I.	Typology of the Priest in the Time of Montfort: 
	1.	The characteristics of the priest in the post-Tridentine 	
		a.	"New priests for new faithful"; 
		b.	Situation of the clergy before the tridentine renewal.
	2.	The reformers of the French clergy; 
		a.	The Oratorian School; 
		b.	Saint Sulpice; 
		c.	Other artisans. 
	3.	Identity and mission of the priest; 
	4.	The Dimensions of priestly spirituality; 
		a.	Theocentrism; 
		b.	Christ the mediator; 
		c.	Mary; 
		d.	Mystical orientation; 
		e.	Separation from the world. 
II.	Montfort, a Priest Both Mystic And Missionary: 
	1.	As seminarian and young priest: 
		a.	At Rennes; 
		b.	At Saint Sulpice in Paris. 
	2.	Priestly life: 
		a.	Priest, both mystic and missionary; 
		b.	Christ Wisdom and devotion to Mary; 
		c.	Poverty; 
		d.	Pastoral sense. 
	3.	Relations with the clergy of his day. 
III.	The Priest in the Thought of Montfort: 
	1.	Jesus, priest and victim; 
	2.	The type of priest desired by Montfort; 
	3.	The offering of the Eucharist in union with Mary; 
	4.	The universal priesthood. 
IV.	The Priestly Dimension in Montfort Spirituality: 
	1.	Vows of Baptism and priestly promises; 
	2.	Baptismal life and sacerdotal commitment; 
	3.	Mary, bearer of the priestly spirit of the risen Christ; 
	4.	The heavenly priesthood.

Without any doubt, Montfort is "a man of his century" said [H. Daniel-
Rops]. He is also one of the best witnesses of his century’s Sulpician 
and Berullian spirituality, which he modified and enriched by his life 
and writings.1 Montfort was a priest both mystic and missionary, a 
combination not well known and in need of additional study.
1. The Characteristics of the Priest in the Post-Tridentine Church
a. "New priests for new faithful". 
Fifty years after the closing of the Council of Trent (1545–1563), 
France appeared to be "a mission country without missionaries."2 With 
the assembly of the clergy of 1615, a pastoral ideal was put in place 
which demanded "new priests for new faithful."3 By 1640 the Tridentine 
reform was underway in France and seminaries were opened.
If the first half of the seventeenth century was the generation of 
pioneer priests, the second was the time of holy priests who possessed 
the grace to touch hearts both in preaching and in the celebration of 
the liturgy.4 As a consequence, pastoral work improved: catechizing 
insisted upon the sacraments and preaching on the pedagogy of prayer and 
the renewal of the vows of baptism. 
b. Situation of the clergy before the Tridentine renewal. 
Around 1600, the clergy was extremely numerous in France, but its 
lifestyle was decadent, its moral sense deficient, and its cultural 
preparation limited. Pastorally, the priest was underemployed. He was 
attentive to benefices but lacking in zeal and piety. In addition to 
being a notable person and a leader within his own jurisdiction, a 
priest was "a man apart," more feared than loved, more endured than 
accepted. In 1659, Vincent de Paul told the priests of his community: 
"The church has no worse enemies than its priests."5 And, taking into 
account the overabundance of priests and the lack of priestly service to 
the faithful, he concluded: "There are too many bad priests."6 The 
situation clearly got better under Louis XV (d. 1774) and his successor, 
Louis XVI (d. 1793). Little by little the corrupt and over-privileged 
clergy, typical of the epoch of the Council of Trent, was reduced to 
such a few that at the beginning of the French revolution in 1789, the 
priest was a man fully trusted by his parishioners.7
2. The Reformers of the French Clergy
"The formation of good priests is really a masterpiece of this world," 
affirmed Vincent de Paul.8 The principal artisans of this masterpiece 
were Bérulle and the Oratory, and Saint  Sulpice Seminary, which lived 
within the halo of the Berullian school.9 
a. The Oratorian School. 
The goal of the Oratory was "to raise up the state of the priesthood" 
with a program not so much of reform as of sanctification. Its founder, 
Cardinal de Bérulle (1575–1629), desired to rehabilitate the priesthood 
in the eyes of the faithful, who feared or faulted priests. Charles de 
Condren (1588–1641), who succeed Bérulle as superior of the Oratory, was 
very attentive to the spiritual discipline needed for a minister of God. 
Saint John Eudes (1601–1680), an authentic Bérullian, was a man of 
action and of recognized holiness, a true missionary and the founder of 
several religious institutes. He dedicated himself to the formation of 
the clergy. In his mind, the seminary was "a school of piety and an 
academy of holiness" more than a school of theology.10 He promoted the 
annual clergy retreats of eight to ten days. 
b. Saint Sulpice. 
The "Land of Saints," Saint Sulpice is the matrix and the nursery of the 
French clergy. The seminary was founded by J. J. Olier (1608–1657), a 
priest and mystic, a missionary and reformer. With its four communities 
of seminarians, Saint Sulpice’s purpose was the spiritual and 
theological formation of candidates for the priesthood. The second 
director of this work was A. de Bretonvilliers (1621–1671), a guardian 
and faithful interpreter of the apostolic ideal of the founder. However, 
the pedagogical orientation changed with L. Tronson (1622–1700), who 
bent Sulpician spirituality towards a spiritual and moral psychologism. 
He attributed the primacy of all priestly virtues to obedience and 
insisted on the observance of the slightest details of the rules. With 
the collaboration of Brenier and Baüyn, he founded, around 1684, the 
"Minor Seminary" for the less fortunate aspirants to the priesthood.11 
He was the superior general when Montfort entered the seminary at Paris. 
With A. Brenier (1641–1714)—the same priest who tested the vocation of 
Louis Marie—the psychologism of Tronson attained its greatest 
development. A true champion of mortification, Brenier enjoyed a 
reputation of sanctity among the seminarians. J. J. Baüyn (1641–1696), a 
convert from Calvinsism, displayed another orientation: that of a man 
"so full of God and so empty of everything else."12 He had a great 
esteem for the priesthood which he considered as an angelic dignity and 
a source of responsibility towards the Church. He renewed in the 
seminary of Saint Sulpice the examples and the ideals of Olier. Montfort 
received from Baüyn, his spiritual director from 1692 to 1696, a clear 
mystical and missionary orientation. Father Leschassier (1641–1725), the 
successor of Tronson in the direction of Saint Sulpice, was a person of 
extraordinary virtue enjoying a reputation of prudence and wisdom. 
Chosen by the seminarian Montfort as spiritual director, he took great 
interest in Montfort for some time, guiding him along a spiritual and 
apostolic path.
c. Other artisans. 
Among those who gave themselves to the formation of the clergy, the 
figure of Vincent de Paul (1581–1660) stands out. He believed it 
necessary to give Christian instruction to the poor and therefore, first 
of all, to reform clerics in order to be able to reach the people 
through them.13 Montfort wanted his missionary priests to model 
themselves on those of Vincent de Paul (RM 7, 66). Claude Poullart des 
Places (1679–1709), founder of Holy Spirit seminary, dedicated his 
resources to the support of poor candidates looking for the possibility 
of studying for the priesthood. Louis Marie de Montfort asked his 
missionaries of the Company of Mary to prepare themselves both in 
knowledge and virtue in des Places’s seminary in Paris (RM 1). Along 
with the founders of seminaries are the Jesuits (instituted in 1543) who 
also collaborated in priestly formation as spiritual directors and in 
various other ways. They were always the friends of Montfort (TD 161; RM 
15, 19).
3. Identity and Mission of the Priest
In the context of the French school, there developed a profound 
understanding of the nature of the priesthood and its functions. "To 
govern a soul is to govern the world,"14 and the sacerdotal mission is 
to form Christ in souls. The priest is the sacrament of Jesus, the one 
High Priest. It is in the name of Christ that the priest acts and works, 
having been clothed with salvific divine authority. In the celebration 
of the Eucharist, the priest cooperates with God the Father in the 
Father’s glorious generation of the Son in time. The source of the 
incomprehensible dignity of the priesthood is in its function: priests 
are called "with reason, not only angels but also gods since they 
represent, near to us, the immortal power and sublimity of God."15
Therefore, a holiness greater than that of a religious is demanded of 
a priest; his life must be a total immolation. The young aspirant to the 
priesthood must prepare himself in the house of formation at least like 
a novice in the cloister pursuing religious life. 
At Saint Sulpice the priestly spiritual formation was carried out with 
vigor. Brenier partially lost the intuition of Olier since he gave so 
much attention to the smallest practices, to blind obedience, to total 
disdain of the world; but Baüyn accentuated the responsibility the 
priest takes on in relation to the mystical Body. The Treatise on the 
Duties of a Good Parish Priest (F. V. Hersé, 1660) exhorts priests in 
charge of souls to cultivate "the heart of a mother," while Olier 
himself yearns that the heart of a priest be as large as the Church in 
the world.
4. The Dimensions of Priestly Spirituality
a. Theocentrism. 
For Bérulle and his school, priestly spirituality is theocentric: "In 
the first place, it is absolutely necessary to consider God and not 
oneself . . . and to act only for the pure honor of God."16 To be a 
priest signifies, before all else, to put first in one’s own life the 
love of God and service to one’s neighbor. Olier accepted to be a parish 
priest at the end of a spiritual retreat, during which he consecrated 
himself to God by a special vow of service towards every member of the 
b. Christ the mediator. 
Bérulle made a vow of perpetual service to Christ-mediator—Son, servant 
and adorer of the Father—since Jesus himself is "in the service of the 
Father." Following their founder, the priests of the Oratory pronounced 
a vow of perpetual service to the Lord. In like manner, Charles de 
Condren and Olier consecrated themselves to Christ by the formula: "I 
offer myself in the person of Jesus, perfect victim and faithful 
servant, to live and to die in following his example, in the continual 
dispositions of victim and of service."17 The consecration of oneself in 
union with Jesus flows from the "consummatum est" of the passion and 
from two sacraments of the covenant: Baptism and Eucharist.
c. Mary. 
Devotion to the Blessed Mother is one of the great theological themes of 
the seventeenth century (TD 161). Bérulle’s vow of servitude to Mary 
follows on the vow of service to Jesus Christ, which is theologically 
founded on the vows of Baptism. Montfort better unites the perspective 
of Bérulle and identifies consecration to Mary as the perfect renewal of 
the baptismal promises (TD 120, 162).
Olier, who calls himself a slave of Mary (TD 170), affirms that Our 
Lady carried in her womb all creatures; in her God forms the Son in all 
of his extension—Christ the Head and his entire ecclesial body.18 He 
decided that the patronal feast of the Sulpician seminary be the 
Presentation of Mary in the temple, November 21. This is a feast day of 
the clergy (as is February 2, the Presentation of Jesus in the temple) 
on which the clergy present at the seminary renewed their priestly 
promises through the hands of Mary, a practice which Eudes successfully 
Tronson suggested to Montfort that he modify the formula "slave of 
Mary to slave of Jesus in Mary" (TD 244).19 Brenier taught dependence on 
Our Lady and Baüyn adhered personally to the practice of holy slavery; 
Leschassier, although not fully adhering to the slavery of love, did 
profess devotion to Our Blessed Mother. This clear Marian dimension 
explains the innovation of Charles de Condren and of Olier concerning 
the celebration of the Eucharist for the intentions of Mary.
d. Mystical orientation. 
While Olier insisted simultaneously on the mystical and apostolic 
aspect, the seminary of Saint Sulpice stressed the profound piety 
required of the minister of God, even if this meant placing limits on 
preaching and pastoral work. Tronson accentuated the dignity of the 
priest and his sanctification by means of eucharistic devotion and 
separation from the world. For him, the observance of the rule is 
preferable to any personal charisms.20 Even Bérulle and de Condren, 
although with different nuances, chose obedience and total oblation to 
the will of God as the principle of holiness, fed by eucharistic 
devotion and the Mass, the center of all devotion. Boudon and J. B. 
Saint-Jure recommended the love of the cross which is the masterpiece of 
the Wisdom of God.21 The priest, therefore, must suffer with Christ in 
order to make reparation with him for sin. Brenier preferred little 
practices, blind obedience, disdain for the world, and finally, Baüyn 
enclosed spiritual direction around the Mass, confession, fidelity to 
the little rules. In conclusion, the new type of priest had to be 
modest, obedient, charitable, zealous, and pious.
e. Separation from the world. 
Olier wanted priests to live separated from the world in order to busy 
themselves only with heavenly realities. Not without reason he requested 
"the profession of death to the world, and the profession of the folly 
of the gospel."22 Leschassier echoes his sentiments in recommending to 
the priest trained at St. Sulpice seminary the love of a life withdrawn 
from the world, consumed in eucharistic adoration, and in the service of 
the liturgy: outside of his own community, the priest is in a frightful 
state and far from his own center. He taught that "suffering is worth 
more than acting."23 The perfection of the priesthood consisted above 
all in abnegation: he will be attentive to the rule and, if necessary, 
keep in check pastoral work.


1. As seminarian and young priest
a. At Rennes (1684–1692). 
In 1684, Louis Marie entered the college of the Jesuits at Rennes and 
for eight consecutive years followed the complete course of the 
humanities. The college counted about two thousand students, all non-
boarders, and from a variety of social backgrounds. The courses were 
free. The spiritual director, Father Descartes, opened up to the young 
Louis Marie the ideal of divine love which is to be found in abandonment 
of any human supports. The example and the conferences of J. Bellier 
oriented him towards the service of the poor,24 an apostolate made even 
more attractive by the example of his uncle priests, Gilles and Alain 
Robert. Contact with Father Provost and his friendship with his fellow 
student, Claude Poullart des Places, developed within him devotion to 
the Virgin Mary.
During this period, an ideal of piety and of apostolic commitment in 
the context of evangelical poverty and mortification begin to mature in 
Montfort. The priestly vocation appeared to him not like climbing the 
ladder to a higher social class that enjoys special privileges, but as a 
ministry lived in poverty and in abandonment to Providence. He had 
already left his family in order to seek virtue and to serve God 
b. At Saint Sulpice in Paris. 
In 1692, at the age of 19, Louis Grignion went to Paris in order to 
prepare for the priesthood. He was welcomed among "the poor students" 
of Claude Bottu de la Barmondière and then among those of Father 
Boucher, where the extreme poverty touched on misery. As if in 
compensation, their love for studies was intense. Finally, he was 
admitted to the Little Seminary of Saint Sulpice, which was reserved for 
students with little or no money. He began his theological studies at 
the Sorbonne, but chose to continue his education at the seminary 
itself: he intended to study exclusively because of his yearning for 
God.26 He never did doctoral work for he chose to remain among "the 
simple folk": he would be a preacher to the masses, while also being "a 
humanist and poet, . . . a master of classical language."27 At the 
seminary, he was given the task of librarian, a charge which gave him 
the opportunity of reading and transcribing into his notebook many 
citations concerning Christ and the Virgin Mary. It also was the 
occasion to begin composing hymns, which he would utilize in his future 
In the course of these eight years, during which he matured in his 
desire for missionary life, he intensified his prayer and mortification 
and deepened his devotion to Mary, who would guide his spiritual life 
and ministry. While assimilating the works of certain masters of 
spirituality, he was distancing himself—without even realizing it—from 
the orientation of Tronson, so measured, so filled with prudence and 
2. Priestly Life
In June, 1700, Louis Marie was ordained a priest. His priestly life would 
unfold for a period of sixteen years. After a rather slow beginning, 
which lasted six years, and a pilgrimage to Rome (1706), where the Holy 
Father named him "missionary apostolic," he at last became the preacher 
of parish missions in the west of France.
a. Priest, both mystic and missionary. 
After leaving Saint Sulpice, where he felt as though he were living "in 
a shell" (L 4), Montfort passed from contemplative spirituality—to be 
more precise, the spirituality of the hidden life of the seminary—to an 
apostolic spirituality. He refused all offers to be part of the 
formation team in charge of seminarians, so that he could fully dedicate 
himself to catechizing and preaching. In the eyes of Montfort, the 
apostolic life is not a danger, but a means of holiness and of growth in 
perfection (H 22:23). He began his apostolate in the midst of the 
rejects of Poitiers society at the city hospice. With the permission of 
the bishop he went to Paris, where he experienced absolute solitude and 
total abandonment to Providence. During the summer of 1703, in a closet 
under the stairway of Pot-du-fer Street in Paris, while he deepened his 
thought on Wisdom, he discovered again his vocation as an itinerant 
missionary and he balanced his yearning for a hidden life with his 
missionary calling. He liberated himself from scrupulous subjection to a 
multitude of little obligations in order to give priority to the 
interior movements of the spirit. He thereby restored the mystical and 
missionary value of the priesthood: he immersed himself in the midst of 
society even if it were at the price of an extremely poor life and 
subject to misunderstandings and persecutions.28 
b. Christ Wisdom and devotion to Mary. 
"I have espoused Wisdom and the cross where are all my treasures" (L 
20), Father Louis Marie wrote to his mother on August 28, 1704. The 
mystical marriage with Christ, Wisdom crucified, constituted henceforth 
the foundation of his prayer; even his innate "singularity" was now 
defined as a "wisdom." In reality, the way or path of Jesus Wisdom was 
illuminated by a secret: the maternal presence of Mary permitted him to 
live the "slavery of love" as the offering of his own life to God. He 
thus conformed himself to the obedience of the Son of God continuing in 
his flesh the offering of Jesus, who wished to depend on his Mother. The 
art of living was based on an abandonment or forgetfulness of self. The 
soul, stripped of everything but regenerated in the womb of Mary, 
received the characteristics of the Lord, the crucified servant. Living 
with Jesus in Mary, Montfort the priest accepted the rigorous discipline 
of renouncing his own will in order to live as the humble sacrament of 
ecclesial service.
c. Poverty. 
The discovery of Christ Wisdom led Montfort the priest to abandon 
himself to Providence in voluntary poverty, which he believed necessary 
both for the spiritual life and for the apostolate (H 22:1). The poor 
priest is a king who is filled with the possession of God (PM 25; ACM 
5:7; TD 135) and enriched with spiritual goods. Poverty is a free choice 
in a social and ecclesiastical system which could strongly affect his 
priestly life.29 Following the example of J. B. de la Salle, he refused 
a canonry which Madame de Montespan offered him (L 6:9) and he affirmed 
that he would never exchange Providence for any benefice (L 6) because, 
so he wrote, "If God has risked his life, should not I risk mine?" (LPM 
6; cf. H 91:6).
Love for poverty called him to the service of the outcasts. In March 
1704, the poor of Poitiers welcomed him with a great festival. He was as 
poor as the poor; he dressed and ate like them and became a beggar for 
them. On their part, they never hesitated to proclaim him "their true 
priest." They defined him, so to speak, as "the one who so loves the 
poor."30 Gifted with the grace to touch hearts, "he possesses a heart so 
tender that it is found in none other." He took care of the poor and the 
rejects of society with the hands of a mother: he is "the good Father 
from Montfort."
d. Pastoral sense. 
He not only esteemed catechizing, preaching, and the renewal of the vows 
of baptism by the means of slavery of love, but Montfort also revealed 
gifts of being a missionary organizer and an innovator in pastoral work. 
He restored churches, erected crosses and calvaries, painted banners, 
organized processions and pilgrimages, instituted or restored 
confraternities (L 11 and n. 1), founded religious communities, composed 
methods of popular prayer, and wrote hymns to be sung during the 
celebrations of the mission. In sum: he constructed a method of 
preaching and a style of pastoral work unique in their form and 
3. Relations with the Clergy of His Day
In general, Louis Marie was not accepted by the bourgeois and lay world. 
That should not surprise anyone; but what does cause surprise are the 
disputes and frequent refusals on the part of different bishops, of 
priests and even of his friends and collaborators who became hostile or 
even defiant. Some examples stand out: Leschassier, his director, who 
pushed him aside without listening to him; or Blain, who, when accusing 
him of wanting to canonize his own ideas, begged him to be more 
condescending to the common rules of social life.
Montfort was rebuffed by the well-settled clergy because of his 
"singularity,"32 misunderstood because of his evangelical radicalism. In 
reality, he was a priest who was upsetting and disturbing,33 for the 
very reason of his "originality" which followed him everywhere. Up to 
the end, he carried with him the hair shirt of his singularity. But to 
be singular is his wisdom, which makes him apt to preach "like the 
apostles" (RM 60–61).
He sought especially in his last years to converse and collaborate 
with everyone, even if for a poor priest like him there was no 
institutional mediation that could protect him. It is not without reason 
that he describes himself like a ball in a game of tennis: no sooner am 
I hurled to one side than I am whacked back to the other" (L 26).
By conscious choice, he tended to dissociate himself from priests who 
loved tranquillity and a sedentary life (RM 2, 12; L 5), from 
fashionable preachers who actually did no more than beat the breeze (RM 
2, 60), from priests quite secure and worldly (RM 6). We can then 
understand more easily his reply to Blain: "Let me walk in my own way; 
more so because it is the road which Jesus Christ taught by his example 
and his counsels."34 He himself chose his own collaborators, priests, 
and lay people,35 and he invited good priests everywhere to unite with 
him in his missions (L 5; PM 29).


III. The Priest in the Thought of Montfort
1. Jesus, Priest and Victim
According to the French School, Jesus is the true and principal priest 
since he is the mediator and the victim, the offerer and the victim of 
God most high. For Louis de Montfort, Christ is the high priest who 
enters and leaves this world by the eastern gate who is Mary (TD 262). 
In the Wisdom of the Cross (LEW 159; FC 45; H 19:1), Jesus is the priest 
and victim who offers himself to the Father by the hands of Mary. In 
truth, God the Son wanted his Mother present at Calvary in order to be 
able "to make with him but one and the same sacrifice and in order to be 
immolated by her consent to the eternal Father as formerly Isaac was 
offered by the consent of Abraham to the will of God. It is Mary who fed 
him, nourished him, took care of him, raised him and sacrificed him for 
us" (TD 18; cf. LG 61).
2. The Type of Priest Desired by Montfort
Having assimilated Sulpician spirituality in the line of Olier, Montfort 
considered as central in the life of a priest the sacrament of the 
altar: the celebration of Mass (L 33), thanksgiving, preparation for the 
Eucharist, administration of Communion (S 338). He is conscious of the 
sacerdotal commitment required by the sacrament of Confession (RM 56, 
58–59). Naturally, the sacramental life is accompanied and preceded by 
the preaching of the word of God (RM 2, 50, 60–65; H 22), to which 
Montfort gives priority in his pastoral method. He therefore asks God to 
raise up poor missionaries, courageous and disinterested (PM 21). The 
type of priest that Montfort yearned for had to be a missionary (L 5), a 
preacher according to divine Wisdom (LEW 97; H 4:12), one who gives to 
souls the Word Incarnate.
Six months after his ordination—December, 1700—he begged God to create 
"a little and poor company" of itinerant apostles who, free from the 
system of benefices, live abandoned to Providence (L5, 6; RM 7, 19; LS 
320).36 They are to be priests filled with fire who, like the apostles 
(RM 2), dedicate themselves to preaching the word in order to renew the 
spirit of Christianity. He requests from them a style of life that 
corresponds to their commitments: they are to love the Eucharist (RM 
30), to obey the bishops (RM 22), not to accept parishes (RM 2), to fly 
from a sedentary and quiet life in community (RM 7, 66). Above all, the 
members of the community must cultivate study and prayer in order to 
taste and to make others taste the divine word (RM 60). In conclusion, 
the missionary priest as seen by Montfort "leads a life so poor, so 
hard, so abandoned to Providence," that such a life is not possible 
except for "extraordinary men."37
Montfort also treats of "wicked" priests of his time: "ministers who 
are poor in the midst of the great divine treasures" (LS 296), who 
consider the priesthood a means of obtaining honors and fortune; 
fashionable preachers—false prophets—who trust in their own 
capabilities. The good priests—good preachers (RM 61–65) formed and 
inspired by Wisdom (LEW 47, 90, 119, 122), worthy ministers who uphold 
the Church by the holiness of their life (S 290)—should not mix in with 
them (H 32, 31, 34).
3. The Offering of the Eucharist in Union with Mary
The Marian dimension of priestly spirituality of the French School has 
already been touched upon. Against this background, Montfort does not 
speak of the priesthood of Mary; he does declare that she has immolated 
and sacrificed her Son  by her loving surrender, by "her consent to the 
eternal Father" (TD 18). This thought is based upon F. Poiré and also 
Bernardine of Paris (N 285–92), authors who deepened the theme of 
communion with Mary at the moment when the priest at the Eucharist 
receives the body of her Son in sacramental communion.38 The innovation 
of founding masses to be applied to the intentions of Mary comes 
directly from Charles de Condren: only this godlike Mother is prepared 
to offer Christ in a continual, new, and perfect manner.39 Olier spread 
this practice, exhorting priests to offer Mass—especially on Saturdays—
for the intentions of Mary. He disclosed that it was the Mother of the 
Lord herself who requested this service.40
Montfort says nothing explicitly concerning this, but he does write 
that because of Our Lady’s hypothetically necessary fiat, Christ 
immolates himself by means of Mary (H 49:3) from the beginning of 
redemption, since his sacrifice to the Father begins at the incarnation 
in the womb of his Mother. He teaches that by consecration to Jesus 
through Mary, one entrusts to Mary the liberty, the rights and the 
merits of one’s soul, since she is the depository of spiritual goods (SM 
40; TD 176, 216) and the treasury of all divine grace (LEW 207; SM 19; 
TD 24, 28, 44, 206, 20).
He declares that the consecration to Jesus through Mary respects the 
obligations of a priest who has to celebrate Mass for a particular 
intention (TD 124; cf. H 139:18). Granted that the Eucharist of the 
priest continues the one and the same sacrifice of Christ, the Son of 
Mary, it could be held that it is according to the spirit of Montfort to 
celebrate the Eucharist, in the measure that is possible, for the 
intentions of Our Lady. 
4. The Universal Priesthood
Montfort treats only in an indirect manner of baptismal priesthood. 
Moreover, this theme does not appear, at least in any explicit fashion, 
in the writings of the masters of the French School (although Bérulle, 
in his Rule of the Oratory makes allusion to the priesthood of the 
faithful41). In the thought of Olier, the priest is quite different from 
a lay person. And Montfort, following his masters on this point, copied 
a note in his Book of Sermons which declared that the minister of God is 
above the people (LS 295, 298).
However. there is another affirmation of Bérulle, upheld in part by 
Olier and even by Quesnel, which says, "Each Christian can and must 
offer his very self at the Mass."42 This assertion is, perhaps, a 
reaction to the Protestant critique which, basing itself on 1 Pt 2:5.9; 
1 Cor 12:12–27, undervalues the hierarchical priesthood defining it as a 
"specialized caste."43 Catholics did not completely reject the 
Protestant affirmations, but they affirmed that the priest does not bear 
the title of "priest" (sacerdos) except in Christ and through Christ, 
the one priest of the NT; one theologian stressed the scriptural 
appellation "royal priesthood," applying it to all the faithful.44 
Montfort does the same when he directly refers to the royal priesthood: 
"You are a chosen race, the royal priesthood" (FC 4) and "You are kings 
and priests of God . . . by your Christianity and your priesthood" (LCM 
5). The Friends of the Cross, therefore, are within royal priesthood of 
the Lord.
The baptismal priesthood in Montfort is articulated in the context of 
the universal vocation to holiness (FC 28; SM 2–5; LS 169–80): the word 
of God, by the Incarnation, has come to divinize the human race, the 
masterpiece of His hands, and to take to himself a holy people (TD 68; 
LS 170).
The pastoral method of Montfort the priest must not be neglected. In 
his missions he had the simple people participate materially and 
economically and also in liturgical or devotional collaboration which he 
requests of the people (Mass and Communion, processions, hymns, Rosary, 
and especially the renewal of the vows of Baptism in the Covenant 
Contract). Nonetheless, the substantial difference remains between the 
hierarchical priesthood and the universal priesthood. But Montfort 
considers the dignity of the priest from a pastoral point of view, that 
is to say, in service to the people. He does not speculate on the 
priesthood in itself and never considers the priesthood as founding the 
specialized and privileged caste of ecclesiastics. The dignity Montfort 
attributes to the baptized heightens the worth of both the universal 
priesthood and of the ministerial priesthood. 
It should be remembered that as a priest, Montfort belonged to the 
first estate; he had contacts with the nobility, the second estate; his 
family was of the bourgeoisie; yet he freely opted to identify with the 
common people, and especially with the poorest of the poor.


Montfort did not develop the sacerdotal dimension of Christian 
spirituality, although he did indicate its substance in delineating the 
practical realties of living the consecration to Christ through Mary. 
Today, this dimension must be explicated not only for ordained priests 
(for the baptismal promises cannot be separated from priestly promises), 
but also for each Christian called through Baptism to participate in 
Christ’s prophetic and royal sacerdotal dignity. The exercise of this 
priestly function unites both ordained ministers and other faithful with 
the heavenly priesthood of Christ and with the glorious heavenly 
community, in the midst of which emerges the figure of the Mother of 
1. Vows of Baptism and Priestly Promises
Saint John Eudes taught that baptismal life prolongs in the faithful the 
Incarnation, or sacerdotal life of Christ. The Sulpician school affirmed 
that through Baptism all are inserted into Christ the priest. In order 
to make Christ the priest live in Christians—priests of God by Baptism 
(LCM 5)—Montfort prescribes the renewal of baptismal promises as the 
conclusion of the parish mission (CG; RM 56). The Sacrament of Orders 
(episcopacy, priesthood, diaconate) consecrates certain Christians as 
ministers of Christ-Priest so that the baptized, by the intermediary of 
the ordained ministry, may live their royal priesthood. 
But what relation is there between the baptismal vows and the 
presbyterial promises? The renewal of the baptismal promises has for its 
goal to make Christians live as daughters and sons of God (H 109:8), to 
make them living members of the Body of Christ (TD 68; LS 158–68), to 
help them to become servants and collaborators of the Spirit (TD 73, 
126). The priestly promises—Montfort does not speak precisely of them—
require celibacy (in the Latin rite), obedience to and collaboration 
with the bishops, the ministry of the word, the celebration of the 
mysteries of Christ, particularly the Eucharist and sacramental 
reconciliation, the ministry of prayer and a more intense union with 
Christ, the supreme pastor and sovereign priest.45
The two types of promises are complementary precisely because they are 
functionally diverse. The ordained ministers are exhorted to live their 
priestly promises generously in order to announce and celebrate the 
Lord, so that the duties of sacramental life and the gift of prayer may 
be awakened in the faithful. In this manner, because they are baptized, 
the faithful are assured of their rights as daughters and sons of God, 
i.e., the right to the food of the word, of the Eucharist, of the 
sacrifice of praise, and of the gift of evangelical fraternity. These 
rights of the faithful are at times neglected by priests who lack a 
mystical and missionary spirit, and are perhaps little known by 
Christians, because the consecrated ministers do not always wholly 
realize their sacerdotal promises.
In other words, the renewal of the promises of Baptism recall to the 
baptized that they are daughters and sons of God and that because of 
this title they have taken on certain precise duties. The promises of 
the priesthood recall to the priest that he is minister for people: his 
rights as son of God have now become for him inescapable duties towards 
all the people of God.
2. Baptismal Life and Sacerdotal Commitment
Preaching, since the Council of Trent, stresses the vows of Baptism. The 
grace of Baptism and the sacraments connected with it must, as a 
consequence, be "renewed." During the parish missions, Montfort made 
certain that the faithful renew their baptismal promises after having 
confessed their sins and received communion (RM 56, 90). To live 
baptism—particularly after the renewal of Vatican II—signifies renewing 
the strength of the three sacraments of Christian initiation: Baptism, 
Confirmation, Eucharist. These sacraments are distinct but inseparable 
and also inclusive of sacramental reconciliation.
The text of the consecratory prayer of priestly ordination says: 
"Innova in visceribus eorum spiritum sanctitatis"46 (Renew, Lord, in 
their hearts your spirit of holiness), an evident allusion to the 
sacerdotal spirit already received in the three sacraments of 
initiation. This happy theological rediscovery of the sacerdotal meaning 
of Christian initiation has again placed before the eyes of the Church 
its "ministerial" vocation, a ministry exercised in the sacrament of 
service: fruit, in its turn, of an precise option, the Church wants to 
be poor in order to serve people.
3. Mary, Bearer of the Priestly Spirit of the Risen Christ
Mary, Mother of Christ, chief and sovereign priest, also becomes, by the 
new Passover, Mother of the members of the Body of the Church (cf. Jn 
19:26–27). Now into this line of thought, Olier, who called for the 
reform of priestly orders to renew the entire church, projected a Marian 
solution: in the Cenacle, Mary did not receive the sacrament of 
priesthood but the Spirit and apostolic grace.47 In the Cenacle, 
therefore, the Virgin Mary, as the queen of the apostles (PO 18), is the 
bearer of the priestly spirit of the risen Christ (AA 1:14).
In his historical Incarnation, the Lord received from his Mother the 
capacity to be a priest of the Father (TD 18, 63, 246–48, 261–64; H 
49:3, 90:15);48 a priest who announces the gospel of grace, who offers 
his own body at the sacrifice of the cross and as supreme Shepherd, 
leads all back to divine life.
In the sacramental economy, the Lord exercises His eternal priesthood 
in the person of ordained ministers. Yet before there is ministerial 
priesthood, the Virgin Mary conceives the Christ, the first priest of 
the new covenant. Mary is the perfect type of God’s priestly people.49 
Proclaimed by Paul VI "Mother of the faithful and of pastors,"50 she is 
the aid of priests (PO 18; OT 8) and the pure mirror who illumines the 
triple sacerdotal ministry.
a. Mary accepts the salvific word and responds by the self-offering 
and sacrificial fiat. During the public ministry of her Son, she follows 
him as a pilgrim of faith (LG 58; MC 17; RMat 2), up to her courageous 
presence near the cross and the sepulchre. In the Magnificat, she 
proclaims "the marvelous works," historical and salvific, realized in 
her (Lk 1:46–55). And after the Resurrection and Ascension of her Son, 
she listens to the teaching of the apostles51 and praises God in tongues 
for the mysteries accomplished in the world (AA 2:4).
b. Associated with her Son in the redemptive work (LG 55-62; MC 20), 
she offers herself together with Christ priest and victim, in the 
presentation in the temple, at the paschal supper and next to the cross. 
Prophetically, at the marriage feast of Cana, she anticipated the 
paschal mandate of her Son ("Do this in memory of me" [Lk 22:19]) when 
she says to the servants: "What ever he will say to you, do it" (Jn 
c. After Easter she does not return to Nazareth near the family clan, 
but remains in the Cenacle as a vigilant and attentive mother of the new 
family of the Savior here on earth (MC 18). And above all else, she, 
Spirit-bearer, directs all to the Spirit, source of filial life and of 
unity in the Church. Among the promises of Baptism, there should be 
included today the fidelity to the Spirit who is affirmed in the 
Pentecostal sacrament of confirmation.
4. The Heavenly Priesthood
Jesus, supreme and eternal priest (Heb 4:15–26, 9:11, 10:21), is the 
heavenly God-Man who offers himself as a perpetual oblation to the 
Father and prepares for his disciples a royal dwelling place (Jn 14:2-
Glorious woman, clothed with the sun that never sets (Rev 12:1–6) and 
royal gate of heaven, the Holy Mother is the throne of Incarnate Wisdom. 
While from her virginal bosom she presents her Savior Son to all, she 
always addresses to them this pressing appeal: "Come and contemplate the 
Christ!," glorious icon of the Father; "come and listen to the Master!" 
word of life; "come, eat the body and drink the blood of Christ!" in the 
banquet of the eschatological wedding feast (Rev 19:7–9, 21:9, 22:17–
Like an "angel at the altar,"52 Montfort, priest both mystic and 
missionary, emerges from the depths of three centuries as a prophetic 
voice that proclaims "the infinite treasure of the eucharist" (L 33), 
the salvific value of the preaching of the word, the love of the Eternal 
and Incarnate Wisdom who is in his person, Kingdom of Heaven (cf. LEW 
Disciple of the Master of divine Wisdom (1 Cor 1:24) and at the school 
of Mary (MC 21), the priest is identified to the Lord who is superior to 
the angels (Heb 1:4). "Christian with Christians and priest for them,"53 
he is the minister of the Eucharistic table in the assembly of the Lord, 
the pastor who increases the joy of the brethren (2 Cor 1:24), the guide 
of the elect towards the heavenly home.
The celebration of the supper of the Lord extends to infinity the 
sacrifice of earthly and heavenly salvation until the Savior has raised 
all men to himself in the bosom of the Father (Jn 12:32). The 
sacramental life, the liturgy of praise, the Marian dimension of 
Christian life (RM 45–46) prolong the incarnation of the Word, give the 
irresistible breath of the Spirit, and make the Father of mercies known. 
So the faithful—baptized, confirmed, and Eucharist-fed—with Jesus, 
supreme priest of their faith (Heb 3:1) and illuminated by Mary, the 
Woman clothed with the sun, call everyone to the house of the Lord so 
that all may eternally glorify the universal Father in the temple of His 
glory (PM 30).
S. Gaspari

(1) R. Deville, "L’École française de spiritualité" (The French 
School of Spirituality), Bibliothèque d’histoire du christianisme 11, 
Desclée, Paris 1987, 9, 139—citing H. Bremond—affirms that Louis de 
Montfort is the last of the greast Bérullians. (2) Cf. P. Lafue, Le 
prêtre ancien et les commencements du nouveau prêtre. De la contre-
réforme à l’aggiornamento (The Priest of Former Days and the Beginnings 
of the Priest of Today. From the Counter-Reformation to the 
Aggiornamento), Plon, Toulouse 1967, 65–74. (3) R. Deville, L’École 
française, 15–27. (4) In relation to "the great century of french 
spirituality" or "the great century of souls", cf. J. Le Brun, France, 
VI: Le grand siècle et ses lendemains. (France, VI: The ‘grand siècle’ 
and its Tomorrows) DSAM 5 (1964) 917–53; R. Deville, L’École française, 
7–13 (5) Cf. Vincent de Paul in R. Deville, L’École française, 18. (6) 
Citation in P. Pierrard, Le prêtre français (The French Priest), 26. On 
the "bad priests" and "clericalism, here is the enemy," cf. ibid., 5. 
(7) Concerning the improvement of the clergy during the reign of Louis 
XV and at the eve of the French revolution, cf. P. Pierrard, Le prêtre 
français, 49–54. For the situation of clerics before the Council of 
Trent, cf. P. Lafue, Le prêtre ancien, 15–32 et passim. On the subject 
of the deplorable state of priests in France around 1600, cf. M. Dupuy, 
"Bérulle et le sacerdoce. Étude historique et doctrinale. Textes 
inédits" (Bérulle and the priesthood. Historical and Doctrinal Study. 
Unpublished Texts), Bibliothèque d’histoire et d’archéologie chrétienne 
7, Lethielleux, Paris 1969, 31–42;. (8) Cf. de Paul, dans P. Pierrard, 
Le prêtre français, 26–29. (9) For the reformers of the French clergy, 
see, Le prêtre français, 21–42; R. Deville, L’École française, 23–27;. 
(10) Text of J. Eudes in P. Pierrard, Le prêtre français, 37. (11) The 
price of room and board was the only difference between the two 
institutions. (12) Blain 48; cf. De Fiores, 191–203. (13) The precise 
text of Vincent de Paul as related by P. Perrard, Le prêtre français, 
29: "If it is such a great undertaking to instruct the poor . . . it is 
still more important to instruct clerics since, if they are ignorant, 
the people they lead will also necessarily be ignorant." (14) R. 
Deville, L’École française, 120; cf. 101–23. (15) Catechismus ex 
decretis concilii tridentini ad parochos (Catechism from the Decrees of 
the Council of Trent for Pastors) Regensburg 1896, II, 7.2. Concerning 
the dignity of the priest, cf. M. Dupuy, Bérulle et le sacerdoce, 131–
38, 165–67, 176–77 et passim; concerning the identity and the mission of 
the priest according to the French School, cf. J. Galy, Le sacrifice, 
analytical index, 397–99; R. Deville, L’École française, 25–27, 113–17. 
(16) H. Bremond, Histoire littéraire du sentiment religieux, (Literary 
History of Religious Sentiment) 3. La conquête mystique: l’École 
française (The Mystical Conquest: The French School), Bloud et Gay, 
Paris 1923, 29. (17) E.-M. Faillon, Vie de Monsieur Olier, fondateur du 
Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice, (The Life of Monsieur Olier, Founder of the 
Seminary of Saint Sulpice) 3, Poussielgue-Wattelier, Paris 1873, 193; 
cf. I. Noye-M. Dupuy, Olier, DSAM 11 (1982) 744; cf. 740–45. (18) Cf. E. 
Théorêt, La médiation mariale dans l’École française (The Mediation of 
Mary According to the French School), Vrin, Paris 1940, 32. According to 
Olier, the Virgin Mary is both the one who inspired the seminary and its 
queen. Cf. E.-M. Faillon, Vie de Monsieur Olier, 3, 62–67. The Mariology 
of the French School takes its definitive form from the founder of Saint 
Sulpice. Cf. P. Pourrat, La dévotion à Marie dans la compagnie de Saint-
Sulpice, in Maria (du Manoir) 3, 153–62; R. Laurentin, Maria. Ecclesia. 
Sacerdotium. Essai sur le développement d’une idée religieuse (Mary. 
Church. Priesthood. Essay on the development of a Religious Idea), 
Nouvelles Éditions Latines, Paris 1952, 341–84. On Marian devotion in 
seventeenth century France, cf. J. Le Brun, France, DSAM 5 (1964) 944–
45. (19) Cf. Blain, 50. The term "slaves of Jesus in Mary" is clearly an 
authentic Bérullian and Sulpician expression. (20) Cf. J. Gauthier, Ces 
messieurs de Saint-Sulpice (These Priests of Saint Sulpice), Fayard, 
Paris 1957, 48. For a rather complete idea of the lifestyle at the 
Seminary of Saint Sulpice during the time of Father L. Tronson, cf. De 
Fiores, 155–58, with particular attention to the notes, taken from the 
archives of Saint Sulpice. (21) Cf. H.-M. Boudon, Les saintes voies de 
la croix, (The Holy Roads of the Cross) in Oeuvres complètes, 2, Migne, 
Paris 1856, 109–12; J.-B. Saint-Jure, De la connaissance et de l’amour 
du Fils de Dieu Notre Seigneur Jésus Chris, (On the Knowledge and Love 
of the Son of God, Our Lord Jesus Christ), Mabre-Cramoisy, Paris 1688, 
21, 33–35; G. Rossetto, La Sapienza è la Croce (Wisdom and the Cross), 
in Collectif, La missione monfortana ieri e oggi. Atti del 2° Convegno 
intermonfortano (The Montfort Mission Yesterday and Today. Acts of the 
Second Intermontfortian Reunion) (Rome, September 5-8, 1984), QM 2 
(1985) 42–56. (22) Cf. De Fiores, 154, 189. Leschassier sought a life 
style that was death to the world and to its spirit: ibid., 232. (23) 
Ibid., 228, 232, 164–65. Terms like "self-emptying," "immolation," 
"mortification," and "death to human nature" reveal a pessimistic 
understanding of man. On this point, cf. R. Deville, L’École française, 
173–75; De Fiores, 101–106, 271, 282. Montfort himself is well aware of 
human weakness and fragility (cf. L 12, 32; PE 26). But human nature is 
restored by God through the gift of creative Wisdom (cf. ASE 90–100). On 
the original beauty of nature, cf. H 157: "New Hymnn on Solitude." (24) 
Concerning Bellier, cf. R. Deville, L’École française, 140–141; De 
Fiores, Itinerario 78–80, 267, 277. On the poverty of Montfort, who even 
as a youth was totally abandoned to Divine Providence, cf. Grandet, 349–
50. (25) Cf. Blain, 16–17. (26) Blain, 46; Grandet, 13–14. (27) B. 
Papàsogli, L’homme venu du vent. Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, 
Bellarmin, Montréal 1984, 282. English Translation, Montfort, A Prophet 
for our Times, Edizioni Monfortane, Rome 1991. On Montfort the writer, 
cf. J. Fréneau, Saint Louis-Marie de Montfort écrivain (Saint Louis 
Marie de Montfort, Writer), DMon 47 (1972) 1–16. (28) Concerning 
Montfort’s understanding of the priesthood, cf. De Fiores, Itinerario 
188–89; on his break with Saint Sulpice cf. 258–64. (29) Responding to a 
pastor who wanted to know who he was, Montfort replied: "I am a poor 
priest who goes up and down the highways of this world searching for 
souls" (Clorivière, 418). (30) J.-M. Quérard, Vie du bienheureux Louis-
Marie Grignion de Montfort (Life of Blessed Louis Marie de Montfort) 2, 
Rennes-Paris-Nantes 1887, 278; cf. Letter of the Poor of the Poitiers 
Hospital to Father Leschassier, in De Fiores, Itinerario 281. (31) Cf. 
Grandet, 465; S. De Fiores, La «missione» nell’itinerario spirituale 
apostolico di s. Luigi-Maria da Montfort ("Mission" In the Apostolic 
Spiritual Itinerary of Saint Louis de Montfort), QM 2 (1985) 17–41; R. 
Mandrou, Montfort et l’évangélisation du peuple (Montfort and the 
Evangelization of People), RMon 11 (1974) 1–19. (32) When B. Papàsogli 
asks if the singularity of Montfort is a charism, she replies that in 
any case, grace did make up for certain deficiencies of nature. (L’homme 
venu du vent, 99; cf. also 93–107, 281; De Fiores, Itinerario 38, 189, 
225–27,  275–77). On this subject, cf. the conversation of Montfort with 
Blain in September, 1714: Blain, 185–90. (33) Cf. P. L. Nava, Un prete 
scomodo (A Troubled Priest), Madre e Regina 42 (1989) 11, ii–iv; S. 
Gaspari, La scelta missionaria del Montfort (The Missionary Choice of 
Montfort), Madre e Regina 40 (1986) 2, 5–6. (34) Blain, 186. In N 306, 
Louis Marie wrote: "What makes a Christian is the Spirit of Christ, the 
Spirit’s strength and life." (35) For example, he chose A. Vatel (d. 
1748) the first priest of the Company of Mary: originally assigned to 
the foreign missions, he was called by Montfort to follow him; he also 
called Brother Nicholas who accompanied him on his missions until the 
saint’s death. (cf. L 11; T). (36) Clorivière, 310–11 declares that the 
Company of Mary is distinguished from other communities by "a truly 
apostolic perfection." (37) Blain, 185–86. (38) For F. Poiré, cf. R. 
Laurentin, Maria, Ecclesia, Sacerdotium, 259–61, 265, 355, 389, 633, 
635. For Bernardine of Paris, 284–88, 221–22. (39) Charles de Condren’s 
explanatory text is: "I place her Son, Jesus Christ, into the hands (of 
Mary) by this foundation, inasmuch as I can, and I beg her with my whole 
heart to offer it herself to God in this daily sacrifice as she does 
offer it and has offered it, in time and in eternity, on earth as in 
heaven." Cf. J. Galy, Le sacrifice, 256n. 40. (40) Ibid., 256, 326. (41) 
The annotation on the priesthood of the faithful is the work of 
Bourgoing, cf. J. Galy, Le sacrifice, 90. (42) Ibid., 354. (43) Cf. P. 
Pierrard, Le prêtre français, 10–13; J. M. R. Tillard, Sacerdoce, DSAM 
14 (1988) 27–31. (44) D. Soto, De iustitia et iure (On Justice and 
Right) VII, 5, 1, Lyon 1559, upholds that the laity are priests but in a 
lower way. (45) Cf. Pontificale Romanum, De ordinatione episcopi, 
presbyterorum et diaconorum, Editio typica altera, Typis Polyglottis 
Vaticanis 1990: promises of the bishop, 40–42; of priests, 60–62; of the 
deacon, 108–110. (46) Ibid., 75. (47) On Olier, cf. S. De Fiores, 
Itinerario, 187. Concerning the theme of ‘Virgo Sacerdos’ in the 
spirituality of the French School, cf. R. Laurentin, Maria, Ecclesia, 
Sacerdotium, 375–82. (48) Cf. E. Campana, Maria nel culto cattolico, 2. 
Il culto di Maria nelle devozioni particolari, nei sodalizi e nei 
congressi mariani (Mary in Catholic Devotion, 2. Marian Devotion in 
Particular Devotions, in the Marian Sodalities and Congresses) Marietti, 
Torino-Roma 1933, 726; R. Laurentin, Maria, Ecclesia, Sacerdotium, 294–
304. (49) On Mary Typus Ecclesiae, cf. LG 63 (which cites Saint 
Ambrose); MC 16; RM 44; I. Biffi, Maria tipo della Chiesa popolo 
sacerdotale, (Mary, type of the Church, A Priestly People) in La Madonna 
30 (1982) 70. (50) Paul VI, Discours au terme de la troisième session du 
concile Vatican II (Discourse at the Closing of the Third Session of 
Vatican Council II), (Novenber 21, 1964), AAS 56 (1964) 1015. (51) Saint 
Ambrose relates that Mary learned from the pastors of the Church and 
constantly paid attention to the apostolic directions: In Ev. Lucae Hom. 
2, 54, in PL 15, 1572B; cf.  S. Gaspari, Lettura mistagogica di testi 
biblici per la mariologia (Mystagogical Reading of Biblical Texts For 
Mariology), Regina mundi Institute , Rome 1986, 227–67 (manuscript) (52) 
Blain, 105–106. (53) The expression recalls the celebrated text of Saint 
Augustine: «Vobis enim sum episcopus, vobiscum sum christianus» ("For 
you I am a bishop, with you I am a Christian"), Disc. 340, 1: In die 
ordinationis suae, PL 38, 1483.


Taken from: Jesus Living in Mary: Handbook of the Spirituality of St.
Louis de Montfort (Litchfield, CT: Montfort Publications, 1994).
Provided courtesy of the Montfort Fathers © All Rights Reserved.


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