Grace: Commentary on the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas, Appendix
Rev. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P.

APPENDIX

WHETHER AVERSION FROM THE SUPERNATURAL END
CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT AVERSION FROM
THE NATURAL END

In classical Thomism as understood by Capreolus, Cajetan, Ferrariensis, Bañez, Alvarez, Lemos, John of St. Thomas, Gonet, Godoy, the Salmanticenses, Billuart, Gotti, Del Prado, and others, it is generally admitted that fallen man cannot be directly averted from his final supernatural end without at the same time being at least indirectly averted from God, his final natural end and the author of nature. Why? Because even the natural law prescribes that God is to be obeyed whatever He commands whether in the natural or in a higher order. From this principle Thomists generally deduce the following conclusions which are rejected by many only because of insufficient grasp of the foregoing principle.

1. Fallen man cannot by his natural powers alone, without restorative grace, love God the author of nature above all things with an effectively efficacious love. This is the express opinion of St. Thomas, Ia IIae, q. 109, a. 3, where he says that, in contrast to the state of incorrupt nature, “man in the state of fallen nature requires for this the help of grace which heals nature,” since, “on account of the corruption of nature, the rational appetite of the will seeks an individual good unless it is healed by grace.” A weakened power cannot exercise toward God the very efficient act of a healthy power unless it is healed. With still greater reason, fallen man cannot observe the whole of the natural law without healing grace. (Cf. Ia IIae, q. 109, 2. 4.)

2. In the state of fallen nature not yet restored, man has less strength to perform a moral good than he would have had in the state of pure nature. Why? Because now man is born with original sin, that is, directly averted from his supernatural end and indirectly averted from his final natural end; whereas, on the contrary, in the state of pure nature he would not have been born directly turned away from his final natural end, but capable of either conversion or aversion in regard to it. St. Thomas affirms this explicitly enough in treating of the “wounds inflicted upon the whole of human nature by the sin of our first parents,” especially the wound of malice in the will whereby the natural inclination to virtue is diminished. (Cf. Ia IIae, q.85, a.3; q.82, a. I ad I.)

3. As the Angelic Doctor asserts, Ia IIae, q. 89, a. 6, with regard to an unbaptized child: “When he begins to have the use of reason . . .  the first thing that occurs to a man as subject for thought is to deliberate about himself. And if he directs himself to the proper end, he obtains through grace the remission of original sin. Again, ad 3: “For the first thing that occurs to a man who attains to discretion is to consider himself as that toward which he should order other things as to an end. For the end is first in intention. And therefore this is the time when he becomes obligated by the positive command of God, who says: ‘Turn ye to Me . . . and I will turn to you’ (Zach. 1:3).” In the De veritate, q. 24, a. 12 ad I, St. Thomas also writes: “As soon as an adult receives the use of free will, if he prepares himself for grace he will have grace”; that is, if he does what in him lies with the help of actual grace, God does not refuse habitual grace nor, accordingly, faith and charity; and He therefore manifests the revealed truths which are entirely necessary for salvation, at least that God is and is a rewarder. This is an admirable form of baptism of desire, without miracle but with the very special help of God and the guardian angle. Then the child should efficaciously love God the author of nature above all things, and this cannot be done without healing grace. But if he does what he can under actual grace, according to St. Thomas, he is justified. Many theologians, however, deny this last conclusion of St. Thomas and Thomists regarding the justification of an unbaptized child. Yet it is not easy to reject it or destroy the principles upon which this conclusion is based. (Cf. above, pp. 197ff.)

4. The fourth consequence of the principle enunciated above is that in the limbo of children the souls of infants who died before receiving baptism, although they do not strictly suffer from the loss of supernatural happiness, yet do not have absolute, perfect natural happiness since they remain indirectly averted from their final natural end on account of unforgiven original sin. But they have “a certain natural beatitude”; cf. De malo, q. 5, a. 3; and they are exempt from any pain of the senses which is inflicted in punishment for a personal conversion to a transitory good; cf. De malo, q. 5, a. 2.

In the supplement to the Summa, q. 89, a. 5 ad 3, we read: “Even children who die before attaining maturity will appear at the last general judgment, not to be judged but to witness the glory of the Judge.” Cf. Hugon, De novissimis, 1927, p. 813. There are other consequences of the foregoing priniples.114

Is it certain that this basic principle is found in the works of St. Thomas? Beyond any doubt, if the texts cited are carefully studied, especially Ia IIae, q. 109, a. 3: “In the state of fallen nature man requires the help of grace healing nature in order that he may love God naturally [as author of nature] above all things.” And again, IIa IIae, q. 10, a. I ad I: “It is not proper to human nature to have infused faith. But it is proper to human nature for the mind of man not to reject the interior instinct and exterior preaching of truth. Hence unbelief is accordingly contrary to nature.” All sin which is directly opposed to the supernatural end is at least indirectly against God as natural end and author of nature, since the natural law already prescribes that God is to be obeyed whatever He commands, whether in the natural order or in a higher order.

The conclusion is therefore contrary to naturalism and laicism: He who withdraws from his supernatural end most assuredly cannot perfectly attain to his natural end. In the present economy of salvation there is a necessary connection between the two orders. As a matter of fact, every man is either in the state of grace or in the state of sin, and if he is in sin, he is directly averted from his final supernatural end and indirectly from his final natural end. St. Thomas comments on Matt. 12:30: “God is the natural end toward which all things tend; therefore he who is not with God must be separated from Him.” Naturalism is, after all, contrary to nature, since it is against God toward whom all nature tends.

Hence Christ declared: “He that is not with Me, is against Me: and he that gathereth not with Me, scattereth” (Matt. 12:30). But on the other hand He assured the apostles: “He that is not against you, is for you” (Mark 9:39). Accordingly, those who are already sincerely seeking God do so by the help of grace, as if God were to say to them:

“You would not be seeking me sincerely if in some measure you had not already found Me.” “Not that we are sufficient to think anything [salutary] of ourselves, as of ourselves: but our sufficiency is from God” (II Cor. 3:5).

 

INDEX*

Abraham’s obedience, 299

Absolute certainty; see Certainty, absolute

Absolute supernatural, 7

Absolute will of God; see Consequent will

Absolution, faith required for, 335

Accident essentially related to substance, 122

Act specified by object, 464-80: differentiating acquired and infused virtues, 469-71, 475; Cajetan on, 473

Action, philosophy of, 301

Actual grace

divisions of, 150
a motion, 117
necessary to just man, 97-99
not formal participation in divine  nature, 142
operative and cooperative, 163-77
twofold, 175
twofold motion for operative, 175

Adam

before the fall: justification a simple generation in, 326; not Christian grace in, 148; sanctifying grace in, 140; sufficient and efficacious grace in, 194 and note

Adoption of sonship

appropriate to the three persons, 404 different from human adoption, 135, 137
established by grace, 114, 116, 129
formally procured by grace, 142 gratuitous, 136 and note
Nominalist theory of, 137, 331, note
participated likeness, 134, 405
predestinate in sin and, 143
qualities of child for, 500-503
reprobate and, 143
Scriptural texts on, 135
secondary formal effect of grace, 137
spirit of, 497-503
and supernatural revelation, 486

Aeterni Patris (encyclical), 295

Agnes, St., 282

Ailly, Nominalist disciple of, 125

Albeda, Gonzalaz de; see Gonzalez de Albeda

Albert, St.: on the Mass, 111

Almsgiving, 388

Alphonsus Ligori, St., 182

difficulty about hope, 233
difficulty of Thomism, 232
divine decrees, 235
opinion of, 205, 232-36
reply to objections of, 232
scientia media rejected by, 204 note, 235

Alvarez

aversion from supernatural and natural ends, 504
justification of pagan child, 243 note
operative grace, 177
procession of acts in justification, 357
quoted by St. Alphonsus, 232
sufficient and efficacious grace, 220, 432 note
supernaturalness of faith, 482, 484

Analogous concepts, 123, 369, 403

Andronicus, grace of martyrdom, 282

Angelo, O.P.: thesis on justification of pagan child, 341

Angels

baptism of desire and guardian, 505
effects of grace in, 140 note, 141
essence and existence distinct in, 300
essence distinct from operative power in, 468
faith of wayfaring, 478, 485, 490
first act of, 176
grace according to rank, 90
grace naturally unintelligible to, 125
infused species in, 478
intelligence in, 407
justification a simple generation in, 326
natural and supernatural beatitude, 411
natural and supernatural cognition, 489
no mediocrity permitted, 237
not able to generate angles, 306
not able to infuse grace, 306
not able to merit first grace, 385
not Christian grace strictly, 148
perseverance a special grace, 107, 195
principle of predilection concerning, 193, 415
revelation through guardian, 342
virtues to follow grace, 146

Anselm, St.: on free will, 290

Antecedent will, 40, 183-86, 432: and categorical good, 99 note, 267;

and the origin of superiority, 420; and permission of sin, 191; sufficient grace from, 432; or will for universal salvation, 198

Anthony of the Holy Ghost, C.D.: prayer of impulse, 283 note

Apostles confirmed in grace, 107, 290

Apostolic life, 161

Aquaviva, Claude: decree on grace, 206

Aristotle, 69, 94 note, 100

      Acquired perseverance, 102
Act specified by object, 464-68, 472
Bouillard condemnation of, 412 note
Contrary inclination, 123 note
Definition of virtue, 144
Individual existence, 127
Motion, 118
Mutual causality, 355
Potency and act, 431
Soul form of the body, 325

Arnauld: little interior grace admitted by,

      188; remiss charity, 188

Assisting grace, 180

Atheism, 481

Attrition, 92, 266, 346: defined, 348;

      natural and supernatural motives for, 348

Auctorem fidei, bull condemning synod of Pistoia, 177

Augustine, St., 10, 13 and note, 206

divine efficacy, 313
divine election, 106
division into operative grace, 163-68
efficacious grace, 193-96, 243
error if Simon Magus, 228
final perseverance, 100, 102
God able to draw good from evil, 27
God’s judgment inscrutable, 83, 108, 244
grace a quality, 119
grace, disposition of grace, 78, 80
grace necessary to rise from sin, 82
grace needed for divine commands, 68
grace preceding charity, 144
grace required for knowledge, 41
grace required for supernatural good, 53
gratuitous adoption, 136
against Manicheans, 89
meriting eternal life, 75
natural integrity, 24
no impossible command, 434
perseverance, 394
perseverance of angels, 107
against pharisaism, 249, 270, 275
predestination, 424 and note
predilection, admitted by, 193
prevenient and subsequent grace, 177
pure nature, 32
against quietism, 264
reconciliation pertaining to grace, 115
remission of sin, 326
special help to pagans, 66, 94
temporal reward of natural virtue, 53, 398
uncertainty of being in grace, 318

Augustinians

ascendant delight, 254
council of Toucy, 435
at Council of Trent, 440
efficacious grace, 202, 204, 430
little grace, 189
negative reprobation, 19

Auxiliis, Congregatio de, 69, 83, 206

Averroes: powers diversified by natures, 466, 474

Aversion from supernatureal ends, 504


Baianism, 8, 17: excess about  requirements, 6; pseudo supernaturalism of, 15

Bainvel: infused and acquired faith same object, 481 note

Baius, 6, 8

      condemnation of, 61, 132
confusion of two orders, 370
denial of possibility of pure nature, 23, 32
disparagement of reason, 44
error about merit, 364
grace and conversion, 92
knowledge of God impossible without grace, 59
moderate Protestant, 127 and note
natural love of God impossible, 56
pessimism of, 370
rejection of distinction between substantial and modal supernatural, 68

Balaam’s gift of prophesy

Balance of theological principles, 422-28, 442

Bancel: the divine decree, 443 note; extension of his opinion, 265, 268 and note; sufficient grace a physical promotion, 230

Bañez, 206: accused of invention, 216, 440; aversion from supernatural and natural ends, 504; procession of acts disposing for grace, 357; supernatural revelation quo et quod, 486 note; supernaturalness of faith, 482 and note, 484

“Bañezianism,” 445-64: in Capreolus, Cajetan, 446 and note; del Prado on, 216, 440, 446; in St. Thomas, 447, 458

Baptism 149: of desire in pagan child, 341, 344, 504; grace of, 443

Basil, St., De humilitate, 418

Bautin (fideist), 42, 44

Beatific vision, 137, 401 note: in Christ, 288; object of 400

Beatitude, 137: natural and supernatural, 410

Beghards, errors about venial sin, 96

Belief: from supernatural motive required grace, 48; in God required for beatitude, 343 note; motives of, 344; see also Faith

Bellarmine, St. Robert, 70, 154, 216

      Christ’s obedience, 294
congruism embraced by, 206 note, 211
faith for justification, 336, 340
meriting perseverance de congruo, 397
meriting restoration, 389
Molinism attacked by, 206
procession of acts in justification, 357

Bellelli, the ascendant delight, 254

Benedict XIII (pope), 17: approved efficacious grace, 253;
forbade condemnation of St. Thomas, 18

Benedict XIV (pope): efficacious grace, 261, fortitude, 281

Benedict XV (pope): Mass for happy death, 109, 397

Benevolence, 114: of God the source of justification, 328;
toward God for supernatural attrition, 349; see also Love

Bernard, St.: Christ’s obedience, 294; grace and free will, 275; operative grace, 168

Berti: grace efficacious by ascendant delight, 204, 254

Bible: inspiration of the, 285, 462 note; see also Scriptures

Biel, Gabriel: infused and acquired faith, 481; see also Gabriel

Billot S.J. (cardinal), 445

actual grace, 86
actual grace in the just, 97 note
Christ’s obedience, 293
efficacious grace in just, 254
generous concurrence, 99
grace a habit by analogy, 123
grace in Christ, 139
indifferent physical promotion, 204 note, 247
specification of acts, 69
supernaturalness of faith, 51

Billuart

against Nominalists, 132
assent of faith supernatural, 50
aversion from supernatural and natural ends, 504
Christ’s obedience, 294
Congregatio de Auxiliis, 83
differences between Thomism and Jansenism, 203
difficulty of natural truths, 47
divided sense, 449 note
divine decrees, 224
efficacious grace, 195, 419 note
essential supernaturalness of grace, 360
general help, 39
God's charity greater to restored nature, 28
on González’ opinion, 231
grace an accident, 121
grace and Pure Act, 138
grace distinct from charity, 146 grace in state of innocence, 29
De Gratia, 35 note
increase of charity, 391
knowledge of supernatural requires grace, 44
Lemos quoted by, 220
ministry not charisma, 156
Molina's innovation, 206
natural love of God, 61
operative grace, 570
Pelagianism and internal grace, 10
permissive decree, 228
perseverance, 505
perseverance merited de congruo, 397
possibility of pure nature, 32
procession of acts in justification, 357
redemptive Incarnation, 31 and note
rejects minimizing universal salvific will, 19 note
Semi-Pelagians and initial grace, 53
Semi-Pelagians and predestination, ix and note
sufficient grace, 208
sufficient help at age of reason, 85
supernatural concurrence, 99
supernatural revelation quo et quod, 486 note
supernaturalness of faith, 482, 484
on Tournely's objections, 232 tradition about natural law and grace, 68
uncertainty of attrition, 322

Blessed in heaven: alone know the Deity,

399; cannot merit, 382; confirmed in good, 290; free will of, 295, 455 note; Vasquez on merit of, 381

Blessed Virgin Mary; see Virgin Mary

Body, subject to soul in state of innocence, 24

Boetius: consequential necessity, 263

Bonaventure, St.: grace and free will, 276; procession of acts disposing for grace, 357; supernaturalness of faith, 484

Bonetti (fideist), 42, 44

Boniface II (pope), Second Council of Orange confirmed by, 14, 417

Bossuet, 219

adversary of quietism, 264
free will and grace, 247, 278, 463
God no greater for creation, 299
the prayers of the Missal, 250
pre-Augustinian Fathers on grace, 275
predetermining divine premotion, 256
sufficient and efficacious grace, 185, 196, 201, 278 note, 442 and note

Bouillard, S.J., 35 note, 411 note: Modernism and, 412 note; reciprocal causality, 358 note

Boyer, S.J.: habits and active principles, 478; supernaturalness of grace, 484

Brown, O.P.: matter and form of sacraments, 479


Caelestius (Pelagian), 10

Caesarius of Arles against Semi-Pelagians, 14

Caiphas' gift of prophecy, 152

Cajetan

aversion from natural and super­natural ends, 504
Communion and increase of charity, 392
cooperating grace, 38
corrected terminology about substance of act, 74
dignity of Virgin Mary, 142
faith, 476
final instant, 352, 381
formal and material aspect of powers, 466, 474
general help, 39
grace and Pure Act, 138
habits and active principles, 478 justice above miracles, 162
merit de condigno, 375
motion from evil to good, 346 necessity of grace, 41
objects specify acts, 466, 473
operative grace, 170 and note participation in divine nature, 128, 134 note
predetermining premotion, 446 note
pre-eminence of grace, 136
preparation for grace, 316 note
procession of acts in justification, 357
quoted by St. Alphonsus, 232
redemptive incarnation, 31 note
rejection of motion prior in time, 257
sixth condition of merit, 383
supernatural revelation quo et quod, 486 note
supernaturalness of faith, 482 and note, 484

Calvinism

certainty of being in grace, 317
condemnation of, 200
cruelty of, 509 note
denial that man can merit, 364
divided sense of, 263, 440 note, 449
grace an extrinsic designation, 110
impossible precepts, 72
operative actual grace, 174
and predestinationism, 16, 187
against reason, 45

Cano: infused faith essentially supernatural, 484

Capreolus, 49:

aversion from supernatural and natural ends, 504;
Christ's free love of God, 297 note;
predetermining decrees, 446;
supernaturalness of faith, 482 and note, 484

Cartesians, substance and accident not distinct, 117, 125

Carthage: first council of, 10; second council of, 10

Cassian, moderate Semi-Pelagian, 11 note, 13, 14

Categories applied to grace, 121

Catharinus: certainty of grace, 317 and note; "Molinism" invented by, 205

Causality

of being and act, 441 note
divine, 258
efficient, 283, 414, 433-435
extends to meritorious choice, 257, 434
from God's knowledge, 245, 252
of grace, 305-24
metaphysically certain, 483, 495
priority of, 242, 256
reciprocal, 31, 355-58 and note
relationship of dependence, 244

Caussade, de, S.J.: Self-Abandonment to Divine Providence, 277

Celestine I, St. (pope): condemnation of Semi-Pelagianism, 14, 94; necessity of actual grace, 97; perseverance, 101

Certainty

absolute, 319
of being in grace, 317 ff.
cause of, 489
of faith, absolute and relative, 494
of loving God supernaturally, 320
mere moral, 482
of possessing faith, 322
of supernatural quality of faith, 323, 480-97

Charismata; see Grace gratis data

Charity; see also Love

of child of God, 502
condition of merit, 381
and difficulty of a work, 376
distinct from grace, 143-46
essential perfection consists in, 377
first act of, 170 note, 171
formal motive of, 497
imperates all the virtues, 378
included in penance, 347
justification and disposing act of, 357
merits increase, 390-92
as mode of acting requires grace, 68
necessity of, 158
no absolute certainty of, 322
no term of increase to, 408 note
participation in Deity, 407
participation in divine love, 139
participation in divine will, 146
permanence of, 158
present-day need of, 499
presupposes grace, 145
principle of merit, 147, 375
remiss act of, 391
resides in will, 171
stimulated by efficacy of grace, 253, 274
surpasses charismata, 157 and note
utility of, 158
virtual influence of, 376

Christ

as man merited all grace, 148
capital grace of, 387
charismata as habits in, 157
charity of, 367
efficacious grace in, 293-304
faith in, 253
first act of, 176
free will in, 290-304, 379 and note, 463 note
His hour determined, not necessitated, 460
His passion opened heaven, 27 note
His prayer in Gethsemane, 251, 271
impeccability of, 286-304
impeccable de jure, 288
instrumental cause of nature's restoration, 28
instrumental, physical cause of divinization, 148, 305
Jansenist heresy about death of, 188
the Mediator, 30
merited in strict justice, 365, 367
meritorious cause of grace, 305
meritorious obedience of, 286-304
not adopted, 137 note
received divine precept, 293-97
value of meritorious works of, 378

Chrysostom, St. John; see John Chrysostom

Church doctrine; see also Lateran, Milevum, Orange, Quierzy, Trent, Vatican, Valence

efficacious grace, 182, 199-201
merit, 364
and modern world, 498 ff.
perseverance, 101
sufficient grace, 182, 187-99

Cicero, naturalism of, 9

Clement VIII, and the Congregatio de Auxiliis, 69, 206, 471 note

Clement XI (pope), defense of Thom­ism, 17

Clement XII (pope), efficacious grace, 261

Clement of Alexandria, grace and free will, 88

Coercion, freedom from, 188, 287, 379 Coimbrian school, departure from St. Thomas, 216, 259

Coincidence of death with grace, 104: not fortuitous, 108

Collationes (Cassian), 11 note

Commandments, 208; see also Law, natural; Precept

Communion; see Eucharist

Communion of saints, 388

Communism, atheistic, 237, 498

Compensation for natural inequality by grace, 316

Complacency, love of: in unbaptized infants, 65

Composite sense, 421 note: and divided sense, 263, 304, 449

Concordia; see Molina

Concreation, 307

Concupiscence: incorrupt nature exempt from, 23; original justice exempt from, 25; in state of pure nature, 22; and weakness of will, 65

Concurrence

to avoid sin, 92
called grace, broadly speaking, 93 general, 53, 229
natural, 44 ff.
needed for doing good, 54
prevenient and effective (special), 55 simultaneous (Molina), 42 and note, 55
sufficed integral nature to love God naturally, 57

Condemnation of Baius and Quesnel, 61

Condition not to be confused with cause, 226, 260

Conditional will of God; see Antecedent will

Conferred sufficient help, 213

Confirmation in grace, 107, 290: with transforming union, 323

Congar, O.P.: on predetermination, 460 and note

Congregatio de Auxiliis, 69, 83, 206, 471 note

Congruism, 19, 203-7, 221 note

accepts scientia media, 247
admits grace beyond sufficient, 210
distinguishes congruous and other grace, 316
impossible middle ground, 236
objections apply to, 224
and predilection, 419 note
refutes Molinist objection, 260
"whitewashed Molinism," 207

Coninck: Nominalism on sanctifying grace, 127

Conjectural knowledge of being in grace, 317, 320, 323

Connaturalness of supernatural acts, 120, 132 and note

Consecration to the Sacred Heart, 344

Consequent will, 40, 99 note, 183-86:

efficacious grace from, 198, 432;
and the origin of superiority, 420;
regards particular circumstances, 267

Constraint, freedom from, 88, 287, 379

Contemplation, infused: belongs to sanctifying grace, 153 and note; certainty of grace in, 323; not extraordinary, 162; operative grace suffices, 175; painful and obscure, 272

Contemplative life and active life, 161

Contemplative prayer, 251, 271: apparent clarity withdraws from, 294

Contenson: procession of acts disposing for grace, 357; sacramental grace, 149

Contingentism, 124, 368

Contradiction, principle of, 330, 453 and note

Contrition: habitual grace and disposing act of, 357; justification requires explicit act of, 349; necessary for justification, 335, 345; perfect and imperfect, 348; purpose of amendment virtual in, 349

Conversion: imperfect and perfect, 356, 360; operative actual grace, 163; from sin requires grace, 91

Cooperative grace, 38, 150, 181

eminent in an operative grace, 175
God the principal agent, 174
habitual grace referred to as, 174
Molina on, 163
not all merit in need of, 363 note
with our action, 173
physical impulsion, 164
willing the means, 172

Cornoldi, S.J., 445

Corrupt nature; see Fallen nature Council of Orange; see Orange, Second Council of

Covenant between God and Christ the Redeemer (Molina), 14, 63, 82-85: acceptable to Semi-Pelagian, 82; condemned by French clergy, 85; confers grace on natural act, 77; grace not refused to negative preparation, 82

Created grace; see Grace, created

Creative act from divine liberty, 129

Creature: naturally deficient, 223, 229, 248; inequality of, 418

Curé of Ars, unaware of his grace, 318

Curiel: participation in infinity impossible, 128, 538

Cyprian, St.: adoption, 136; glory in nothing, 418

Cyril of Jerusalem: grace and free will, 88


Damascene, St. John: antecedent divine will, 424, 433

Dark night of the soul, 251: demands efficacious grace, 279; difficulty of, 264; confidence amid, 502; purification of faith in, 496

De civitate Dei, 13 note, 33: perseverance of angels, 107; temporal reward of natural virtue, 53

De dono perseverantiae (St. Augustine), 33: efficacious grace, 193; inscrutability of God's judgment, 108; principle of predilection, Pelagians, 102

De Region, 206

Death: and final perseverance, 105; incorrupt nature exempt from, 23; original justice exempt from, 25; in state of pure nature, 22

Decree, divine, 186, 224, 245

Augustine to Prosper on, 244

called "purpose" by St. Paul, 242 note
in Capreolus, 446
infallible efficacy of, 313
permissive, 228-30
physical premotion pursuing, 256
pre-determination about Christ, 379 note, 460
St. Thomas on, 443 note
and syncretism, 454

Deficient cause, 224, 226: for lack of grace, 313; required only by sin, 260, 269, 450

Degrees of divine motion, 34-38

Deity

above being and unity, 186
essentially supernatural specified by, 121
formal constituent of, 400, 408
grace formal participation in, 131, 533 and note, 399-412
and pure Act, 138-40
reconciles mercy, justice, and liberty, 186, 196, 222, 238, 442
specifies grace, 407
surpasses created intellects, 385, 399

Del Prado, O.P., 427 note

aversion from supernatural and natural ends, 504
"Banezianism," 256, 440, 446
charismata and sanctity 162
degrees of divine motion, 35, 37
degrees of sufficient grace, 443 note
effects of operative grace, 176
efficacious and sufficient grace, 186 note, 243, 247
justice above miracles, 162
mediate knowledge of Semi-Pelagians, 12
against Molina, 164-67
operative grace, 163 note, 170, 173
specification of acts, 70
stimulating and assisting grace, 180
supernaturalness of faith, 484
twofold motion for operative actual grace, 175

Deliberation: and divine motion, 35; in infused virtues, 172

Delight, ascendant, 202, 204, 254

Demons: freedom confirmed in evil of, 291; love of God in, 65; material faith, 51, 469, 494; their belief in mysteries of faith, 48, 123

Denifle, Luther und Luthertum, 16, 339

Descartes; see Cartesians

Determinists, liberty of indifference denied by 218

Dionysius, "patiens divina," 322 note

Discerning of spirits: charismatic grace, 151, 155; see also Grace gratis data

Disposition for grace: final, instantaneous, 351-53, 355, 358; see also Preparation for grace

Divided sense: Calvin's use of term, 263, 287, 304, 440; and composite sense, 263, 304; Msgr. Parente confuses, 449; St. Thomas', 450 and note

Divine decree; see Decree, divine

Divine maternity, dignity of, 141, 360

Divine motion: degrees of, 34-38; necessary for good act, 597

Divine nature, defined, 129; see also Participation in divine nature

Divisions of grace, 5, 150-81

Doctrine of the Church; see Church doctrine

 

Durandus, 68 note, 125: adoption of sonship, 137, 142; denial that object specifies act,
465; grace is charity, 543; infused and acquired faith, 472, 481; invented "Molinism," 76, 205

Duval: perseverance, 100


Easy salutary acts; see Facile acts

Eclanum, Julian of (Pelagian), 10

Eclectic method: about easy and difficult acts, 422; unscientific, 286, 294

Eclecticism: of the Sorbonne, 19 and note, 203

Efficacious grace, 150, 183, 421 and note:

cannot he merited, 396
Church doctrine on, 199-201
distinguished from sufficient, 429-45
efficacy of operation in, 199
experiential knowledge of, 255
Gonzalez' opinion, 230
"help whereby," 195
and the inspiration of the Bible, 285
intrinsic efficacy, 239
is conferred, 199
liberty remains with, 200
in the martyrs, 280-83
of most ardent love, 283
no sign to be expected of, 264
not denied to anyone, 220
offered in sufficient grace, 221, 231
and the origin of superiority, 419
and predilection, 185, 412-28
St. Alphonsus' opinion of, 232-36
St. Thomas on, 431
in the saints, 278-83, 462
scriptural basis of, 240-43
and spirituality, 268-78
two systems re, 202-8

Efficacious help, in the state of pure nature, 22

Election applies to means, 171

Elias and Enoch meriting, 381

Empiricism, 289, 496

Ephesus, Council of: against Pelagians, 10

Erigenus, Scotus: error about sufficient grace, 190

Errors concerning grace, 8-15

Essence of grace; see Grace

Esther, Book of, 240, 250

Estius: ignorance as disposing for grace, 88

Eternal life, cannot be merited without grace, 74

Eucharist: charity increased at Communion, 392; means of graces greater than state of
innocence, 29, 30; on nine first Fridays, 398 note

Eunomius: faith alone suffices, 338

Evil: permission a condition, not cause of, 226; permitted for greater good, 27, 30, 32, 445 note; requires only deficient cause, 260, 356, 445 note; see also Sin

Evolutionism, 330, 355

Example, external grace of, 150, 152, 212

Exciting grace, 180

Existentialism, 289, 448 note

Experience, obscurity of, 477

External grace, 150, 212, 260, 443

Extraordinary help not miraculous, 39


Facile acts, 265-68 and note: difficulties

Faith; see also Belief

absolute infallibility of, 487-89
act of formed, 169, 340
cause of certainty in, 489
certainty of possessing, 322
certainty of supernatural quality of, 323
charismatic grace, 151, 155; see also Grace gratis data
of child of God, 501
in Christ, 253, 272
compared to prophecy, 160
in divine good pleasure, 252, 272
dogmatic, 335
exclusion of deliberate doubt, 487
formal motive of, 481, 483, 485
in God's omnipotence, 253, 272
in God's wisdom, 252, 272
held to be natural, 482
implicit and explicit, 344
included in penance, 347
includes devout will to believe, 349
infused, a participation in Deity, 404
inspired by efficacy of grace, 252
justification requires act of, 334, 349
lacking form (informus), 49, 386
mere moral certainty, 482
modernism on, 483
in natural truths of religion, 485 participation in divine knowledge, 147 per sc infused, 491-93
present-day need of, 498
preternatural in sinner, 146
Protestant, fiduciary, 334-36, 338 pure, 423, 426
reaction to error by, 493
St. Thomas on infused, 476
supernatural motive of, 489-91
supernaturalness and certainty of, 480‑97

Fallen nature, state of, 26

compared to pure nature, 26
love of God in, 504
more corrupted in will than intellect, 65
requires grace to love God, 58, 64
requires grace to observe whole natural law, 54, 67, 93
strength for moral good in, 504
unable to merit eternal life, 369 and note

Fatalism, 266

Faustus of Riez, Semi-Pelagian, 13, 14:

beginning of salvation, 11 note

Fear: filial, 340, 347; servile, 347

Felicitas, St.: grace of martyrdom, 282 and note

"Felix culpa," 31

Ferrariensis

aversion from natural and supernatural ends, 504
Christ's love of God free, 297
note final instant, 352
permission of sin and grace, 225
procession of acts in justification, 357
sufficient cause, 218 and note
supernaturalness of faith, 482 and note

Fessart, Gaston, 448 note

Fideists: disparagement of reason, 44; grace necessary for knowledge of truth, 42

Fiduciary faith of Protestantism, 317, 332, 338: confusion of faith with hope, 335

Final grace, Semi-Pelagian errors regarding, 11

Final instant, 351, 381

Finality, principle of: applied to disposition for grace, 78; commensurate agent, 98;
and predilection, 414

First grace: for another, 387-88; whether man can merit, 384-87; see also Initial grace

Following of Christ on efficacious grace, 254, 276

Foreknowledge, God's: Semi-Pelagian error about, 12; see also Mediate knowledge

Foreseen consent, 187, 203, 254; God waits upon our (Molina), 242; see also Mediate knowledge

Formal constituent of divine nature, 400: subsistent being, 400; subsistent intellection, 400 and note

Formal object: of acquired and infused faith, 471; quo et quod, 468 note, 484, 491; specifies act or habit, 66, 140, 464-80

Fortitude of the martyrs and grace, 280

Francis de Sales, St.: efficacy of grace, 277

Francis of Assisi, St.: humility of, 270, 418

Franzelin: acquired and infused faith same object, 481; Christ's obedience, 293; and Gonet, 228

Free will; see also Liberty

analogically participated, 422
to choose the good, 259 note, 290
first principles not subject to, 301
free from constraint, 188, 379
free from necessity, 188, 379
grace never "subsequent" to, 178
and hatred for sin, 345
justification requires movement of, 333
merit requires, 379
new definition of, 421 and note, 464
Nominalist objection to proof of, 345
not cause of grace, 181
and predestination, 315
several virtues in one act, 341
traditional definition of, 421

Friendship: by charity, 376; love of, 60; merit de congruo based on, 368, 387; merits reward infallibly, 397

Froschammer, Semi-rationalist, 9

Fulgentius, St.: the Gentiles acting from grace, 71; perseverance, 275; against Semi-Pelagians, 14, 244


Gabriel: contingentism, 125; keeping natural law without grace, 68 note; love of God without grace, 63; see also Biel

Gaetan du Saint Nom de Marie, on St. Paul of the Cross, 280 note

Gardeil: on Deity, 399 note; habitual grace a habit, 123; participation in divine nature, 133, 407; supernaturalness of faith, 484

Gelasius (pope), books of Faustus and Cassian denounced by, 14

General help, 38-40

Gennadius of Marseille, Semi-Pelagian, it note, 13

Gentiles, 9, 71

Germanicus, St.: grace of martyrdom, 282

Gerson and Nominalism, 525

Gifts of the Holy Ghost, 36: operative grace, 563, 170-72; present-day need of, 498-503; sufficient grace of, 443

Glory

due to possessor of grace, 108
an entitative habit, 147
in essence of soul, 147
final cause of merit, 31
grace seed of, 121, 129, 158
manifestation of God's goodness, 365
quiddity of grace and light of, 403

God; see also Deity

absolute power of, 375
author of grace and glory, 485
causality of, 244-46, 252
cause of being and action in sin, 436
consequent and antecedent will of, 583
could create grace independently, 307
decree of His will, 245
election by, 246
faith on authority of, 476, 485
five proofs of existence of, 244
good in its entirety from, 248, 445 note
His knowledge of simple intelligence, 32
His love produces goodness, 113, 115, 328
infuses penance, 347
inner life of, 442
mover in operative grace, 169
mover of the intellect, 570
predetermining or predetermined, 257, 314
presence of, 361
principal efficient cause of grace, 305-9
the separate common good, 160
unable to will disorder of sin, 436 and note

Godoy: aversion from natural and super­natural ends, 504; original sin for greater good, 31; procession of acts for habitual grace, 357

Gonet, 31

adoption procured by grace, 142
aversion from supernatural and natural ends, 504
charismata transient movements, 156
Christ's obedience, 294
Franzelin and, 228
general and special help, 38 ff.
grace a formal participation, 527
grace an accident, 121
grace and Pure Act, 138
meriting restoration, 389
against Nominalism, 525
not moral certainty of state of grace, 324
operative grace, 177
pre-eminence of grace, 136
procession of acts in justification, 357
St. Paul's enumeration, 154
same grace sufficient and efficacious, 213 note, 432 note
sufficient grace, 208
supernatural revelation quo et quod, 486 note
supernaturalness of faith, 482, 484

Gonzales, O.P. (cardinal): physical premotion, 216

Gonzalez de Albeda, O.P., 182: divine decree, 443 note; his impeded pre­determination inconceivable, 231 and note; impulse to second act, 230; misinterpreted, 265, 268 and note; opinion on sufficient and efficacious grace, 577, 214, 230; rejects mediate knowledge, 230

Good

whether it can be willed without grace, 52-56
in its entirety from God, 248
in natural order, 52
"not to resist grace" is, 90 and note supernatural, 53
use of natural works, 89
of the whole in nature, 57, 60
works of just meritorious, 378

Gospel, law of the, 148

Gotti, 208, 211: aversion from supernatural and natural ends, 504; supernaturalness of faith, 482, 484

Gottschalk: Council of Toucy, controversies over, 268, 435, 455; predestinationism, 15, l87; prepared way for Lutheranism, 8

Goudin: procession of acts for habitual grace, 357

Grace

Absolute perfection of, 141
an accident, 307
actual grace a motion, 117; see also Actual grace
for another, 387
assisting grace, 180
can increase infinitely, 139
cause of, 305-24
charismata inferior to sanctifying, 157-63
charity presupposes, 145
in Christ, 140
Christian, 148
cooperative; see Cooperative grace
could be created independently, 307
created: definitions of, 5; divisions of, 150; morally, 308;
not created but educed, 307; possible independently, 307
dignity of grace, 138-43
distinct from charity, 143
diverse effects of, 140 and note
division into operative and cooperative, 163-77
divisions of, 5, 150-81
effects of, 178, 325-98
efficacious and sufficient, 99 note, 150, 431; see also Efficacious grace
essence of, 110-49
essence of soul subject of, 146-49
exciting grace, 180
external grace, 150, 212, 260, 443
first; see Grace, initial
formal aspect of, 406
in general, defined, 151
gratis data, 150-63; see also Grace gratis data
gratuitous, 33
habitual; see Habitual grace
healing: to keep whole natural law, 73, 85, 93; necessary for practical judgment to love God, 63-66; required for affectively efficacious love, 63; see also Restored nature
of the Holy Ghost, 148
inequality of, 165, 419
initial grace: for another, 387; whether man can merit, 384-87; Semi-Pelagian errors about, 11 and note
instrumental cause, 305
internal: divisions of, 150; enumeration of, 212; heresies regarding, 10;
Jansenism on, 188
justification the effect of, 325-62
justification inconceivable without, 327-32
light and attraction, sufficient, 443
meanings of the word, 3, 112: analogical sense, 113; predestination, 114;
uncreated love, 114
necessity of; see Necessity of grace
never “subsequent” to free will, 178
not created but educed, 307
operative and cooperative, 174, 213 and note; see also Operative grace
participation in divine nature, 126-43, 399-412
perseverance requires special efficacious, 104
preparation for habitual, 309-12; see also Preparation for grace
preservation of, 332
prevenient, 150, 177-80: all preparation for grace is, 78; Molina’s opinion on 14, 82, 208; same grace subsequent and, 179; Semi-Pelagianism and, 13; uncreated love of God always, 179
priority of nature in justification belongs to, 353
quality of the soul, 117-38
radical principle of merit, 147
sacramental, 148, 153, 174
sanctifying: extended sense, 153; permanent principle, 411; a quality, twofold sense, 153; see also Habitual grace
states of, 141
specified by Deity, 407 and note
stimulating, 180
subsequent, 178
sufficient; see Sufficient grace
superabounded over sin, 30
twofold restoration to God by, 152
value of, 136

Grace gratis data 150-63

in Christ, 157
division about supernaturalness of,
exceeds power of nature, 154
found in sinners, 152
habitual or transient, 156
over and above merits, 152
for salvation of others, 152

Gratitude, 251, 271; see also Thanksgiving

Gratuitous predestination: Molina and,15; Semi-Pelagian errors, 11

Gregory, St. (pope): active and contemplative life, 161; predestination, 168

Grignon de Montfort, St.: true devotion to Mary, 388

Grou, S.J.: efficacious grace, 254, 277

Guillermin, 210 note, 443 note: on Gonzilez’ opinion, 230 and note, 265, 268 and note; on little grace, 189

Guilt, remission of, 327-32; see also Evil;

Gunther (Semi-rationalist), 9

 


Habit

Cajetan on, 473
defined, 122
entitative and operative, 145
grace reducible to, 122
included in original justice, 25
specification of operative, 469
specified by object, 464-80
St. Thomas’ classification of, 475

 

Habitual grace; see also Grace, sanctifying

both operative and cooperative, 174
both prevenient and subsequent, 179
certainty of being in, 317-24
degrees of, 162, 315-17
dignity of, 373
and disposing acts in justification, 357
endowment of nature in Adam, 24
essence of, 111 ff.
God alone infuses, 161
infused, not acquired habit, 311
innocence compared with justification,
its diversity from God, 315
to keep commandments perseveringly,
not easily dislodged, 123 and note
operative and cooperative, 174
physically predisposing acts for, 31 I
preparation for, 309-12
prevenient and subsequent, 179
principle of merit, 174
real and physical, 131
renders pleasing, 151, 174
source of Adam’s integrity, 24
sufficient, 443
supernatural substantially, 158

Hadrumetum, Semi-Pelagian monks of, 13

Happiness, natural desire for, 35, 37, 169

Harent: infused and acquired faith same object, 481 note

Harnack, 339

Healing, grace of (charisma), 151, 155; see also Grace gratis data

Healing grace; see Grace, healing

Héfèle, C. J.: Histoire des Conciles, 417, 434 note

Help: general and special, 38; natural help for knowledge, 41; sufficient at age of reason, 81

Henríquez, S.J.: judgments against Molina, 206

Heretics’ natural knowledge of supernatural truths, 48

Hermes (Semi-rationalist), 9

Hervé, Manuale, 393

Hilary, against Semi-Pelagians, 14

Hincmar, defended efficacious grace at Council of Toucy, 455

Historical method, weakness of, 286

Holy Ghost: inspires prayer, 251, 272; merit of free consent to, 379; power of, 373; sufficient cause of glory, 373; see also Gifts

Holy Orders, sacramental grace of, 149

Hope

certain and conditional, 233
certainty of, 322
of child of God, 502
formal motive of, 253, 271-73, 497
in passive purifications, 274
penance includes act of, 347
present-day need of, 498
preternatural in sinner, 146
St. Alphonsus on, 233
scientia media distorts notion of, 255
strengthened by grace, 253, 273
virtually in charity for conversion, 349

Hugon

De gratia, 17, 68 note, 86
on J. González’ opinion, 231 and note
liberty and efficacious grace, 200
permissive decree, 228
perseverance, 102
perseverance merited de congruo, 397
sacramental grace, 149

Human nature

corrupt, 20, 26
infirmity of justified, 98
order of states of, 31
pure, 20-23, 33
repaired, 20, 26, 27-29
various states of, 20-32

Humility

        basis of, 249,267, 436
of child of God, 501
disposition for grace, 30
doctrine of efficacious grace, 249, 269
justification requires act of, 340
sign of prayer of impulse, 284

Hyperdulia, 142

Hypostatic union: and charismata, 157; surpasses order of grace, 141


Identity, principle of, 330

Ignorance

culpable, 318
incorrupt nature exempt from, 23
of just man, 98
mercy induced by, 88
original justice exempt from, 25
practical intellect affected by, 43
in state of pure nature, 22

Illuminative way, 162

Imitation of Christ on efficacious grace, 254, 276

Immanentism: destroys supernaturalness of grace, 17; misunderstood “capable of grace,” 360

Immediate sufficient help, 213

Immortality, not due to nature, 33

Impediments to knowledge, 47

Impulse, prayer of (St. Theresa), 283: differs from sensible devotion, 284; effects of, 284; envigorates the soul, 284; not induced naturally, 284

Incarnation: greater good of, 355; had man not sinned, 31; more perfect than justification, 359

Incorrupt nature, state of, 23, 504

Indiculus de gratra Dei, 416

Indifferent acts, none for individual, 54,

Indirectly voluntary acts, 318, 322

Indispensable condition not a cause, 226, 260

Infants: justified without free will, 332; in limbo, 505; Semi-Pelagian error about salvation of, 12 and note

Infidels, Semi-Pelagian error regarding, 12

Infused contemplation; see Contemplation, infused

Infused virtues, 170 and note: confer power, not act, 197; and cooperative grace, 172; sufficient grace of, 443

Initial grace: Semi-Pelagian errors regarding, 11 and note; see also First grace

Innocence, state of; see Original justice

Inscrutability: of God’s judgments, 83, 108, 244, 438, 441; of human heart, 318, 322

Instant: final, 351; of justification, 349-52

Instrumental power of sacraments, 132

Integrity of nature, 23

could not merit eternal life, 369
general concurrence and, 54
natural love of God possible to, 57
not due to nature, 33
required grace for supernatural work,
sprang from sanctifying grace, 24

Internal grace; see Grace, internal

Interpretation of speeches, charismatic grace, 151; see also Grace gratis data

Irenaeus, St.: heresy of Simon Magus, 338; sufficient grace, 192

Isambert, middle ground on efficacious grace, 204 note


Jansenism, 17

Christ did not die for all, 188
condemned propositions, 187
disparages reason, 44
freedom from coercion suffices, 287,
grace and free will, 203
impossible precepts, 72
impotence of the just, 187
intellect extinct, 43
interior grace always efficacious, 188
liberty for meriting defended against,
merit, 365
and Molinism, 17
natural love of God impossible, 56
operative actual grace, 174
perseverance of angels, 107
pure nature impossible, 23, 32
sufficient and efficacious grace, 180, 183,
sufficient grace denied, 259, 354
theory of little grace, 188

Janssens: God’s foreknowledge, 452

Jerome, St.: against Pelagians, 10

Jesuits; see Society of Jesus

Jews, more enlightened and ungrateful, 30

Joan of Arc, St.: state of grace, 318

John Chrysostom, St., 88: really sufficient grace, 192; salvation a gift of God, 418; the works of the Gentiles, 71 and note

John Damascene, St.: God’s salvific will, 424

John of St. Thomas, 7

actual grace twofold, 175
aversion from supernatural and nat-ural ends, 504
Christ’s obedience, 294
classification of grace, 124
divine decrees, 186
efficacious and sufficient grace, 186
grace and Pure Act, 138
justification of pagan child, 341, 343
merit de congruo, 374
meriting efficacious grace, 397
procession of acts in justification, 357
quasi-experiential knowledge of Trinity, 362
sacramental grace, 149
special help, 38
specification by formal object, 471
and Suarez, 471 note
supernatural revelation quo et quod,
supernaturalness of faith, 482 and note,
twofold motion for operative actual grace, 175

John of the Cross, St., 251

Ascent of Carmel, 423
confirmation in grace, 323
passive purification, 427
prayer for grace, 277, 280
predestination, 277
purification of faith, 496

Joseph, St.: restored nature in, 29

Judaism, naturalism of, 9

Julian of Eclanum (Pelagian), 10

Justice: commutative and distributive in merit, 383; presupposes mercy, 373-75

Justification, 325-62

acts required of sinner for, 332
compared to creation, 359
compared to glorification, 359
dispositions produced successively for,
effect of operative grace, 169
faith, love, and contrition explicit for,
freedom from guilt prior in material
habitual grace and disposing acts in,
identical with remission of sin, 325-27,
instant of, 171
instantaneous, 349-52
is motion toward justice, 3
miraculous, 360
natural knowledge insufficient for,
not ordinarily miraculous, 360
of pagan child, 341-45
priority of grace in, 353
relative greatness of, 358-60
requires contrition, 345
requires grace, 327-32
requires remission of sin, 347-49
sacramental, 335, 348
St. Thomas on acts required for, 340,
in sleep, 311, 333
supernatural attrition and sacrament
suffice for, 349
vocation precedes, 327

Justifying grace, 36: and affectively efficacious love, 64; operative, 170 note; as something distinct from perseverance, 101


Kant: agnosticism of, 45; error about free will, 345; subjective conceptual
ism of, 189

Kinds of grace, 5

Kleutgen, SJ.: defense of traditional Thomism, 445, 448 note

Knowledge

charismatic grace, 151, 155; see also Grace gratis data
of difficult natural truths, 47
effectively supernatural, 159
entitatively supernatural, 48
of goodness twofold, 322 note
intrinsically supernatural, 159
of philosopher and theologian con- trasted, 401-6
of supernatural truth, 42
without grace, 41 ff.

Kors: grace in Adam a personal gift, 24, 327 note


La prédestination des saints et la grâce
(Garrigou-Lagrange), 19, 99 note, 214 note

La Taille, de, S.J.: moral obligation of Christ to die, 293 and note, 296; supernaturalness of infused faith, 484

Laberthonnière, immanentism of, 17

Lacordaire: the supernaturalness of faith,

Laicism, 506

Lallemant, S.J.: efficacious grace, 277

Lammenais: traditionalism to liberalism, 337

Lateran Council, Fourth, 131

Law, natural, 61, 65: with charity, 68; grace necessary to fulfill substantially 67-74; habitual grace to fulfill perseveringly, 73; indirectly violated by sin against supernatural law, 66

Law, New Testament: set in the heart, 148

Law, written, 150

Leclercq, Dom H., 417

Ledesma: grace participation in infinity, 128

Ledochowski, S.J., 49: acknowledges Molina departs from St. Thomas, 71

Leibnitz: psychological determinism, 189 note, 218

Lemoine: middle ground on efficacious grace, 204 note

Lemos, Thomas de, O.P., 38, 69

aversion from natural and supernatural ends, 504
at Congregatio de Auxiliis, 83
efficacious and sufficient grace, 186 note, 208, 220
on J. Gonzilez’ opinion, 231 and note
operative grace, 170 and note
Panoplia gratiae, 40
quoted by St. Alphonsus, 232
specification by formal object, 471 and
supernaturalness of faith, 482, 484

Lennerz, SJ.: specification of acts, 465

Leo (pope): adoption of sonship, 136

Leo XIII (pope), 295: biblical inspiration (Providentissimus), 462 and note, 285; consecration to the Sacred Heart, 344; Divinum illud munus, 361; and Thomism, 448 note

Lepidi: supernaturalness of infused faith,

Lessius

Christ’s obedience, 293
denies grace participation in divine
denies predilection, 419 note
foundation of divine adoption, 137, 142
grace and free will, 165, 430 note
gratuitous predestination, 205 and note
prevenient grace, 14

Liberalism: confusion of two orders, 337; error of neutrality, 236, 498

Liberatore, S.J., 445

Libertism, 124, 368

Liberty; see also Free will

nature, 127
Bible inspiration does not destroy, 285
of Christ, 290
defined, 301
in the Deity, 186
destroyed by scientia media, 255
divine premotion and, 217 note
efficacious grace actualizes, 258, 270, 286
of equal choice or balance, 300
God present to our, 269
grace not destructive of, 264 note
moral, 297, 303
necessary for merit, 365
new definition of, 422
and operative grace, 176
psychological, 291, 295, 303

Lichetto, 125

Liguori, St. Alphonsus; see Alphonsus

Lorca: Christ received no precept to die, 293

Love; see also Charity

cause of goodness is God’s, 113
of complacency in unbaptized infants,
controversy over affectively eflicacious,
of friendship, 60
of God author of nature, 504-6
of God in integral nature, 55
of God by natural power, 56-66
God’s benevolent, 4, 113, 328
innate, 62
justification requires explicit act of, 349
pure, 60
special grace for supernatural, 59

De Lubac, H., Surnaturel, 410

Lucidus, predestinationist, 15, 187

Lugo, de: diversity of habits specify acts, 69, 465, 472 and note; infused and acquired faith same object, 481 note; precept received by Christ, 293

Luther, Martin

certainty of being in grace, 317
denied man could merit, 364
Faith without works, 339
grace an extrinsic designation, 110
impossible precepts, 72
intrinsically efficacious grace, 261
Nominalists prepared way for, 122, 125
and predestinationism, 16
against reason, 45
sins merely covered, 347
will determined toward evil, 229


Malice outside object of omnipotence, 258 note

Manicheans, 229: dualistic pessimism, 58; error refuted, 33; free will denied by, 88

Margaret Mary, St.: promise of the first Fridays, 398

Mariana, S.J.: Molinism attacked by, 206

Marin Sola: and St. Alphonsus, 232; undue extension of Gonzilez’ opinion, 230 and note

Martines: grace a participation in infinity, 128

Mass, sacrifice of the: grace to celebrate, 149; for grace of perseverance, 397; greater union with God through, 30; for happy death, 109; St. Thomas anticipated Protestant objection, III

Massodig: accepts J. Gonzilez’ opinion, 230, 265; retains Thomistic principles, 268 and note

Master General, O.P.: letter from Benedict XIII to, 253

Master of the Sentences; see Sentences

Materialism, 353, 481

Mattiussi, S.J., 445: infused faith essentially supernatural, 484

Mazzella, S.J.: habits specified by formal objects, 70; necessity of actual grace, 98; St. Paul’s enumeration of charismata, 154

Mediate knowledge, 83 note, 255

ascribes passivity to Pure Act, 255, 439,
incongruity of, 254, 257
no foundation in St. Thomas, 447
omnipotence limited by, 255
and our foreseen consent, 187, 203, 242,  254, 430, 437
Semi-Pelagians and, 12, 313

Mediate sufficient help, 213

Medina: his enumeration of charismata, 154

Megarians: no power without act, 218,

Menéndez Rigada, O.P.: and Father Gardeil, 399 note, 407 and note

Mercy

basis of gift of perseverance, 397
basis of merit de congruo broadly con sidered, 386
of divine election, 106
induced by indigence, 88
justification requires act of, 340
reconciled with the permission of evil, 425

Merit, 363-98

based on friendship, 368
based on God’s mercy, 369
of Blessed Virgin Mary higher than Adam’s, 30
cannot merit principle of, 384-87, 396
charity and grace conditions of, 381
of Christ confers grace of persever- ance, 104, 109
of Christ’s free obedience, 286-304, 379
conditions for, 379-83
de condigno, 75, 367, 373
de congruo, 368, 374, 386
and cooperative grace, 172
defined, 363, 366
denominated analogically, 366, 369
disposing cause of glory, 31
divine ordination necessary for, 381-83
division of, 366-69 and note
of eternal life, 74
free use of grace and, 248
of final perseverance, 39297
from God possible to man, 363
increase of grace, 290-92
of just man de condigno, 372-75
justice and, 383
merely condign, 368
naturally good works do not win,
not in strict justice, 365
obedience to rewarder for, 379
obtains infallibly, 390, 395
presupposes divine ordination, 365
principally by charity, 375-79
reckoning after original sin greater, 29
restoration of, 389
supernatural good work for, 380
temporal goods fall under, 398
in via only, 380-82
work must be free for, 379

Merkelbach: sacramental grace, 149

Michel, A.: on Christ’s free obedience, 294

Milevum, council of, 10: commandments require grace, 68; condemned Pelagians, 76, 94; venial sin, 96

Ministry not grace gratis data, 154,

Miracles: adapted to intelligence, 45; charismatic grace, 151, 154; external grace, 212; motive of credibility of, 156 484; see also Grace gratis data

Miraculous: justification not ordinarily, 360; substantially, 7 note; and supernatural substantially, 159, 368

Missal, prayers of the, 250, 271

Mixed life, 161

Moderate realism, 345

Moderate Semi-Pelagianism, 13

Modernism, 412 note, 448 note: on faith, 483, 487; oath against, 45; on pure nature, 32 368, 384, 387

Molinism

actual grace unnecessary to just, 97
affectively efficacious love without
agrees with Luther, 261
assent of faith supernatural only in
“Bañzianism” invented by, 216
charge against St. Thomas, 163
concedes grace to fulfill command-
conversion with less help, 164, 316,
cooperative grace, 16367
covenant between God and Redeemer, 82-85; see also Covenant
definition of free will, 464
departure from St. Thomas, 216, 259
deplored Nominalism, 331
differs from Semi-Pelagianism, 11, 12,
a dream, 249
efficacious grace denied by, 203
extrinsically efficacious grace, 204
faith from supernatural motive with-
favorable circumstances, 205, 221 note
final perseverance, 105
free act only a mode, 248
free will in Christ, 292
fundamental assertion of, 419 note
infused and acquired faith, 472
interpretation of Augustine, 165
just need not actual grace, 97
mediate knowledge; see Mediate knowledge
minimizes God’s mercy, 219
misinterpretation of actual grace, 118
negative preparation prior to grace, 76
Nominalism of, 125
operative grace, 163-67, 174
refutation of, 208
scientia media; see Mediate knowledge
against Semi-Pelagians, 164
specification of acts, 69, 465
succession of acts in justification, 357
sufficient help, 205

Molinos, Michael, 96

Monica. St.: merited conversion de congruo, 368, 384, 387

Mopsuestia, Theodore of: minimized necessity of grace, 9

Moral certainty, 323

Moral motion, 254: cannot move infallibly to choice, 256 and note; Molina against Semi-Pelagians, 163; objective or attracting, 254

Mortal sin: avoidance by sinner, 93-95; death to essence of soul, 147; of just man, 95; in will, 147

Mother of God; see Divine maternity

Motion: cooperative, 170; divine, 34-38, 258 and note; operative, 170; three elements of, 347, 354

Muzio Vitelleschi, S.J.: confirmed Congruism, 207

Mystical contemplation; see Contemplation infused


Natural act, substantially, 66

Natural concurrence, 44: grace in broad sense, 46; insufficient to produce supernatural disposition, 80; knows and enlarges on revelation, 47

Natural good works, 371

Natural law; see Law, natural

Natural meaning of “grace,” 3

Naturalism, 8,506: Judaism and, 9; pagan origin of, 9

Nature: defined, 129; and supernature, 211; see also Divine nature; Human nature

Necessity: consequential and logical, 262; and contingency, 459; mediate, 335, 337; of precept, 335

Necessity of grace, 41-109

to avoid sin, 92-96
denied, 9
to do any good, 52-56
to fulfill natural law, 67-74
knowledge of truth, 41-52
to love God, 56-66
to merit eternal life, 74
to persevere, 99-109
to prepare for grace, 75-91
to rise from sin, 91
for salutary works of just man, 97-99

Negation and privation distinguished, 298

Negative reprobation, 440 and note

Neo-Caesaria, Council of, 76, 94

New Syncretism; see Syncretism, new., I

New Testament law, 148

Nicholas de Flue, St., 259 note

Nicholas of Utrecht (Nominalist), 496

Nicolai, accepts J. González’ opinion, 230

Nominalism

adoption of sonship, 137, 142
argument against, 132
coexistence of sin and grace, 330
considers fact not nature, 289, 300,
denies that object specifies act, 465
essed and acquired faith, 472, 481
justification of pagan child, 344
natural works meritorious, 368, 370
and note
justification of pagan child, 344
natural works meritorious, 368, 370
note, 382
prepared way for empiricism, 496
prepared way for Lutheranism, 122
and pseudo-supernaturalism, 16
removes real distincitons, 143

Noris: ascendant delight, 204


Obedience: Christ’s free, 286-304; formal object of, 296; for merit, 379; religious, 299

Obediential power of soul, 121, 306:

capable of grace, 360; defined, 307;
grace educed from, 306; simple non-
aversion, 308; Suarez’ active, 471
note

Object: formal constitution of, 48; see also Formal object

Ockham: anticipated empiricism, 496; grace a “bank note,” 124; prepared way for Luther, 16

Offered sufficient help, 213

Onanism, 58

Ontological perfection and formal object, 465, 474

Ontologists, 117, 125

Operative grace, 36, 150, 155, 170

containing cooperative grace, 175
effects of, 176
habitual grace referred to as, 174
leads to consent, 175
Molina’s opinion on 163-67
not followed by cooperative grace, 175
operates physically, 163
twofold motion for actual, 175
will elicits act vitally under, 173
Orange, Second Council of, 11
actual grace, 97
affectively efficacious love, 63
not followed by cooperative grace, 175
operates physically, 163
twofold motion for actual, 175
will elicits act vitally under, 173

Orange, Second Council of, 11

actual grace, 97
affectively efficacious love, 63
brief perseverance, 105
conversion from sin requires grace, 92
disposition to believe is grace, 88
distinguished from Baius, 56
efficacious grace, 198, 210, 239, 243, 429
final perseverance, 394
God author of all good, 417
God efficient cause of grace, 305
God prepares will for grace, 313
grace required for faith, 49
impotence from weakness of fallen nature, 68
indigence of man, 269
liberty and grace, zoo, 208
merit de congruo requires grace, 79
merit of just man, 373
meriting first grace, 385
natural concurrence, 41 note
no beginning of salvation without grace, 78
no good will without grace, 83 and note
no reference to covenant, 82
operative and cooperative grace, 168
original sin death of soul, 25
perseverance, 101, 200
perseverance in original justice, 107
predilection, 243, 262, 414-16
grace, 78
salutary acts require grace, 200
against Semi-Pelagians, 14, 76, 94
special grace for supernatural love, 59
sufficient grace, 190
supernatural good demands grace, 52
supernaturalness of grace, 132

Order of states of nature, 31

Origenists, 9

Original justice, state of, 24: efficacious

grace in, 195; included sanctifying
grace, 326; perseverance a special gift in, 107

Original sin, 26, 504

 

Paganism, 9

Pagans: justification at age of reason of, 341-45; virtue requires special
help in, 66, 94.

Pain: derives merit from charity, 373; exemption of incorrupt nature from, 23; original justice exempt from, 25; in state of pure nature, 22

Paludanus, quoted by Lorca, 293

Pantheism, 58, 489

Paquet: indifferent physical premotion, 204; not “Cajetan-Thomistic,” 257; premotion toward good in general, 256

Paquier, Le Jansénisme, 189

Parente, P.

apologetic conferences, 463 note
confuses divided sense with Calvin’s, 440 note, 449, 451
determination to one, 458-60
new syncretism, 450-53
seeks compromise, 451, 453
spontaneity and freedom of blessed, 451 note
sufficient and efficacious grace, 450 and note

Participation in the divine nature, 116, 399-412

accident in us, 135, 409
analogical, 131, 406-8
Church definitions of, 128
formal, 126-143
grace is, 120
moral according to Nominalists, 127,
Scripture confirming, 114, 128
stone has not, 133
theological proof of formal, 129
virtual, 127

Pascal: hierarchy of being, 80; the “wager,” 61 note

Pascendi, Pius X, 448 note

Passive perseverance, 100 note, 102

Passive purification, 268

of faith, 496
free will in, 462
gift of understanding in, 427
of hope and charity, 497
priority of nature in, 355
requires efficacious grace, 279
of the spirit, 251, 264
temptation against hope in, 274

Passivity attributed to Pure Act, 255, 439, 447, 455, 464

Patriotism, motives distinguished, 66

Paul V (pope): distinguishes Thomism from Calvinism and Jansenism, 17; Thomist-Molinist debates before, 206

Paul (apostle), St., 30

calls divine decree a "purpose," 242 note
charity, 151, 157
consent to conversion, 256
graces gratis datae, 151
meaning of “faith” for, 335, 337
miraculous conversion of, 360
misinterpreted by Protestants, 338 note
predestination, 209 note, 235
revelation of being in grace, 319
teaches efficacious grace, 275

Paul of the Cross, St.: efficacious grace, 280 and note

Pecci (cardinal): accepts indifferent physical premotion, 204 note; pre-motion toward good in general, 256

Pelagianism, 422

admitted preaching confirmed by miracles necessary, 75
confusion of two orders, 370
denied prevenient grace, 177
efficacious grace defended against, 199
efficacy of grace, 187
eternal life merited without grace, 75,
external revelation suffices for faith, 48
faith not infused, 490
happy death, 392
infused virtues for facility, 10, 471 note, 476
materialistic explanation of justification, 353
misuse of word “grace,” 5
operative actual grace, 174
optimism of, 370
perseverance, 100
phases of, 9
preparation without grace for first grace, 76, 385
supernatural love without special grace, 59
victory not from God, 94

Penance

act of, 169
attrition required by sacrament of, 348
charity controls, 346
faith, love, contrition explicit for, 349
habit of, 173, 347
series of acts in, 347
virtue of, 169

Perfection: “as heavenly Father,” 131; of incorrupt nature, 23

Permanent internal help, 212

Permission of sin, divine, 27, 30-32, 222, 441 and note

distinguished from reprobation, 225
final impenitence and, 440 and note
logical necessity of, 228
not cause of sin, 225, 356, 450of sin, 225, 356, 450
not refusal of grace, 109 note, 223-25
reconciled with mercy, 425 and note

Permissive will of God; see Consequent will

Perseverance

of angels, 107
avoiding mortal sin until death, 95
defined and differentiated, 99, 102
election of adults, 106
errors regarding, 100
external grace in infants, 105
final passive, 100 note, 102
and hope, 233
meriting final, 392-96
not promised, 396
requires special actual grace, 103
Scripture attributes to God, 101
Semi-Pelagian error, 11
special grace for brief, 104

Personal sufficient help, 213

Pesch, SJ.: supernatural help, 98; withdraws from Molinism, 70

Petau: Christ received no precept, 293

Petazzi, S.J.: infused faith essentially supernatural, 484

Peter, St.: his denial, 196, 355; humility of, 27, 30

Petitot on Pascal and sufficient grace, 189

Pharisaism, 249, 242

Philip of the Holy Trinity, C.D.: prayer of impulse, 283 note; procession of acts for habitual grace, 357; transforming union and predestination, 323

Peter Lombard; see Sentences, Master of the

Philosophical conception of God, 402

Philosophical sin condemned, 342 and note

Picolomini, SJ.: confirmed General

Aquaviva’s decree, 207

Pignataro: indifferent physical premotion, 204 note

Pistoia, synod of: condemned, 17, 188, 199; denied grace preceding good will, 82; denied sufficient grace, 187 preaching and good example, 188

Pius V, St. (pope): Catechismus romanus, 112 note

Pius VI condemned the synod of Pistoia, 17

Pius IX (pope): principle of contradiction and identity, 330; salvation of those in invincible ignorance, 82 and note

Pius X, Blessed (pope), 387: Pascendi, 448 note

Plato: use of term “participation,” 126

Polycarp, St.: grace of martyrdom, 281 and note

Positivism, 45, 345

Possibility of pure nature, 32-34; see also Pure nature

Potency and act

actual grace applied to, 118, 175
divine premotion makes transition between, 41, 53, 98
divided sense and, 449
in the intellect, 169
and J. González’ opinion, 23
specification of, 468, 473
transition effected by God, 257

Power: loving God by natural, 56; specification of, 468, 473; see also Potency and Act

Power of God, absolute, 375

Pragmatism, 448

Prayer

breath of the soul, 250, 264, 271
of the child of God, 501
of Christ in Gethsemane, 251
to constrain our wills, 250 note
of contemplation, 251, 270
continual, 271
depends on mercy, 388
of impulse (St. Theresa), 283
interior, 270
of the just, 388
of Mary on Calvary, 251
necessity of, 250
of petition necessary, 264, 270
scientia media reduces need for, 255
of sinner and merit, 369

Preaching of the gospel, 150, 212: only antecedent grace for Pelagians, 177

Precept laid on Christ, 295: denied, 293

Predestination

of angels, 195
and divine predilection, 440; see also first step in, 171 and free will, 246
gratuity of, 205, 235, 417 and note, 437
mystery of, 252, 396, 405, 437
no temporal succession in, 439 note
particular gift, 105
Semi-Pelagian error about, 11, 417
sufficient and efficacious grace for, 194
vocation, justification, glorification, effects of, 393

Predestinationism, 8, 15-20, d 7 , 422: on free will and grace, 200

Predilection, principle of, 4, 246, 254

Predilection, principle of

applications of, 418-23
basis of, 413
and efficacious grace, 412-28
follows from causality, 185
God’s consequent will, 435
necessity of, 417
and predestination, 440, 454
presupposes divine decree, 186
universality of, 236, 414
necessitate form, 313
Cajetan on, 257, 446 note
for creature to pass from potency to
indifferent physical, 204 note, 256 and
fallibly efficacious, 217 note
physical, 165
predetermining physical, 183, 202-4,
mystery of, 423, 427

Predisposition of matter, 310: does not necessitate form, 313

Premotion

Cajetan on, 257, 446 note
for creature to pass from potency to act, 41 and note
indifferent physical, 204 note, 256 and note
fallibly efficacious, 217 note
physical, 165
predetermining physical, 183, 202-4, 256, 446

Preparation for grace, 309-12

disposition necessary for habitual, not
actual grace, 81
God produces, 311
infallibly leads to justification, 312-14
may be sudden, 311

Preservation of grace, 332

Prevenient grace; see Grace, prevenient

Privation: and negation distinguished, 298-300; physical and moral, 329; voluntary, 329

Prophecy, conditional “threatening,” 456 note

Prophecy, gift of, 150: Caiphas, Balaam, pagan sibyl, 152; compared to faith, 160; and prophetic instinct, 477; see also Grace gratis data

Prosper, St., 12,71: adheres to Augustine, 424 note; intrinsically efficacious grace, 244, 275; predestination, 237; predilection, 416; against Semi-Pelagians, 14

Protestantism, 180; see also Calvinism; Luther

absurdity of position on justification, 327
of Baius, 127
believing oneself in grace, 317
“confidence” confused with faith by, 335
confident faith sufficient for justifica tion, 332
efficacious and sufficient grace, 183, 203
faith alone suffices, 337-40
God’s uncreated love for us, 114
grace unnecessary for justification, 327
inadequacy of, 481
justification not the remission of sin, 325
merit, 364
misinterprets St. Paul, 338 and note
St. Thomas anticipated objections of,
threefold faith, 334

Providence, 32, 212: certainty of being in grace, 321; and contingent causes, 217 note; extraordinary, 73; natural and supernatural, 211; special for final perseverance, 104

Providentissimus Deus (encyclical), 285

Proximate sufficient help, 213

Prudence, rectitude of appetite presupposed by, 46

Pseudo-supernaturalism, 8, 15-17

Psychological determinism, 189 note

Pure love, 60

Pure nature, state of, 20-23

posed by, 46
could not merit eternal life, 370
enduring observance of natural law in, 73
four causes of, 22
natural love of God in 58, 60
not contradictory, 33
possibility of, 32-34, 411
resurrection and, 34
strength for moral good in, 504

Purgative way, 162

Purgatory, souls in, 291: not capable of merit, 382; Visquez on merit of, 381

Quality: actual grace not a, 117; immanent action, 119 and note; sanctifying grace, 119 ff.

Quasi-experimental knowledge of God’s indwelling, 321

Quesnel

condemned, 17, 188, 263
denied sufficient grace, 187, 421 and note
disparaged reason, 4ut merit, 364
grace only through faith, 82
knowledge of God impossible without grace, 59
no liberty from necessity, 188, 421

Quierzy, Council of, 8: cited St. Prosper, 237; definition against predestinationism, 16

Quietism, 60: and Thomism, 263


Radicalism, 237, 498

Rationalism, 9

Ratisbonne, miraculous conversion of, 360

Realism, moderate, 345

Reason

ordered to proper end obtains grace, 64. 504
subject to God in the state of innocence, 24
sufficient help at age of, 81
unable to avoid all inordinate movements, 96
unable to demonstrate possibility of grace, 409
undeniable first principles of, 301

Reginaldus: accepts J. Gonzilez’ opinion, 230, 265, 268; Tria principia, 478 note

Remiss charity, 391

Remission of sin: required for justification, 347-49; substantially same as infusion of grace, 347

Remote sufficient help, 213

Reprobation, 225: negative and positive 228, 440 and note

Restored nature, state of, 26: compared with state of innocence, 27-29

Resurrection of the body, miraculous, 34

Revelation

for certainty of state of grace, 133, 209
external grace, 212
of final perseverance, 209 note, 233,
for justification of pagan child, 343
quo et quod, 486 and note, 495
reveals itself, 495
substantially supernatural, 486

Revue Thomiste, 399 ff.

Ripalda: enumeration of graces gratis datae, 154; grace a substance, 121, 126; infused and acquired faith same object, 481 note; meriting perseverance de congruo, 397; operative grace, 177

Robert Bellarmine, St.; see Bellarmine

Rouet de Journel, Enchiridion patristicum, 106, 112, 129 note: adoption of sonship, 136 note; faith for justification, 336 note, 340 note; perseverance, 394; remission of sin, 326 note; sufficient grace, 193

Rousselot: natural love of God, 58 and note

Rozwadowski, S.J.: infused faith essentially supernatural, 484


Sacramental grace, 148, 153, 174

Sacraments: disposition for approaching, 320; disposition lacking for, 322; instrumental cause of grace, 305; matter and form of, 479; necessity of, 219

Sacred Heart: consecration to, 344; promise of final perseverance by, 398 note

Salmanticenses, 7

actual grace and uncreated action, 119
actual grace twofold, 175
affectively efficacious love, 63 note
assent of faith requires grace, 49
aversion from supernatural and nat- ural ends, 504, 506 note
certainty of grace not individual, 321
Christ’s obedience, 294
confirmation in grace, 107
cooperative grace, 177
efficacious and sufficient grace, 186
Elias and Enoch, 381
essential supernaturalness of grace, 368
faith, 476
faith for justification, 335
final instant, 352
general and special help, 38
God’s love for the elect, 136
grace and free will, 165
grace and Pure Act, 138
infused virtues, 139
J. González’ opinion, 231 and note
knowledge of supernatural requires
meriting efficacious grace, 397
moral certainty of grace, 321
Nominalists, 124
obediential power, 308
operative grace, 170 note, 177
participation in divine nature, 128
procession of acts in justification,
quiddity of habitual grace, 407
redemptive Incarnation, 31
sacramental grace, 149
specification of acts by formal object, 69, 471 and note
substantial supernaturalness of love of God, 66
supernatural revelation quo et quod, 486
supernaturalness of faith, 482, 484

Salutary works distinguished from meritorious, 370, 378, 386

Salvific will of God, 19, 86, 422: St. Augustine on, 455; St. Thomas on, 425

Sanctifying grace; see Grace, sanctifying; Habitual grace

Satisfaction, 371, 378

Satolli: indifferent physical premotion, 204 note; not “Cajetan-Thomistic,” 257; premotion toward good in general, 256

Scaramelli: transforming union and predestination, 323

Scheeben, M. J.: divine motion, 258 note, 461 and note; supernaturalness of faith, 484

Scientia media; see Mediate knowledge

Scotus

adoption of sonship, 137, 142
affectively efficacious love of God, 63
contingentism of, 368, 382
denied that object specifies act, 465
extrinsic assistance, 204
“formal-actual” distinction, 145 note
fulfilling natural law without grace, 68
grace attributable to will, 146
grace a “bank note,” 125
grace a substance, 121
grace and charity formally distinguished, 143
grace not a gift, 124
infused and acquired faith, 472, 481
interior works without grace, 69
justification possible without grace,
merit of Christ, 367
negative love, 329
negative preparation before grace, 76
procession of acts in justification, 357
proportion of grace to glory, 373
result of his teaching, 147
terminology about determination ante-dates, 443 note

Scotus Erigenus, 290

Scriptures, 190 note

charity, 375

faith without works, 338 and note

final perseverance, 393

God, author of salvation, zog

grace, 111

humility, 249

intrinsically efficacious grace, 240-43

perseverance, 101

prayer of petition, 270,

sufficient grace, 190

Second Council of Orange; see Council of Orange, Second

Semi-Pelagians, 10-14, 417

denial of prevenient grace, 177

efficacious grace defended against, 199

grace merited by love, 63

faith begins in man, 49, 490

happy death, 392

mediate knowledge invented by, 313

meriting eternal life, 370

meriting first grace, 385

perseverance, 100

preparation for habitual grace without

rejected by Molina, 164

supernatural love without special grace,

actual grace, 75 and note 59

Semi-rationalism, 9

Sensationalism, 496

Sense appetites: disordered even after healing grace, 96; subject to reason in state of innocence, 24

Sentences, Master of the: grace and charity identical, 143; grace is God in us, 117, 120, 125, 139

Serra: procession of acts for habitual grace, 357

Serry, Histoire de la Congregatio de Auxiliis, 83, 471 note

Silvester, Francis; see Ferrariensis

Simon the Magician: faith alone suffices, 338

Simplicity of child of God, 501

Simultaneous concurrence, 42 and note, 163, 205

Sin

Christ unable to commit, 286-304
contrition and attrition for, 348
God not cause of, 436
grace to avoid, 92-96
grace to rise from, 91
hatred of, 346
incipient, 222-25
not every work of sinner is, 53
only deficient cause required for, 226,
permitted for greater good, 27, 30, 31,
priority as material cause, 224
sinner’s resistance prior by nature in,

Sleep: justification during, 311, 333; prophetic, 333

Socialism, 237, 498

Society of Jesus, 70: division between Congruists and Molinists, 205-7; system about sufficient and efficacious grace, 203-7; Thomism of, 254, 445

Soto: Christ’s love of God free, 297 note; at Council of Trent, 261, 440; divine premotion, 170 and note, 181; and Molina, 163, 166; procession of acts in justification, 357 260, 356, 445 note

Special help, 38

Specification: of acts, 50, 70; by beatific

Spirituality and efficacious grace, 268-78

Spontaneity, Jansenist error about, 188,

State of fallen nature, 20; see also Fallen nature, state of

State of grace, 20: after justification; see also Restored nature

State of incorrupt nature, 20; see also Incorrupt nature

State of nature, 20; see also Human nature

State of original justice, 20; see also Original justice

State of pure nature; see Pure nature, state of

State of restored nature, 20; see also Restored nature, state of

Stephen, St.: charismata manifestation of sanctity, 163; his prayer obtaining Paul’s conversion, 387; sufficient grace, 212

Stimulating grace, 180

Stolz, O.S.B.: on infused faith, 480 note

Suarez

active obediential power, 471 note
Christ’s obedience, 294
contradiction about adoption, 138, 142
divine motion, 42
division of supernaturalness, 7
general help, 39
justification possible without grace, 328, 330
meriting perseverance de congruo, 397
operative grace, 163 and note, 167, 177
opposes Molina on substantially natural assent to faith, 51
position of Congruism, 19
procession of acts in justification, 357
recognizes St. Thomas’ teaching as such, 216, 259
remiss charity, 391
St. Paul’s enumeration, 154, 156
sanctification secondary effect of grace, 330
specification of acts by formal object, 70, 471
three acts in faith, 476 note, 493
Trinity present as object of charity, 361
virtual influence of charity, 376

Subjective conceptualism, 189 note, 345

Subsequent grace with reference to free will, 178

Substantially supernatural and substantially miraculous distinguished, 159,

Sufficient grace, 150, 202-38

Arnauld’s little grace and, 188
Bañez and, 216

conferred and offered, 213

conferring proximate potentiality, 208,

definition of, 218

degrees and varieties of, 443

distinguished from efficacious, 428-45

divisions of, 212

dogma of faith, 187, 190

efficacious grace offered in, 221, 231,

J. González’ opinion, 231, 265, 268 and note

held to be insufficient, 217

held to be pernicious, 215

held to be useless, 214

“help without which” is, 195

immediate (personal) and mediate, 213

Jansenism on, 187

permanent and transient, 212

Predestinationist error, 187

Quesnel’s error, 188

remote and proximate, 213

St. Alphonsus’ opinion, 232-36

St. Augustine on, 193-96

St. Thomas on, 196-98, 431

scriptural basis, 190

truly and merely, 183

two systems re, 202-8

Superiority, origin of, 415-19; see also Predilection and Predestination

Supernatural

essentially in God, 121

extraordinary, 162

formally and effectively, 7 and note

infinite disproportion between natural

modal and substantial, 125, 368

works merit glory de condigno, 373

Supernatural help, special in respect to persons, 39

Supernaturalness, 6: of faith, 480-97; of grace for knowing all natural truth, 46; of motive of faith, 489-91; of per se infused faith, 491-93; substantial and modal, 66

Sylvius, works of the just, 374

Syncretism, new, 450-64: objections to, 453-55, 458-64; rejects Molinism, 450, 452; rejects Thomism, 450; solution of, 452

Szabo: infused faith essentially supernatural, 484

Tanner: decree of General Aquaviva, 206; efficacious grace, 212

Temporal benefits, merited by natural good works, 89

Thanksgiving, 251, 271: for prayer of impulse, 284; scientia media diminishes need for, 255

Theodicy, 402

Theodore of Mopsuestia, necessity of grace minimized by, 9

Theological virtues, 252, 272-74: formal motives of, 497; see also Faith; Hope; Charity

Theology, sacred and natural distinguished, 402

Theresa of Avila, St., 157: devotion to mysteries, 427; efficacious grace of most ardent love, 283-85; purification of charity, 356; transforming union and predestination, 323; transforming union and venial sin, 96

Theresa of the Child Jesus, St.: spiritual childhood and doctrine of grace, 278 and note

Thomas Aquinas, St.

acts required for justification, 340
Christ’s hour predetermined, 460
classification of habits, 475
disposition for grace, 89
efficacious grace, 244-47, 302 note
free will and impeccability in Christ, 289-92
infused faith, 476, 484
necessity of grace, 57-61, 67
predetermining decrees, 456-58
St. Paul’s certainty of predestination, 209 note
specification by formal object, 468-72
sufficient grace, 196-98
twofold grace, 216 and note, 431
uncertainty of being in grace, 318

Thomassin: combination of helps, 204 and note

Thomism: distinguished from predestinationism and Jansenism, 18; meaning of  “intrinsically efficacious,” 202; physical premotion, 203 and note; refutation of Molinism, 208

Tixeront, Histoire des dogmes, 10

Tolet: departure from St. Thomas, 216

Tongues, gift of, 150, 155; see also Grace gratis data

Toucy, Council of, 434 note: consequent will, 184; controversies over Gottschalk, 268; Hincmar at, 455; synodal letter, 435

Tournely, 229

Christ’s obedience, 293, 296
commandments impossible to some, 227
eclecticism of, 19 and note
followed by St. Alphonsus, 232
formal motive of hope, 234
and mediate knowledge, 234

Transforming union, 96, 107, 323

Transient internal help, 212-14

Trent, Council of Trent

acts required for justification, 332, 340,

adults disposed for justice, 313

against Protestantism, 125

avoids term “quality,” 122

bad works merely permitted by God, 55 and note

brief perseverance, 105

Calvinism, 109 note, 200

charity diffused, 131

Christ’s death meriting salvation, 294

condemnation of Semi-Pelagianism, 76

conversion from fear of hell, 254

conversion from sin requires grace, 92

defined value of merit and satisfaction, 364

degrees of justice, 315

disposing and efficient causes of grace distinguished, 311

distinguishes grace and charity, 144

divine assistance precludes impossibility of commandments, 72

efficacious grace, 198, 211, 220, 233, 243

faith alone insufficient, 337

faith by hearing for justification, 334

final perseverance, 393

free will not passive, 261

God’s fidelity, 108

God’s will and permission, 435 and

grace a permanent principle, 411

inherence of grace, 112, 119

just man avoiding mortal sin, 95

the just merit de condigno, 372

the just need actual grace, 97

justification by grace, 328

justification demands movement of will, 333
justification of sinners, 305

liberty and grace, 86, 200

man can merit from God, 364

merit a reward, 382

meriting justification, 370, 385

meriting restoration, 390

misconstrued by Molina, 419 note

Molinism irreconcilable with, 262

no certainty of being in grace, 317

no impossible command, 434

perseverance, 101, 220 note

perseverance a special gift, 104

preparation for grace is prevenient grace. 78, 80

preparation for habitual grace, 310

remission of sin, 325

St. Paul explained, 339

sanctifying grace in Adam, 25 note

special grace for supernatural love, 59,

stimulating and assisting grace, 180

successive dispositions for justification, 350

sufficient grace, 190, 198, 233

supernatural virtues essentially infused, 126

venial sin, 96

Trinity, 44, 139, 159

appropriation of divine adoption, 135, 143, 404

essential supernaturalness, 425

implicit faith in, 344

indwelling of, 361

indwelling preserves grace, 333

intimate life of God, 403-6

justification requires knowledge of, 335

knowledge of, 401

Truth: knowledge of entitatively supernatural, 48; knowledge of supernatural, 41; knowledge of truth without grace, 41 ff.; with moral power, 46


Ude, J.: Doctrina Capreoli, 446

Unbaptized, separated souls of children, 65

Unconditional will of God; see Consequent will

Understanding, gift of, 87

Unigenitus (bull) : condemning Quesnel, 17; does not refer to Thomism, 18

Union with God, formal or ministerial, 152

Unitive way, 29, 162

Universal salvific will; see Salvific will

Universals, 473

Utrecht, Nicholas of (Nominalist), 496


Vacandard on St. Bernard, 276

Valence, Second Council of, 187, 190

Valentia, S. J.: at the Congregatio de Auxiliis, 83

Vallgornera, O.P.: prayer of impulse, 283

Van Noort: infused and acquired faith same object, 481 note

Vásquez, 42

Christ’s obedience, 293
divisions of grace, 153
merit after death, 381
presence of Trinity only affective, 361
reason disparaged by, 44
St. Paul’s enumeration, 154
virtual influence of charity, 376

Vatican Council

definition of faith, 491
distinction between miracles and mysteries, 132
distinction between modal and substantial supernatural, 125
divine mysteries, 132, 426
formal motive of faith, 485
knowledge of God from reason, 45
revelation morally necessary, 46

Vega: moral certainty of being in grace, 317 and note; perseverance, 100

Venial sin, avoidance of, 95

Viator, state of, 380; final instant as, 352

Vienne, Council of, 122, 144

Vincent, St. (martyr), 282

Virgin Mary

Vatican Council
charity of, 376, 378
confirmed in good, 229, 291
divine motherhood nobler than grace, 141
her obedience on Calvary, 299
merit for another, 387
merited de congruo, 368
moved by efficacious grace, 279
prayer on Calvary, 251, 272
privilege of avoiding venial sin, 96
revelation of being in grace, 319
sign of predestination, devotion to, 398
surpasses innocent Eve, 28-30
true devotion to, 388

Virtue: applied analogically, 123; Aristotle’s definition, 144; distinct from grace, 143-46; diversity of, 499; infused, 139, 170 and note, 172

Vision, beatific, 137

Vitelleschi, Muzio: congruism of Aquaviva defined by, 207

Vosté, O.P.: liberty under biblical inspira tion, 286 note, 462 note

 

Wayfarer, state of, 380: final instant as, 352

Wilmers, S.J.: De fide divina, 70

Wisdom: charismatic grace, 151, 155; in God and in us, 407; see also Grace gratis data 352

Works, natural good, 371

Wounds of original sin, 25-27: and aversion from natural end, 504; deeper in will than intellect, 65

Written divine law, 150

Wurzburg school, 70

 

Zozimus (pope): need of actual grace, 97

Zielinski, O.C.D.: on infused faith, 480 note

Zigliara: infused faith essentially supernatural 484; motion explained by example of heat, 118

Zubizarreta, 397

* It is regretted that the files containing the chapters of Fr. Garrigou-Lagrange's book have no pagination. However, by reference to the Table of Contents, it is possible to discover which chapters contain particular topics listed in the Index.


114 The Salmanticenses, De gratia, on Ia IIae, q. 109, disp. II, dub. IV, nos. 144-157

 

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