only thought, faith touches the whole of our being
On Wednesday, 3 June
, at the General Audience in St Peter's Square the Holy Father
focused on another great monk of the High Middle Ages, Bl. Rabanus
Maurus, Abbot of Fulda and then Archbishop of Mainz. The following is a
translation of the Pope's Catechesis, which was given in Italian.
Dear Brothers and Sisters,
Today I would like to speak
of a truly extraordinary figure of the Latin West: Rabanus Maurus, a
monk. Together with men such as Isidore of Seville, the Venerable Bede
and Ambrose Autpert of whom I have already spoken in previous
Catecheses, during the centuries of the so-called "High Middle Ages" he
was able to preserve the contact with the great culture of the ancient
scholars and of the Christian Fathers.
Often remembered as the
"praeceptor Germaniae", Rabanus Maurus was extraordinarily prolific.
With his absolutely exceptional capacity for work, he perhaps made a
greater contribution than anyone else to keeping alive that theological,
exegetic and spiritual culture on which successive centuries were to
He was referred to by great
figures belonging to the monastic world such as Peter Damian, Peter the
Venerable and Bernard of Clairvaux, as well as by an ever increasing
number of "clerics" of the secular clergy who gave life to one of
the most beautiful periods of the fruitful flourishing of human thought
in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Born in Mainz in about 780,
Rabanus entered the monastery at a very early age. He was nicknamed "Maurus"
after the young St Maur who, according to Book II of the Dialogues
of St Gregory the Great, was entrusted by his parents, Roman nobles,
to the Abbot Benedict of Norcia. Alone this precocious insertion of
Rabanus as "puer oblatus" in the Benedictine monastic
world and the benefits he drew from it for his own human, cultural and
spiritual growth, were to provide an interesting glimpse not only of the
life of monks and of the Church, but also of the whole of society of his
time, usually described as "Carolingian".
About them or perhaps about
himself, Rabanus Maurus wrote: "There are some who have had the good
fortune to be introduced to the knowledge of Scripture from a tender age
("a cunabulis suis") and who were so well-nourished with
the food offered to them by Holy Church as to be fit for promotion, with
the appropriate training, to the highest of sacred Orders" (PL
107, col. 419 BC).
The extraordinary culture
for which Rabanus Maurus was distinguished soon brought him to the
attention of the great of his time. He became the advisor of princes. He
strove to guarantee the unity of the Empire and, at a broader cultural
level, never refused to give those who questioned him a carefully
considered reply, which he found preferably in the Bible or in the texts
of the Holy Fathers.
First elected Abbot of the
famous Monastery of Fulda and then appointed Archbishop of Mainz, his
native city, this did not stop him from pursuing his studies, showing by
the example of his life that it is possible to be at the same time
available to others without depriving oneself of the appropriate time
for reflection, study and meditation. Thus Rabanus Maurus was exegete,
philosopher, poet, pastor and man of God. The Dioceses of Fulda, Mainz,
Limburg and Breslau (Wroclaw) venerate him as a saint or blessed. His
works fill at least six volumes of Migne's Patrologia Latina. It
is likely that we are indebted to him for one of the most beautiful
hymns known to the Latin Church, the "Veni Creator Spiritus", an
extraordinary synthesis of Christian pneumatology.
In fact, Rabanus' first
theological work is expressed in the form of poetry and had as its
subject the mystery of the Holy Cross in a book entitled: "De
laudibus Sanctae Crucis", conceived in such a way as to suggest not
only a conceptual content but also more exquisitely artistic stimuli, by
the use of both poetic and pictorial forms within the same manuscript
Suggesting the image of the
Crucified Christ between the lines of his writing, he says, for example:
"This is the image of the Saviour who, with the position of his limbs,
makes sacred for us the most salubrious, gentle and loving form of the
Cross, so that by believing in his Name and obeying his commandments we
may obtain eternal life thanks to his Passion. However, every time we
raise our eyes to the Cross, let us remember the one who died for us to
save us from the powers of darkness, accepting death to make us heirs to
eternal life" (Lib. I, fig. 1, PL 107 col. 151 C).
This method of combining
all the arts, the intellect, the heart and the senses, which came from
the East, was to experience a great development in the West, reaching
unparalleled heights in the miniature codices of the Bible and in other
works of faith and art that flourished in Europe until the invention of
printing and beyond.
In Rabanus Maurus, in any
case, is shown an extraordinary awareness of
the need to involve, in the
experience of faith, not only the mind and the heart, but also the
senses through those other aspects of aesthetic taste and human
sensitivity that lead man to benefit from the truth with his whole self,
"mind, soul and body". This is important: faith is not only thought but
also touches the whole of our being.
Since God became Man in flesh and blood, since he
entered the tangible world, we must seek and encounter God in all the
dimensions of our being. Thus the reality of God, through faith,
penetrates our being and transforms it. This is why Rabanus Maurus
focused his attention above all on the Liturgy as a synthesis of all the
dimensions of our perception of reality. This intuition of Rabanus
Maurus makes it extraordinarily up to date.
Also famous among his opus are the
suggested for use especially in
liturgical celebrations. In fact, since Rabanus was primarily a monk,
his interest in the liturgical celebration was taken for granted.
However, he did not devote himself to the art of poetry as an end in
itself but, rather, used art and every other form of erudition as a
means for deepening knowledge of the word of God. He therefore sought
with great application and rigour to introduce his contemporaries,
especially ministers (Bishops, priests and deacons), to an understanding
of the profoundly theological and spiritual meaning of all the elements
of the liturgical celebration.
He thus sought to understand and to present to others
the theological meanings concealed in the rites, drawing from the Bible
and from the tradition of the Fathers. For the sake of honesty and to
give greater weight to his explanations, he did not hesitate to indicate
the Patristic sources to which he owed his knowledge. Nevertheless he
used them with freedom and with careful discernment, continuing the
development of patristic thought.
At the end of the
addressed to a "chorbishop" of the Diocese of Mainz, for example, after
answering the requests for clarification concerning the behaviour to
adopt in the exercise of pastoral responsibility, he continues, "We have
written all these things for you as we deduced them from the Sacred
Scriptures and the canons of the Fathers. Yet, most holy man, may you
take your decisions as you think best, case by case, seeking to temper
your evaluation in such a way as to guarantee discretion in all things
because it is the mother of all the virtues"
(Epistulae, PL 112,
Thus the continuity of the Christian faith which
originates in the word of God becomes visible; yet it is always alive,
develops and is expressed in new ways, ever consistent with the whole
construction, with the whole edifice of faith.
Since an integral part of liturgical celebration is the
word of God Rabanus Maurus dedicated himself to it with the greatest
commitment throughout his life. He produced appropriate exegetic
explanations for almost all the biblical books of the Old and New
Testament, with clearly pastoral intentions that he justified with words
such as these: "I have written these things... summing up the
explanations and suggestions of
many others, not only in
order to offer a service to the poor reader, who may not have many books
at his disposal, but also to make it easier for those who in many things
do not succeed in entering in depth into an understanding of the
meanings discovered by the Fathers"
(Commentariorum in Matthaeum praefatio, PL
107, col. 727
In fact, in commenting on the biblical texts he drew
amply from the ancient Fathers, with special preference for Jerome,
Ambrose, Augustine and Gregory the Great.
His outstanding pastoral sensitivity later led him to
occupy himself above all with one of the problems most acutely felt by
the faithful and sacred ministers of his time: that of Penance. Indeed,
he compiled the "Penitenziari"
this is what he called
in which, according to the sensibility of his day, sins and the
corresponding punishments were listed, using as far as possible reasons
found in the Bible, in the decisions of the Councils and in Papal
Decretals. The "Carolingians" also used these texts in their attempt to
reform the Church and society.
Corresponding with the same pastoral intentions, were
works such as "De disciplina
"De institution clericorum",
in which, drawing above all
from Augustine, Rabanus explained to the simple and to the clergy of his
diocese the basic elements of the Christian faith: they were like little
I would like to end the presentation of this great
"churchman" by quoting some of his words in which his basic conviction
is clearly reflected: "Those who are negligent in contemplation
("qui vacare Deo negligit"),
deprive themselves of the
vision of God's light; then those who let themselves be indiscreetly
invaded by worries and allow their thoughts to be overwhelmed by
the tumult of worldly things condemn
themselves to the absolute impossibility of penetrating the secrets of
the invisible God" (Lib I, PL 112, col. 1263 A).
I think that Rabanus Maurus
is also addressing these words to us today: in periods of work, with its
frenetic pace, and in holiday periods we must reserve moments for God.
We must open our lives to him, addressing to him a thought, a
reflection, a brief prayer, and above all we must not forget Sunday as
the Lord's Day, the day of the Liturgy, in order to perceive God's
beauty itself in the beauty of our churches, in our sacred music and in
the word of God, letting him enter our being. Only in this way does our
life become great, become true life.