coat of Arms Still Relevant

Ecclesiastical heraldry is as relevant today as it ever was, and should be valued as part of the Church's rich cultural and artistic patrimony, according to Michael McCarthy, founder and proprietor of Australia's Thylacine Press. In this interview with ZENIT, he spoke about the place of ecclesiastical heraldry in the modern Church. POPES BISHOPS

218. Church History - zpatrpope.htm - Patriarch: Pope Is Like-Minded on Morals, Values

Orthodox Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russias says he and Benedict XVI often see eye-to-eye on many issues, especially with regard to those of a moral nature. The Patriarch said this on the occasion of his trip to Ukraine, as reported 19 July 2010 by the Russian agency Interfax. PROTESTANTISM LIBERALISM SECULARISM

219. Church History - zmemp12.htm - Personal Memories of Pius XII

In this ZENIT interview, Sister Margherita Marchione, of the community of Religious Teachers Filippini, recalls her experience of Pius XII, and relates her findings as one of the world's principle biographers of the World War II Pope. JEWS NAZIS

220. Church History - ZLANCIAN.HTM - Physician Tells of Eucharistic Miracle of Lanciano

In November 1970, Dr. Edoardo Linoli, professor of anatomy and pathological histology, and of chemistry and clinical microscopy, was entrusted with a scientific analysis of the relics of the miracle at Lanciano, Italy. In May 2005, Dr. Linoli participated in a congress on Eucharistic miracles, organized by the Science and Faith master's program of Rome's Regina Apostolorum Pontifical University. In this interview with ZENIT, he described the results of his analysis, as presented to the scientific community in March 1971. CONSECRATION HOST BLOOD SHROUD OF TURIN

221. Church History - zpilgmart.htm - Pilgrims and Martyrs

As reported by Ann Schneible of ZENIT, the Venerable English College, located in the heart of the Eternal City, celebrated its 650th anniversary of service to Catholic faithful of England and Wales. The oldest English institution outside of England, it was originally established as a hospice for pilgrims on 27 Jan. 1362. SEMINARY MARTYRS TE DEUM MISSION

222. Church History - pinturborg.htm - Pinturicchio and the Borgia
Christopher Evan Longhurst

Christopher Evan Longhurst, a Doctor of Theology, examines the work of Renaissance painter, Bernardino di Betto (Pinturicchio), whose patron was Pope Alexander VI. According to Longhurst, the painter achieved an unparallelled balance between the spiritual and the corporeal, the visual and the intellectual, the real and the ideal. BORGIA APARTMENT REALISM IDEALISM ICONOGRAPHY SYMBOLISM

223. Church History - PIUSIX.HTM - Pius IX: A Long and Difficult Pontificate
Cardinal Pietro Palazzini

Pius IX's Pontificate took place in the great transition from a Church consolidated in traditionally Catholic countries to the modern Church, more and more sharply separated from the State. This article, written in 1978 for the great pontiff's centenary, recalls how he helped keep the Church on course in this difficult period. UTOPIA LIBERALISM SOCIALISM IMMACULATE CONCEPTION SYLLABUS OF ERRORS COMMUNISM

224. Church History - zpiusxi.htm - Pius XI Revealed

The Vatican Secret Archives, opened 18 September 2006, include millions of letters relating to the pontificate of Pope Pius XI, covering events such as the Catholic Church's persecution in Mexico and Spain, the advent of Fascism and Nazism, and the spread of Communism in Europe. In this interview with ZENIT, Matteo Luigi Napolitano, associate professor at the University of Molise, comments on the first steps of analyzing the documents found in the archives. HITLER MUSSOLINI FRANCO GERMANY ITALY PIUS XII

225. Church History - germantinazi.htm - Pius XII Advised by German Anti-Nazi Resistance
Roberto Pertici

Documents confirm that the German anti-Nazi resistance advised Pius XII not to intervene directly against Hitler, lest secret attempts by German Catholics to replace Nazism with a democratic government be undermined. MÜLLER NATIONAL SOCIALISM RACISM

226. Church History - alterhistP12.htm - Pius XII Altered in History
Maurizio Fontana

This article reports on the change in the caption under the picture of Pius XII at the Yad Vashem museum in Israel, which had "described the Pope's approach to the extermination of the Jews as ambiguous." Now in light of recent discoveries, the caption acknowledges that the Pope's reaction to the Holocaust is "a matter of controversy among scholars." NAZIS GERMANY SHOAH VATICAN ARCHIVES

227. Church History - zp12rightgen.htm - Pius XII as a Righteous Gentile

Despite what some modern critics say, Pope Pius XII launched a multifaceted response to the Nazi campaign against the Jews. So says Ronald Rychlak, an adviser to the Holy See's delegation to the United Nations, and University of Mississippi law professor. Rychlak shared with ZENIT some of the information he has amassed in defense of Pius XII and the Church, and how Catholics can respond to detractors. HOLOCAUST HITLER ANTISEMITISM

228. Church History - P12RABBI.HTM - Pius XII Saved More Jews Than Schindler

In an interview conducted by L'Osservatore Romano (5 September 2001), historian Rabbi David Dalin defends Pope Pius XII against revisionist historians, who charge him with not doing enough to defend the Jews against Nazi persecution. HOLOCAUST ANTISEMITISM RACISM

229. Church History - zsavejwcult.htm - Pius XII's Efforts to Save Jewish Culture Revealed 

The Pave the Way Foundation reports that important documents have been discovered in the Vatican Secret Archives which reveal that Pius XII worked to protect not only the Jewish people from the Nazi terror, but their synagogues, cultural centers and everything that pertained to their faith. PACELLI NON-ARYAN CULTURE HESEMANN

230. Church History - zp12crus.htm - Pius XII's Massive Crusade

As the 50th anniversary of the death of Pope Pius XII approaches, errors regarding his life and involvement with the Holocaust continue to persist, says historian Sister Margherita Marchione. Sister Marchione described for ZENIT the Pope's tireless efforts to save Jews and reunite prisoners of war with their families. WORLD WAR II NAZIS HOLOCAUST JEWS VATICAN SECRET ARCHIVES

231. Church History - PONECCAC.HTM - Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy Celebrates 300 Years
Archbishop Nikola Eterovic

Archbishop Eteroviæ, Titular Archbishop of Siscia, reviews a book published in 2003 by the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, on 300 years of Vatican diplomacy. In the course of his review, the Archbishop indicates the important role the Academy has played in this time period, under 22 Pontiffs. POLITICS HOLY SEE MAGISTERIUM APOSTOLIC NUNCIOS NATURAL LAW EDUCATION

232. Church History - clarsbmbs.htm - Poor Clares Under the Bombs
Nicola Gori

The story is told of a Poor Clares monastery in Italy which suffered serious bombardment during the Allied invasion, of the bravery of the nuns and their willing self-sacrifice for the good of mankind. Sr Maria Chiara Damato is singled out, to whom a museum of the Poor Clares, recently opened, has been dedicated. WORLD WAR II PIUS XII PAUL VI

233. Church History - damasprima.htm - Pope Damasus and the Primacy of the Roman Church
Carlo Carletti

It was in the reign of Pope Damasus (366-384) that the Roman primacy was theologically based on the words of Christ, Tu es Petrus, in the face of the political argument from the East, that Constantinople was second in honor, being the new capital of the Empire. BAPTISM THEODOSIUS THIRD CANON COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE SIRICIUS LIBERIUS

234. Church History - intrvwf1.htm - Pope Francis Interviewed by Mexican Media Company Televisa
Valentina Alazraki

Pope Francis was interviewed by journalist Valentina Alazraki, correspondent of Televisa News in the Vatican, on 6 March 2015, just days before his second anniversary as Pontiff. Among topics covered were reform of the Curia, the Synod on the family, and the scandal of sexual abuse by priests. GUADALUPE MEXICO IMMIGRATION DRUGS ARGENTINA MEXICANIZATION SECTS EVANGELICALS PENTECOSTALS CLERICALISM HOMILIES CONCLAVE POPE EMERITUS MARXISM

235. Church History - intrejp2.htm - Pope John Paul II and Interreligious Dialogue
Archbishop Michael L. Fitzgerald, M.Afr.

Archbishop Fitzgerald, President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, recapitulates the pontificate of John Paul II, with respect to the Pope's outreach to non-Christians, particularly Jews and Muslims. MISSIONARY PROCLAMATION SEEDS OF THE WORD JUBILEE PILGRIMAGE HOLY LAND

236. Church History - JP2ARMEN.HTM - Pope John Paul II in Armenia

Homilies and addresses by the Holy Father during his pastoral visit to Armenia, 25-27 September 2001, with a summary of the religious history of the country. GREGORY ILLUMINATOR CHALCEDON TURKS GENOCIDE MARTYR SOVIET UNION MECHITAR CATHOLICOS ECUMEN UNITY EVANGEL DIGNITY SOLIDARITY

237. Church History - JP2KZKST.HTM - Pope John Paul II in Kazakhstan

A list of homilies and addresses by the Holy Father during his pastoral visit to Kazakhstan, 22-25 September 2001. Includes a sketch of the long history of the Church there. MARY MUSLIM ISLAM ORTHODOX EVANGEL INTERRELIGIOUS MARTYR COMMUNIS MISSION ECUMEN CONVERSION DIALOGUE

238. Church History - PONTFP12.HTM - Pope Pius XII

From 1978, twenty years after the death of Pius XII, three articles: "On the Twentieth Anniversary of His Death," by Cardinal Giuseppe Siri; "Dawn of a Pontificate," by Angelo Martini; and "Apostolic Activity of Pius XII," by Paolo Molinari, reflect on the character, personality, and legacy of the venerated Pontiff. PACELLI PAPACY WORLD WAR II VATICAN II

239. Church History - zvalgrail.htm - Pope Venerates Holy Grail

On his visit to Spain, to address the Fifth World Meeting of Families, July 2006, Pope Benedict XVI venerated the Chalice believed by many to be the Holy Grail. According to author and professor Salvador Antuñano Alea, the Last Supper's holy chalice, kept in the cathedral of Valencia, bases its probability on tradition and "very reasonable archaeological and historical evidence" but for Christians what is most important is "its condition as a sacred icon." RELIC ARCHAEOLOGY ROMAN CANON

240. Church History - zfathnoncaths.htm - Pope's Study of Church Fathers Not Just for Catholics

Benedict XVI's Wednesday-audience series on the Apostolic Fathers can give us hope for unity among Christians, says a Catholic theologian who was once an evangelical Protestant minister. In this interview with ZENIT, David Warner, senior fellow of the St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology in Steubenville, Ohio, discusses how reading Church Fathers led to his return to the Catholic Church and offers some reflections on the Pope's teachings. PATRISTICS GNOSTICS ECUMENISM ORTHODOXY

241. Church History - zprelate.htm - Prelate Who Saved Some 10,000 Jews Dead at 98

An archbishop who saved some 10,000 Jews during the Second World War in collaboration with Pope Pius XII died on 20 December 2010. He was 98. Archbishop Giovanni Ferrofino, former apostolic nuncio to Ecuador and Haiti, “was perhaps the greatest living eye witness to Pius XII’s life-saving efforts on behalf of Jews interviewed by PTWF," the Pave the Way Foundation. PORTUGAL DOMINICAN REPUBLIC NAZIS YAD VASHEM HOLOCAUST

242. Church History - englishcollege.htm - Preserving the Patrimony
Kate Marcelin-Rice

An article describing the restoration of the English College in Rome, with a summary of its history, originally as a hostel for pilgrims, then as seminary for missionaries, to be sent back to England following Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church. MARTYRS GREGORY THE GREAT PILGRIMAGE SEMINARY SHAKESPEARE

243. Church History - zproofpriest.htm - Priest Gives Proof of Pius XII's Aid to Jews

Jesús Colina of ZENIT reports the testimony, in favor of Pope Pius XII's support of efforts to save Jews from the Nazis, of Father Giancarlo Centioni, 97, who served as a military chaplain for the National Security Volunteer Militia in Rome from 1940 to 1945. FASCISTS ST RAPHAEL SOCIETY

244. Church History - ordsincreas.htm - Priestly Ordinations in the World Increasing

According to the 2009 Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae, the number of priests worldwide is growing while the number of priests who return to the lay state has fallen noticeably, as has the number of deaths relative to ordinations. STATISTICS DIOCESAN RELIGIOUS NORTH AMERICA EUROPE ASIA OCEANIA AFRICA

245. Church History - PROPSAIN.HTM - Prophets or Saints
Cardinal G. M. Garrone

In this LOR article from 10 April 1969, Cardinal Garrone urged a return to essentials of the faith, including deep prayer, in order to weather the storm of uncertainties that followed Vatican II. HOLINESS MAGISERIUM

246. Church History - zreasonrelig.htm - Reasonable Religion

The conventional wisdom that Western success depended on overcoming religious barriers to progress is "utter nonsense," says Rodney Stark, a professor of social sciences at Baylor University. Professor Stark maintains that, in contrast to other beliefs that emphasize mystery and intuition, Christian theology privileges reason. This factor — not geography, a more productive agricultural system, or the Protestant Reformation — is behind the rise of the West, he argues. PROGRESS SCIENCE CAPITALISM PROTESTANTISM FREEDOM EQUALITY DEMOCRACY

247. Church History - kasp100yrs.htm - Reflection on 100 Years of Prayer for Christian Unity
Cardinal Walter Kasper

In observation of the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, 18 to 25 January 2008, Cardinal Kasper reflected on the history of the ecumenical movement, highlighting some of its key figures. He also spoke of the heart of the movement, which is prayer, since Christian unity can be attained only by God's gift. WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES COUTURIER WATTSON COMMUNION

248. Church History - zkaspcons.htm - Reflection on Eve of the Consistory
Cardinal Walter Kasper

On 23 November 2007, eve of the consistory for the elevation of cardinals, Cardinal Walter Kasper, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, delivered an address to the cardinals-designate on the current state of ecumenism, considered under three headings: "Churches of the first millennium," "ecclesial communities born from the Reformation," and "charismatics and Pentecostals." ORTHODOX PRE-CHALCEDONIAN UNIATISM PROTESTANT

249. Church History - reflconvstpl.htm - Reflection on the Conversion of St Paul
Francis D. Kelly

Msgr. Kelly, Superior of the Casa Santa Maria Pontifical North American College, recalls the origin of the celebration of St. Paul's conversion and, in light of that pivotal event, examines the call to conversion of all Christians, with their responsibility to work for Christian unity, for the sake of evangelizing the world. MISSIONARY MISSION

250. Church History - zregensrev.htm - Regensburg Revisited

When one interprets Benedict XVI's Regensburg lecture, 12 September 2006, as simply an address on Islam, one misses the point, says Father James Schall, professor of political philosophy at Georgetown University. In this 3-part interview with ZENIT, Father Schall comments on the Pope's remarks regarding Islam question, but then more importantly, the deeper point of the lecture. MUSLIMS SCIENCE GREEK PHILOSOPHY VOLUNTARISM DE-HELLENIZATION NATURAL LAW ATHEISM

251. Church History - ARMENIA.HTM - Religious History of Armenia

L'Osservatore Romano provides a summary of the history of the Church in Armenia, from prechristian times to the present. GREGORY ILLUMINATOR CHALCEDON TURKS GENOCIDE SOVIET UNION MECHITAR CATHOLICOS

252. Church History - rememJPI.htm - Remembering Pope John Paul I: 26 August - 28 September 1978
Francesco Taffarel

Father Taffarel, personal secretary to Albino Luciani, who became Pope John Paul I, recalls the future Holy Father's thoughts about how people need to keep and live the Lord's Day. PASCH PASSOVER EASTER FAMILY SUNDAY

253. Church History - diocnotthm.htm - Reports of the Past from the Diocese of Nottingham
Canon Anthony P. Dolan

These are excerpts from a publication by Canon Dolan, Archivist of the Diocese of Nottingham, entitled Ad Limina Reports of the Diocese of Nottingham: Some Preliminary Reflections, giving a glimpse of the Church in latter 19th-century England POPE MISSIONS EVANGELIZATION

254. Church History - resolutrent.htm - Resolution After the Storm
Father John W. O'Malley

History told like a novel — here are excerpts from the introduction to the book Trent: What Happened at the Council by the historian John W. O'Malley, a Jesuit priest from the United States of America. JEDIN TRIDENTINISM PAPACY LUTHER

255. Church History - usbpsmlk.htm - Response to Martin Luther King Jr's Letter from the Birmingham Jail
Archbishop Joseph E. Kurtz

Fifty years have passed since Dr Martin Luther King, Jr wrote his "Letter from the Birmingham Jail". On 14-15 April 2013 an ecumenical symposium was held to renew commitment to racial justice and reconciliation by leaders of Christian denominations in the United States of America. As part of the Catholic response to Dr King's letter, Archbishop Joseph E. Kurtz of Louisville, Vice-President of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, gave this address on Sunday, 14 April. UNJUST LAW AQUINAS DISCRIMINATION RACISM PREJUDICE FOREGIVENESS NON-VIOLENCE

256. Church History - ROMORTH.HTM - Romanian Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches
Mons. Eleuterio F. Fortino

Mons. Fortino, Undersecretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, recounts the history of relations between the Romanian Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church (both Latin- and Byzantine-rite), since the Romanian Church was raised to the rank of a Patriarchate in 1925. ECUMENISM COMMUNISM DIALOGUE TEOCTIST JOHN PAUL II

257. Church History - zromvat.htm - Rome and Vatican City: 80 Years of Joint Work

Vatican City State has had an important role for Rome, particularly during World War II, says French philosopher and economist, Jean Dominique Durand, recently appointed consultor of the Pontifical Council for Culture. ZENIT spoke with him about the history of Vatican State, its dependence on the Italian state and its relationship with Rome during its 80 years of independence. CURIA GERMANS

258. Church History - RTREF.TXT - Roots of the Reformation
Karl Adam

Published in 1951 by Sheed & Ward. This consists of the author's chapters on the origin and results of the Reformation from 'One and Holy.' ROME GERMANY MIDDLE AGES ABUSE POPE PAPACY CLERGY LUTHER OCKHAM

259. Church History - RTREF.ZIP - Roots of the Reformation
Karl Adam

Published in 1951 by Sheed & Ward. This consists of the author's chapters on the origin and results of the Reformation from 'One and Holy.' ROME GERMANY MIDDLE AGES ABUSE POPE PAPACY CLERGY LUTHER OCKHAM

260. Church History - zcant2adv12.htm - Second Advent Sermon 2012
Father Raniero Cantalamessa, OFM Cap

His Second Advent sermon was given 14 December 2012 in the presence of Benedict XVI and members of the curia by Capuchin Father Raniero Cantalamessa, preacher of the pontifical household. Its topic was Vatican II, whose 50th anniversary being celebrated, it was timely to examine various interpretations of the Council. AGGIORNAMENTO RUPTURE RENEWAL CONTINUITY ELIOT NEWMAN HOLY SPIRIT LETTER EVANGELIZATION ECCLESIAL MOVEMENT CHARISMATIC PENTECOST

261. Church History - 2annergmigr.htm - Second Anniversary of Erga Migrantes Caritas Christi
Archbishop Agostino Marchetto

Written by the Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, this article records the increasing shift in populations, a majority moving to Europe and North America. There is a consequent increase of nonchristian religions, in traditionally Christian lands, and a need for the Church to reach out to them. To Oriental Catholics also, pastoral attention must be given. ECUMENISM IMMIGRATION EASTERN RITE REFUGEES

262. Church History - zsecstate.htm - Secretary of State: a Top Collaborator

ZENIT summarizes the origins of the Secretariat of State in the Roman Curia, an office often described as second only to the Papacy itself. FIRST SECTION FOR GENERAL AFFAIRS SECOND SECTION FOR RELATIONS WITH STATES

263. Church History - frjosewtn25vsp.htm - Solemn Vespers for EWTN's 25th Anniversary
Father Joseph Mary Wolfe, MFVA

At Solemn Vespers for the Feast of the Assumption 2006, bringing to an end the year-long celebration of EWTN's 25th anniversary, Fr. Joseph observed that the network's mission was begun and sustained through adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. He also reminded EWTN's employees that Mother Angelica's fiat to God, which began the network, must be echoed by the network's employees, in order for the work to continue and come to fruition. MEDIA TELEVISION EVANGELIZATION

264. Church History - z20quesres.thm - Some FAQ's on the Pope's Resignation

Benedict XVI's renunciation has raised many questions. Jesuit Father Federico Lombardi, director of the Vatican press office, has given several press conferences since the Pope announced his resignation 11 Feb. 2013. During the briefings, Father Lombardi answered questions posed by journalists. Following is a quick and brief selection of 20 of these questions and answers, in summary form. ENCYCLICAL POPE BISHOP EMERITUS OF ROME CONCLAVE MATER ECCLESIAE VATILEAKS

265. Church History - zhistconcl.htm - Some of the History of Conclaves

Here is a brief chronology of Conclaves in recent centuries along with interesting facts that occurred during each, provided by the Vatican Information Service. GREGORY X XVI CLEMENT XIII XIV PIUS VI VII VIII IX X XI XII LEO XII XIII BENEDICT XV XVI JOHN XXIII PAUL VI JOHN PAUL I II

266. Church History - reflb16letchin.htm - Some Reflections on Benedict XVI's Letter to the Church in China
Savio Hon Tai-Fai, S.D.B.

A member of the International Theological Commission, Hong Kong, reflects on the impact of Pope Benedict's Letter to the Church in China, including the reaction of the Chinese government and what obstacles remain, to cooperation between the government and the Holy See. PETER PAPACY SHESHAN PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION CCCP

267. Church History - STCATHSN.HTM - St Catherine's: Age-Old Place of Prayer

Here is a short summary of the significance of St. Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai, visited by the Holy Father in his Jubilee Pilgrimage. JUSTINIAN ORTHODOX CODEX

268. Church History - STHOFRNX.HTM - St Thomas, Apostle & St Francis Xavier
Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe

On 17 November 2002, in the Cathedral of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, preached a homily at the Eucharistic Celebration for the 1950th anniversary of the arrival in India of St Thomas the Apostle and the 450th anniversary of the death of St Francis Xavier, in which he recounted the history of the two great missionary saints. INCULTURATION ECUMENICAL JESUITS ST THOMAS CHRISTIANS MOTHER TERESA ORIENTAL CHURCH EVANGELIZATION

269. Church History - francsmuslm.htm - St. Francis and Christian-Muslim Relations

In the 13th century, St. Francis of Assisi ventured into Muslim territory to visit the caliph of Egypt and preach the Gospel. His example may provide a good role model for modern interreligious dialogue today, according to Lawrence Cunningham, professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. He shared with ZENIT how St. Francis considered himself to be a spiritual crusader, and how his peaceful and truthful approach helped in his outreach to Muslims. CRUSADES MARTYRDOM MARTYRS ISLAM ECUMENISM INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE

270. Church History - zlechjp2.htm - St. John Paul II is Torch to Light Our Future
Lech Walesa

Former Polish President Lech Walesa who, together with St. John Paul II, led the fight against Soviet Communism, spoke at a Rome dinner April 25th held in honor of Sts. John Paul II and John XXIII. ZENIT published a transcribed text of his speech. POLAND CUBA VALUES GLOBALIZATION

271. Church History - stepthrone.htm - Stepping Down from the Throne of Peter

L'Osservatore Romano provides a historical overview, from late antiquity to the Renaissance, of the Popes who wished to or were obliged to renounce their ministry. CLEMENT PONTIANUS SILVERIUS BENEDICT IX CELESTINE V GREGORY XII

272. Church History - zp10lern.htm - Still Learning From Pius X, 100 Years Later
Edward Pentin

On 20 August 2013, the Church began commemorating the 100th anniversary of the death of Pope St. Pius X. But despite nearly a century since his passing, his writings continue to be consulted to this day. Edward Pentin, observes for ZENIT the continuing relevance of the Pope's teaching. MODERNISM HERESY SARTO POPE FRANCIS AGNOSTICISM SOCIALISM SILLON DEMOCRACY

273. Church History - usrelpan.htm - Survey on the U.S. Religious Panorama

More than one-quarter of American adults have left the faith in which they were brought up. This is one of the most important findings of a survey published 25 February 2008 by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. The "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" was based on interviews with more than 35,000 Americans aged 18 and up, giving it greater credibility than most opinion polls. CATHOLIC PROTESTANT ORTHODOX NON-AFFILIATED ATHEIST AGNOSTIC MUSLIM HINDU HISPANIC

274. Church History - zsynbishops.htm - Synod of Bishops: Origin and Procedure

Two articles from ZENIT on the Synod of Bishops, which is an assembly of Bishops from around the world, with the task of helping the Pope to govern the Church by rendering their counsel on topics of universal importance. The first article explains the formation of the Synod after Vatican II, the second describes the process from choice of topic to submission of the final report to the Holy Father. LINEAMENTA INSTRUMENTUM LABORIS

275. Church History - 29annp6.hmt - The 29th Anniversary of the Death of Pope Paul VI: 6 August 1978
Michele Giulio Masciarelli

The legacy of Pope Paul VI is recalled, with particular emphasis on his teachings on dialogue, death, Vatican II. Dialogue with God should precede dialogue with each other, leading to a culture of dialogue as a precondition for communion. Death must not be banished from public consciousness, but looked in the eye. And it was Pope Montini who directed the Council to reflect on Christ and the Church. CULTURAL RELATIVISM

276. Church History - CAMPNEBO.HTM - The Archaeological Campaign on Mount Nebo
Michele Piccirillo, O.F.M.

Brother Michele describes the ongoing efforts to restore parts of early Christian churches and chapels (6th-8th centuries) on and around Mount Nebo, from where Moses viewed the Promised Land, shortly before his death. ARCHAEOLOGY ART

277. Church History - repargandolfo.htm - The Bombing of Castel Gandolfo and the Quest for Reparation
Johan Ickx

Despite guarantees from President Roosevelt, during World War II, that not only Vatican City but other papal domains in Italy would be spared U.S. bombing, Castel Gandolfo and other papal holdings outside Vatican City were bombed repeatedly. An account is given here of the efforts of Pius XII to obtain reparations from the U.S. government for the consequent destruction. COMPENSATION LATERAN PACTS NEURTRALITY

278. Church History - racialaws.htm - The Catholic Church and Racial Laws
Sergio Pagano

Drawing on the Vatican Secret Archives, Bishop Pagano documents the opposition by Pius XI to the racial laws established in Italy by Mussolini, following Hitler's lead in Germany. RACISM ANTISEMITISM FASCISM NAZISM JEWS

279. Church History - HRREVOLU.TXT - The Catholic Human Rights Revolution
George Weigel

An analysis of the importance of Vatican II's "Declaration on Religious Freedom" and Pope John Paul II's subsequent emphasis on it, to the Catholic understanding of the state. Taken from the July/August 1996 issue of "Crisis" magazine."

280. Church History - centb15.htm - The Centenary of Benedict XV's Election

For the centenary of Benedict XV, LOR sheds light on the importance of his pontificate (1914-1922), largely forgotten. Although he was unable to bring the combatants of World War II to international arbitration, he established diplomatic relations with nearly all the great powers. PEACE NOTE DIPLOMACY

281. Church History - XMASTREE.HTM - The Christmas Tree: Legends, Traditions, History
Lino Lozza

The writer, after giving legendary accounts of the origin of the Christmas tree, describes its prechristian background, how it came to be associated with the Birth of Christ, and how the custom of decorating a tree at Christmas spread across Europe and beyond. MIDDLE AGES MYSTERY PLAYS TREE OF LIFE BONIFACE LITERATURE

282. Church History - HCOUNCIL.TXT - The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870
Msgr. Philip Hughes

A comprehensive survey of the origins, accomplishments and significance of the twenty General Council of the Church. Explains the nature and function of General Councils, and tells how each was called and what it accomplished, in the context of the climate of the times, the men who took part, and the intellectual currents which lay behind the final pronouncements. HUGHES COUNCILS NICAEA NICEA CONSTANTINOPLE EPH

283. Church History - HCOUNCIL.ZIP - The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 325-1870
Msgr. Philip Hughes

A comprehensive survey of the origins, accomplishments and significance of the twenty General Council of the Church. Explains the nature and function of General Councils, and tells how each was called and what it accomplished, in the context of the climate of the times, the men who took part, and the intellectual currents which lay behind the final pronouncements. HUGHES COUNCILS NICAEA NICEA CONSTANTINOPLE EPH

284. Church History - NMBRGROW.HTM - The Church's Numerical Strength Continues to Grow

The Annuarium Statisticum Ecclesiae, recently published, gives Church statistics for 1998, providing a quantitative overview of the Catholic Church according to different continents and countries. This article shows the most significant trends. BISHOP PRIEST SEMINAR DEACON RELIGIOUS MISSION CATECHIS

285. Church History - armsb16.htm - The Coat of Arms of His Holiness, Benedict XVI
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo

With a summarized overview of ecclesiastical heraldry, the coat of arms of His Holiness, Benedict XVI, is described and explained. SHIELD RANK TITLE KEYS TIARA MITRE PALLIUM MOTTO

286. Church History - collectheart.htm - The Collective Heart of a Nation Melts
Fr James MacKay

Fr MacKay, Associate Pastor at Brentwood Cathedral in England, describes the change of heart by the people of England, regarding the Holy Father's Apostolic Visit to the UK, from hostility or indifference to a warm acceptance. MEDIA ECUMENICAL PROTESTERS PRESENCE

287. Church History - CARDINAL.HTM - The College of Cardinals
Vatican Information Service

This informative article gives the origin, makeup, and work of the College of Cardinals. CONSISTORY DICASTERY CONCLAVE

288. Church History - zcolosseum.htm - The Colosseum: a Symbol of Martyrs

The Colosseum is the symbol of many amphitheaters of the Roman age in which martyrdoms took place. ZENIT interviewed professor Fabrizio Bisconti, one of the most important contemporary scholars on the subject, who is secretary and professor of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology, as well as professor at the University Roma Tre. MARTYRS NERO CONSTANTINE

289. Church History - zbadideas.htm - The Consequences of Bad Ideas

Father Marcel Guarnizo is founder and chairman of the Vienna-based organization Educational Initiative for Central and Eastern Europe (EICEE,)an educational foundation that seeks to create a new intellectual culture in post-communist countries. In this ZENIT interview, Father Guarnizo was asked about the significance of the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the work of EICEE. LECH WALESA SOLIDARITY COMMUNISM RUSSIA SOVIET UNION JOHN PAUL II ANTHROPOLOGY

290. Church History - zcristero.htm - The Cristero War: the Story Behind the Cover Up

If one asks a young Mexican about the Cristero War, it's possible to get a blank stare in response. Though one of the most important chapters in 20th-century Mexico, the war has been largely covered up. The film "For Greater Glory" Cristiada in Spanish) aims to correct that injustice and bring the war and its heroes to light. The film is essentially historically accurate, says historian Ruben Quezada in this ZENIT interview. PERSECUTION MARTYRS ANTICLERICAL ANTICATHOLICISM RELIGIOUS FREEDOM PIUS XI TORTURE CALLES LAW

291. Church History - custholyland.htm - The Custody of the Holy Land's Work in the 19th and 20th Centuries
Giuseppe Buffon

This article describes the role of the Franciscan Custody in ministering to the Latin-rite community in the Holy Land in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ISLAM PILGRIMS OTTOMAN TURKS DRAGOMEN CUSTOS

292. Church History - DEATHJP1.HTM - The Death of Pope John Paul I

The death notice of Pope John Paul I, giving particulars of when, where, and how he died. PAPACY

293. Church History - euchrevp10.htm - The Eucharistic Revolution of Pope Pius X
Gianpaolo Romanato

In commemorating the centenary of the Decree of St Pius X, Quam Singulari, which centered Church reform on eucharistic practice, Gianpaolo Romanato recalls Pope Sarto's conviction that, in changing times, the Faith can be preserved only by unrelenting catechesis. CATECHISM EMIGRATION FIRST COMMUNION JANSENISM

294. Church History - christindia.htm - The First Encounter of Christianity with India
George Nedungatt, S.J.

These are excerpts from the text of one of the interventions given at the Congress "Ad ulteriores gentes: The Christians in the East (1st-7th c.)", held in Rome on 13 and 14 March 2009 at the Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient (ISIAO). Father Nedungatt examines the evidence for the Gospel first being brought to India by the Apostle Thomas. UDAYAPUR PORTUGUESE HINDU

295. Church History - GENCOUNC.TXT - The General Councils of the Church
John L. Murphy

What constitutes a General Council? When are they held? Why? What have been their results and their effects on later times? These are the basic questions which this book answers. It is a brief and compact yet surprisingly thorough and popular presentation of the personalities, issues, and results of the twenty General Councils held during the past two thousand years.

296. Church History - GENCOUNC.ZIP - The General Councils of the Church
John L. Murphy

What constitutes a General Council? When are they held? Why? What have been their results and their effects on later times? These are the basic questions which this book answers. It is a brief and compact yet surprisingly thorough and popular presentation of the personalities, issues, and results of the twenty General Councils held during the past two thousand years.

297. Church History - globpatpix.htm - The Global Patronage of Pius IX
Stefano Cracolici

Stefano Cracolici, of the University of Durham, describes how Pope Mastai Ferretti started a massive program of restorations and commissions that was not limited to the Vatican and the Church of Rome but reached the most remote regions of the world. SACRED ART CATACOMBS VATICAN I EXHIBITION NAPLES PATRONAGE

298. Church History - gospelcongo.htm - The Gospel in Sub-Saharan Africa
Egidio Picucci

Father Piccuci traces the history of Christianity in the Congo, from the 16th century to modern times. The efforts of the Capuchins and other religious orders to evangelize were complicated by the competing ambitions of Portugal and Spain. SLAVERY ANGOLA MISSIONARY

299. Church History - greatsynag.htm - The Great Synagogue and the Ghetto
Kate Marcelin-Rice

On Sunday afternoon, 17 January 2010, the Holy Father's Visit to the Jewish Community of Rome took him to the "Tempio Maggiore" (Major Temple), the Great Synagogue that stands on the banks of the Tiber. This article gives a short history of the 2,200 year Jewish presence in Rome, with an account and description of the Great Synagogue. INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE SHOAH MO'ED PIOMBO

300. Church History - zpersecxian.htm - The Greatest Persecution of Christians in History

Just before the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, German historian Michael Hesemann announced the discovery of 2000 pages of hitherto unpublished documents on, what he calls “the greatest persecution of Christians in history” in the Vatican Secret Archives. In this in-depth analysis with ZENIT, the historian discusses his findings. GERMANS HITLER TURKS TURKEY BENEDICT XV ISIS MARTYRDOM

301. Church History - ZGRAIL.HTM - The Holy Grail: Fact or Fiction?

The story of the Holy Grail has spawned numerous works of fiction and fantasy. One scholar, Janice Bennett, author of St. Laurence and the Holy Grail, believes the cup's history can be traced from St. Peter's journey to Rome, to St. Laurence in the third century, and then to its final resting place in Spain. She shared with ZENIT why she believes that the Holy Chalice of Valencia is the same cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper. EUCHARIST RELICS MASS

302. Church History - hspatmosc - The Holy See and Patriarchate of Moscow
Józef M. Maj, S.J.

Fr. Maj gives a review of the 2004 agenda of "events that marked the bilateral contact between the Holy See and Moscow." In light of these events, it can be said that "our mutual relations have broadened considerably," though much work remains to be done. RUSSIAN ORTHODOXY PROSELYTISM UNIATISM MOTHER OF GOD OF KAZAN

303. Church History - legalbinluc.htm - The Legacy of Albino Luciani

Albino Luciani, Pope John Paul I, though reigning as Pope for only 33 days, is remembered for his warmth and humility. PONTIFICATE

304. Church History - centconst.htm - The Long Century of Constantine
Peter Brown

In this article, Peter Brown, Professor Emeritus of History at Princeton University, paints Constantine as "one of history's most influential leaders." He not only freed a persecuted Church, but also tolerated paganism. This was a sign not of indifferentism, but of his conviction that the empire of the demons had already fallen and no legal measures were required. THEODOSIUS I AUGUSTINE EUSEBIUS DIVERSITY

305. Church History - miractrent.htm - The Miracle of Trent
Walter Brandmüller

Pope Francis' envoy to the 450th anniversary of the closing session of the Council of Trent (12/4/1563) reflects on the unforeseen blessing the Council was to the Church and the world. SACRED SCRIPTURE TRADITION CREATION REDEMPTION SACRAMENTS

306. Church History - zveronveil.htm - The Mystery of Veronica's Veil

A fascinating mystery envelops "Veronica's veil," the relic that shows the image of Christ. According to journalist Saverio Gaeta, the veil presently kept in the Italian shrine of Manoppello, has an interesting history linked with the iconography of Christ. Gaeta, editor-in-chief of Famiglia Cristiana and author of numerous religious essays reflects further on this fascinating topic in a ZENIT interview. SHROUD MANDYLION ICONS HOLY FACE

307. Church History - newpopeberg.htm - The New Pope Jorge Mario Bergoglio

L'Osservatore Romano presents a short overview of the life and work of Jorge Mario Bergoglio, from his birth in Bueno Aires in 1936, to the time of his election as Pope, 13 March 2013. JESUIT SOCIETY OF JESUS DE LUBAC QUARRACINO ARCHBISHOP EVANGELIZATION

308. Church History - popeattire.htm - The Origin and Symbolism of the Pope's Attire
Agostino Paravicini Bagliani

The article disputes the idea that Pius V (1566-1572) was the first pope to introduce the white cassock for his daily attire. The red cope is mentioned earlier in historical sources, but by the 13th century, it was worn over the white cassock, the red signifying Christ's martyrdom and the white His innocence. MANTLE LITURGY DURANTI VESTMENTS

309. Church History - ORIGARAB.TXT - The Origins of Middle Eastern Arab Christianity
Dr. George Khoury

Taken from the magazine "Al-Bushra" created by Rev. Labib Kobti from the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

310. Church History - palliumb.htm - The Pallium
Father Gerard Skinner

Father Skinner, priest of the Archdiocese of Westminster, relates the history of the Pallium, a circular band with two pendants, given by the Pope to newly appointed Metropolitan Archbishops on the Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul. HIMATION ST GREGORY I ST AGNES LAMBS WOOL

311. Church History - PENALAWS.HTM - The Penal Laws
Patrick Barry

An illuminating article on the historical background of the penal laws enacted in England and Wales, in the 16th and 17th centuries, under which Catholics were persecuted and martyred, with particular reference to the 85 martyrs beatified by Pope John Paul II on 22 November 1987. HENRY VIII ELIZABETH I PIUS V JAMES I CHARLES I II OATES RECUSANTS PROTESTANT ANGLICAN PURITANS CIVIL WAR COMMONWEALTH GUNPOWDER PLOT GUY FAWKES TITUS OATES

312. Church History - zpopemaest.htm - The Polish Pope's Maestro

When Gilbert Levine took the job of Artistic Director and Conductor of the Krakow Philharmonic in 1987, he had no idea his decision would lead to his becoming the "Pope's Maestro," which is the title of his memoirs. Levine spoke to ZENIT about this book, which he believes carries a lesson from the Polish Pontiff: That with 2,000 years of misunderstanding and "terrible difficulty" between Jews and Catholics, "if you put your mind to it you can begin the process of healing." HOLOCAUST JOHN PAUL II DZIWISZ MUSIC POLAND NAZIS

313. Church History - popevshitler.htm - The Pope's Dollars Against Hitler
Luca M. Possati

A study by Patricia M. McGoldrick published in "The Historical Journal" on Holy See finances during World War II brings to light Documents from the British National Archives, which reveal how Pius XII's financial strategy was a weapon against Nazism. US BANKS

314. Church History - PRIESTDY.HTM - The Priest Today
Mons. Maurice Maziers

The Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1968 responded to questions on the difficulties faced by priests in an era of turbulent change. He spoke of the joy of being a priest, which can displace any anxiety. MEDIA SACRED HEART MISSION

315. Church History - zratzfam.htm - The Ratzinger Family Secret

There is still much to be learned about the history and soul of Joseph Ratzinger. And only one person has the key to these intimacies: his brother, Georg, who was interviewed for a book, "Mein Bruder, der Papst" (My Brother, the Pope), by historian Michael Hesemann. Hesemann himself was interviewed by ZENIT. NAZIS HITLER YOUTH PROVIDENCE

316. Church History - relicsmarmagdal.htm - The Relics of Saint Marie-Magdalene at La Sainte Baume
Diocese of Frejus-Toulon, Southern France

From a Diocese of Southern France, where the relics of St Mary Magdalene are preserved, we have a history of those relics, beginning with the tradition of her flight from persecution to France, with her sister Martha, Lazarus and others, where they preached the Gospel. MARSEILLE SARACENS FRENCH REVOLUTION

317. Church History - ZROSARY.HTM - The Rosary Predated St. Dominic

The Rosary, called "Mary's Psalter," continued to develop after its popularization by St. Dominic. This article notes high points in the Rosary's history, particularly between the 12th and 15th centuries. ALAIN DE LA ROCHE ALBERTO DA CASTELLO PIUS V

318. Church History - zsecr3.htm - The Secretary of 3 Popes Talks About Benedict's Renunciation

Monsignor Alfred Xuereb, of Malta, served under the pontificate of John Paul II, and then as one of Benedict XVI’s private secretaries. He has continued in that role with Pope Francis. He was one of the few to know for some time of Benedict XVI’s intention to renounce the Petrine ministry. Here is ZENIT's interview. PAPACY RATZINGER CASTEL GANDOLFO

319. Church History - intrvwb16.htm - The Service of Prayer
Elio Guerriero

Elio Guerriero, Benedict XVI's biographer, interviewed the Pope Emeritus for L'Osservatore Romano. In the interview, Benedict was asked when and how he came to his decision to leave the Petrine Ministry. YEAR OF FAITH WORLD YOUTH DAY MEXICO CUBA TIME ZONES MATER ECCLESIAE MONASTERY POPE FRANCIS

320. Church History - SUMMER44.HTM - The Silent Summer of '44
Giuseppina Sciascia

An account of the heroism of a community of Carthusians in 1944 Italy, who, contrary to their rule of enclosure, opened their doors to persecuted Jews and Italians and hid them from Nazi SS. After discovery, the Carthusians were subjected to torture, and finally martyred. FASCISM MARTYRDOM

321. Church History - zsovsmear.htm - The Soviet Smear that Lingers Today
Ronald J. Rychlak

Ronald J. Rychlak is the Butler, Snow Professor of Law at the University of Mississippi School of Law. He reveals to ZENIT the origin of the campaign to discredit Pope Pius XII regarding the Nazi persecution of the Jews. In 1963, the play, The Deputy, which charged the Pope with complicity with the Nazis, was a Soviet bloc intelligence operation to undermine the Catholic Church. PACEPA ROMANIAN COMMUNISTS

322. Church History - TEACHJP2.HTM - The Teaching of John Paul II
Andrea Riccardi

Professor Riccardi gives an overview of the Holy Father's approach to his pontificate. He emphasized the Church's need to focus on the Gospel and to communicate it to the world. He confronted the world's problems not as a politician, but as a pastor, with a personal touch. Above all, he was a man of faith, who coveyed his faith by the life he lived. COMMUNISM DIALOGUE

323. Church History - 3testimb16.htm - The Three Testimonies of Benedict XVI
Fr Robert Imbelli

Father Imbelli finds three constant themes in the teaching of Benedict XVI: "Personal friendship with Jesus, confession that Jesus is God's living presence among us, and realization that in Jesus we find the truth that makes us free." RULE OF ST BENEDICT LOGOS JOHN HENRY NEWMAN RECAPITULATION TRUTH LOVE MEDIATOR REVELATION

324. Church History - ratzdethp6.htm - The Transfiguration
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger

Four days after Paul VI's death, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Archbishop of Munich and Freising, celebrated Mass in his Bavarian Cathedral on 10 August 1978 for the late Pope. His homily drew on the significance of the Pope's death on the Feast of the Transfiguration. FAITH METAMORPHOSIS SERVICE

325. Church History - ztruthp12.htm - The Truth About Pope Pius XII
Edward Pentin

General Ion Mihai Pacepa, a former Romanian intelligence chief who defected to the United States in 1978, holds secrets that even today would make establishment figures uncomfortable, most notably in Russia. But it’s his sensational claims of a Soviet plot to frame Pius XII for which he is best known. Edward Pentin reports for ZENIT on the Black Legend calling Pius XII "Hitler's Pope." HOCHHUTH COMMUNISM KGB STALIN KRUPP

326. Church History - PALLIUM.HTM - The Value and Meaning of the New Rules Concerning the Pallium
Marcello Costalunga

An explanation and some background of Pope Paul VI's Motu Proprio, which limited use of the Pallium to Metropolitans and the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. No longer will it be conferred merely for honorary purposes, but as a sign of metropolitical jurisdiction and special communion with the Successor of Peter. ARCHBISHOPS SUPREME PONTIFFS

327. Church History - vataplibr.htm - The Vatican Apostolic Library
Kate Marcelin-Rice

Kate Marcelin-Rice recounts the history of the Vatican Apostolic Library, from its 15h century origin under Pope Nicholas V, to its recent renovation, for the restructuring of a wing sagging under the weight of its books. She also summarizes the library's contents, cataloging and security systems. BODMER PAPYRUS

328. Church History - dayspeak.htm - They Were Speaking to Us
Dorothy Day

In an article in the Catholic Worker, June 1963, Dorothy Day described her experience in Rome, during Vatican II, trying to get a message from the Mothers of Peace to Pope John XXIII, shortly before his death. PACEM IN TERRIS MATER ET MAGISTRA

329. Church History - jwshxianundrstnd.htm - To Do the Will of Our Father in Heaven
Center for Jewish-Christian Understanding

For the first time since the Second Vatican Council changed Christian teachings toward Judaism and the Jewish people, a group of prominent Orthodox rabbis have issued a public statement advocating partnership with Christians and appreciating the religious value of Christianity. THEOLOGY SECULARISM RELATIVISM EXTREMISM

330. Church History - brogtaize.htm - Tribute To Brother Roger, Founder of Taizé
Giampaolo Mattei

This tribute to Brother Roger, the 90-year old religious who was stabbed to death 16 Aug 2005 by an apparently unstable 36-year-old Romanian woman, recounts the history of the Taizé Community, which he founded. ECUMENICAN ECUMENISM FRANCISCAN RULE

331. Church History - b16twofriends.htm - Two Old Friends: Benedict XVI and Jacob Neusner
Andrea Monda

During his historic Visit to the United States, Pope Benedict met with Jacob Neusner, a learned Rabbi with whom the Holy Father had corresponded for 15 years. Their first, face-to-face meeting took place on 17 April 2008, when the Pope met with the Jewish Community in Washington, D.C. JUDAISM DIALOGUE

332. Church History - REAGJP2A.HTM - U.S. President's Address to the Pope, 1982
President Ronald Reagan

On 7 June 1982, Pope John Paul II received a visit from the President of the United States, Ronald Reagan, who was accompanied by his wife Nancy and an official party including the Secretary of State and the President's Chief of Staff. In the President's address, he praised the Holy Father for his moral leadership in the world, and echoed their joint concern for the destiny of Poland, foreshadowing a historic collaboration in undermining Communist control in Eastern Europe. See Pope's address. LIBERTY SOLIDARITY AMERICA

333. Church History - REAGJP2B.HTM - U.S. President's Address to the Pope, 1987
President Ronald Reagan

On 6 June 1987, the Holy Father received in audience Mr. Ronald Reagan, President of the United States of America. The President, addressing the Holy Father, expressed the hope that oppressed peoples everywhere would soon obtain their freedom, and freedom of religion in particular. See Pope's address. PROSPERITY POLAND COMMUNISM

334. Church History - vatfinan04 - Vatican Financial Report for 2004

L'Osservatore Romano reports the details of the Vatican financial report for 2004, presented on 8 July 2005 at the 39th Meeting of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Financial problems of the Holy See. The meeting was chaired by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, Secretary of State. PETER'S PENCE MEDIA DICASTERIES MISSION EVANGELIZATION

335. Church History - zarmgenp12.htm - What Pius XII Learned From the Armenian Genocide

Pius XII is still accused of failing to do enough to help the Jews during World War II. He is criticized for being silent. But well-known German historian Michael Hesemann says the Pope's decision to be guarded in protest was a result of what he'd learned some years before, when while working in the Vatican Secretariat of State and as nuncio, he was privy to the Vatican's information on the Armenian genocide and its attempts to stop it. PACELLI BENEDICT XV HOLOCAUST HITLER DIPLOMACY TURKS OTTOMAN EMPIRE

336. Church History - ZCRSADES.HTM - What the Crusades Were Really Like

The Crusaders were not unprovoked aggressors, greedy marauders or medieval colonialists, as portrayed in some history books. Thomas Madden, chair of St. Louis University's history department, argues that the Crusaders did not profit from their ventures by earthly riches or land, but rather fought defensive wars against an aggressive enemy. He also differentiates between the Crusades and the current war on terrorism. MUSLIMS EUROPE HOLY LAND JERUSALEM JEWS

337. Church History - nazifearP12.htm - Why the Nazis Feared Pius XII
Dimitri Cavalli

Pope Pius XII continues to be charged with not speaking often or loudly enough against the Nazi persecution of the Jews. As this article indicates, the Nazis heard the Pope's messages loud and clear. ANTI-SEMITISM PACELLI RUSSIANS

338. Church History - zyadvashp12.htm - Yad Vashem Changes Reference to Pius XII

This ZENIT article reports that Yad Vashem, the Holocaust museum, in Jerusalem, has removed the plaque criticizing Pius XII for lack of concern for the Jews suffering Nazi atrocities. The new text recognizes his personal involvement in rescue efforts to save the Jews. RACISM ANTI-SEMITISM

339. Church History - yvcongvat2.htm - Yves Congar and the Meaning of Vatican II
Father Robert Barron

Father Barron, founder of the global ministry, Word on Fire, and Rector/President of Mundelein Seminary, comments on Yves Congar's journal of the proceedings of Vatican II and on the subsequent divisions after the Council within the party that had carried the day. RATZINGER WOJTYLA DE LUBAC CONCILIUM COMMUNIO MAGISTERIUM THEOLOGIANS

340. Church History - zeffJoN.htm - Zeffirelli Recalls Paul VI's Help With Jesus of Nazareth

When the television miniseries Jesus of Nazareth was released 30 years ago, Pope Paul VI personally thanked Franco Zeffirelli for his work. But the series was a success only because of the Pontiff's help, the director said, recalling what went on behind the scenes during the filming. MEDIA CINEMA

341. Church History - ZP12J800.HTM - ZENIT
Pius XII's Directive Helped Save 800 Jews

Newly found evidence shows that Pius XII helped spare the lives of 800 Jews in the Italian cities of Livorno, Lucca and Pisa, when he asked various Church groups to help preserve them from Nazi persecution in 1943 and 1944. ANTISEMITISM HOLOCAUST