JESUS LIVING IN MARY: HANDBOOK OF THE SPIRITUALITY OF ST. LOUIS DE MONTFORT
I. Saint Louis Marie de Montfort and the pilgrimage tradition. II. Montforts major pilgrimages: 1. Chartres: Notre-Dame de Sous-Terre; 2. Saumur: Notre-Dame des Ardilliers: a. 1700, b. 1701, c. 1706, d. 1716; 3. Loreto and Rome; 4. Mont-Saint-Michel; 5. Holy sites created or restored by Montfort. III. Montforts motivations as a pilgrim: 1. The grace of touching hearts; 2. The search for God; 3. Profound communion with Mary. IV. Pilgrimages with Saint Louis Marie: 1. Montforts tomb; 2. Following Montforts steps; 3. Lourdes; 4. The pilgrimage from Saint-Pompain to Notre Dame des Ardilliers, Saumur. V. A model pilgrim for today and the future.
I. SAINT LOUIS MARIE DE MONTFORT AND THE PILGRIMAGE TRADITION
Several statues show Saint Louis Marie de Montfort as a pilgrim on the road, his gaze seemingly fixed on the hereafter rather than the passing geography. He carries the knapsack and staff that are the hallmark of the pilgrim and, at the end of his staff, the crucifix blessed by Pope Clement XI; he holds the statuette of "his good Mother" in his left hand, and his rosary is at his side. Throughout his life, he retained the bearing of a pilgrim: he requested charity "for the love of God," and as soon as the object of his pilgrimage came into view, he removed his shoes and approached barefooted.
The word "pilgrimage" comes from the Latin peregrinus. The root word is per-agrare, meaning "to travel a distance." To be a pilgrim was to travel far, to go to a foreign country and sojourn there. Later, "pilgrimage" came to mean a journey to a holy place, with a religious purpose.1
The origins of pilgrimages can be traced back even beyond Christian antiquity. Cultural anthropology has revealed three stages of pilgrimage: a. the victory over space, wherein pilgrims must break the routine of their daily life and journey elsewhere to change themselves from within; b. the contact with a sacred place by means of the abrazo, or embrace of a stone or statue, or by leaving a souvenir of ones passing (a votive offering, inscriptions on the walls, etc.); c. the encounter with the divinity and the hereafter, which the holy place brings to mind.2
We frequently see the words "way, road, path" in the Bible. The Semites habitually expressed spiritual realities with concrete terms. They used these words to describe mankinds way of life, moral conduct, and religious bearing. Abraham, who left Ur in Chaldea, exemplifies the spiritual pilgrim on the way of perfection. Since Abraham, all men of faith have been pilgrims marching in the desert toward the promised land. We are the people of God on pilgrimage.
Jesus said, "I am the way" (Jn 14:6), and thus forced us to reevaluate all worship tied to a particular place. The first Christians referred to early Christianity as "the Way" (Acts 9:2; 18:25; 19:9, 23; etc.). Although the Mosaic law requiring three pilgrimages had been abolished, pilgrimage in the early Church developed into an act of spontaneous and private devotion. In the West, pilgrims were attracted to the tombs of the Apostles Peter and Paul in Rome; in the East, they traveled to biblical sites, to the tombs of martyrs and saints, and to the dwelling places of well-known monks.3
In the Middle Ages, an entire spirituality of pilgrimage developed. There were two categories of pilgrims: those who hoped to obtain a bodily cure through a miracle and those who hoped to gain salvation for their soul; it often happened that both purposes fused into one.
At the close of the sixteenth century, from 1692 to 1700, Saint Louis Marie resided at the seminary of Saint Sulpice in Paris. In the short book Practices of Slavery to Jesus in Mary, a publication of the seminary, it is stated: "Once each month, out of devotion, two gentlemen travel in the name of the seminary, on a pilgrimage to a church or chapel dedicated to the Most Blessed Virgin; if they desire, they may receive Holy Communion there, as may be observed in every pilgrimage one makes."4 Jean-Baptiste Blain reports that in the company of several seminarians who were chosen from among the most fervent, Louis Marie went every Saturday to receive Communion at Notre-Dame de Paris. There he loved to kneel before "his Good Mother."5
In the eyes of the directors of Saint Sulpice, three pilgrimages were especially important: Chartres, Notre-Dame des Ardilliers at Saumur, and Loreto in Italy. Saint Louis Marie made all three, and many more besides, placing him in the tradition of the great pilgrims. He could have composed the motto that Newman chose for himself and indeed illustrated much later: "I am a pilgrim." "A pilgrim of the infinite," wrote Father Morineau in his portrait of St. Louis Marie, "a sublime vagabond," whose pace was so quick that the world proved too confining for him. His steps led him to teach mankind the meaning of life.6
II. MONTFORTS MAJOR PILGRIMAGES
1. Chartres: Notre-Dame de Sous-Terre
Blain, a confidant of Louis Marie, described this pilgrimage to Chartres.7 The seminary at Saint Sulpice traditionally chose two seminarians each year "to travel on pilgrimage to Notre-Dame de Chartres. Montfort, on being chosen, received this happy commission with all the joy of his soul." So, in the summer of 1699, he made the pilgrimage to Notre-Dame de Sous-Terre with his fellow seminarian Bardou. The journey took three days, which they spent alternately in silent meditation and in praying the Rosary. For meals, they requested bread in villages; they spent their nights in a barn. With Bardou, Montfort felt free to follow the impulse of his zeal. On the road, he "spoke of God to laborers and the poor whom he saw near and far, then rushed to catch up with his brother seminarian." His time in Chartres was spent in intense prayer. At the altar of Notre-Dame de Sous-Terre, "he received Communion in an excess of fervor and piety brought on by the grace of his surroundings. He persevered in prayer for six successive hours, on his knees, unmoving, as if in ecstacy." He spent the day in contemplative prayer, to the astonishment of his companion: "How is it that Grignion can converse with God for so long?"
2. Saumur: Notre-Dame des Ardilliers
Because de Foix, du Ferrier, and Olierfounders of Saint Sulpice seminaryhad made a pilgrimage to Notre-Dame des Ardilliers in 1641, this shrine of Our Lady was a favorite pilgrimage center for the seminarians of Saint Sulpice. Louis Marie de Montfort made this pilgrimage several times.
Just after being tapped to be a part of the community of missionaries directed by René Lévêque at Saint-Clément of Nantes, in September 1700, he traveled to Nantes. His journey took him to Saumur, to the holy sanctuary of Notre-Dame des Ardilliers.8 There, at the beginning of his priestly ministry, he prayed to Mary for the works that he planned to undertake.
At the beginning of October, Father de Montfort left Saint-Clément de Nantes for the General Hospital at Poitiers, responding to an urgent appeal by the bishop, Monsignor Girard. This was a new mission, and so he went to Notre-Dame des Ardilliers to request Gods mercy. He made a novena of prayers and distributed the money that Lévêque had given him to the poor who frequented the holy church, a concrete gesture of renouncement conforming to his missionary ideal.9
Father de Montfort returned from Rome, where Clement XI had invested him with the title Apostolic Missionary. His mission had been clearly defined: the Pope "enjoined him to apply himself to teaching Christian doctrine to the children and the people and to make the spirit of Christianity flourish once again through the renewal of baptismal promises."10 After a short stop in Poitiers to join Brother Mathurin, his faithful companion, he traveled to Notre-Dame des Ardilliers. He wished to entrust this new departure in his missionary life to the care of Mary and her sanctuary. He remained several days at Saumur. It was during this pilgrimage that he met St. Jeanne de la Noue, foundress of the sisters of Providence; he reassured her and encouraged her to persevere in her "extraordinarily austere" way of life.11
At the beginning of Lent 1716, thirty-three White Penitents of Saint Pompain proposed to Montfort that they make a pilgrimage on foot to Notre-Dame des Ardilliers de Saumur. Father Montfort agreed to their request and composed a highly detailed rule for them, indicating the objective of the pilgrimage and the means of accomplishing it: The Pilgrimage to Our Lady of Saumur made by the Penitents to obtain from God good Missionaries (PS).12 The two priests whom they had appointed to accompany them, Fathers Mulot and Vatel, were given the task of directing the pilgrimage. The purpose of the pilgrimage was clearly stated: "You will make this pilgrimage for the following intentions: Firstly, to obtain from God through Marys intercession good missionaries, who will follow the example of the apostles by complete abandonment to divine Providence and the practice of virtue, under the protection of Our Lady. Secondly, to obtain the gift of wisdom in order to know, love, and practice the truths of our faith and to lead others to Christ."
Montfort insisted that the thirty-three Penitents pray in common and that they always walk together as a group, except through villages, where they were to travel in twos. In particular, the rule recommended mutual charity, frequent silence, mortification, and complete obedience to their designated superior. The chapter on mortification bluntly states: "Unless they are prevented by sickness they try to fast during the whole pilgrimage."
We should note "the days time-table." Montfort planned every detail. Upon their arrival in Saumur, the Penitents were to march two by two, feet bare; at the hour of Mass and Offices, they would refrain from singing so as not to disturb the ceremonies; at other times, their superior was to request permission from the sacristan to recite the Rosary. They were all to take Communion on the first day and the following day, "provided they have not committed any serious sin."
In this famous rule, the favorite devotions of Montfort are revealed, together with some of his prayers and hymns. The effort he demanded for an entire week from thirty-three lay people is quite astonishing.
On their return, Father de Montfort himself made one last sojourn to pray at Notre-Dame des Ardilliers with several brothers: Mathurin, Jacques, and Gabriel. After this pilgrimage, he journeyed to Saint- Laurent-sur-Sèvre for his last mission. His "holy pilgrimage" on earth ended on April 28, 1716.
3. Loreto and Rome
At Poitiers, Father de Montfort had encountered a climate of opposition that threatened to obstruct his missionary activity and render all his work useless. Dismissed by his bishop, he decided to travel to Rome and request the advice of the Pope to see where God called him next. It was a long journey. He traveled in poverty; he gave away the coins in his pocket and required the same of his companion en route. He ate and lodged "as Providence led him."
On his way, he took the opportunity to stop and pray at a place frequented by pilgrims: the Holy House of Loreto. Happy to follow the example of his masters at Saint Sulpice, he prayed and meditated at length on the mystery of the Incarnation, the foundation of his spirituality. He remained there fifteen days.
Rome marked the last stage of his long pilgrimage. As soon as he saw the dome of St. Peters basilica, "he prostrated himself, his face pressed to the ground. When he arose, he removed his shoes and traveled the final distance barefoot."13 Montfort was granted an audience with Clement XI on June 6. He admitted to having been seized with an extraordinary respect in the presence of the Pope, believing he saw Jesus Christ himself in the form of his Vicar. This interview gave Montfort the answer to his questions and a definitive direction to his career. As a memento of this pilgrimage, he carried back with him his indulgenced crucifix, attached to his pilgrims staff.14
Saint Louis Marie was named an Apostolic Missionary by Clement XI. From Rome he returned to France, sought out Brother Mathurin at the abbey of Ligugé, and made a retreat of eight days at the parish house of clerical friends near Poitiers. When he finished his retreat, his plans were decided: he would commit his new missions to the protection of the Most Holy Virgin Mary and the Archangel Saint Michael. With Brother Mathurin, he went to Notre-Dame des Ardilliers and, passing by Angers, proceeded on to Mont-Saint-Michel.
The two pilgrims arrived there on September 28, 1706, the eve of the feast of the archangel. To this unique setting, an incomparable encounter of nature and art, Montfort came to live, as it were, a soldiers vigil at the foot of Saint Michael. The next day, the feast day, he spent in prayer. Since his days at Saint Sulpice, the missionary had nourished a special devotion to the holy angels. Now he required the aid of Saint Michael, the conqueror of Satan and patron of France, the apostolic field conferred on him by the Pope. At Mont-Saint-Michel he drew the apostolic strength to make him invincible in spiritual combat.
5. Holy sites created or restored by Montfort
The saint made all of his journeys on foot, traveling from parish to parish, from Rennes to Paris, Paris to Nantes, Nantes to Poitiers, and so on, living like a pilgrim. He himself created, or restored, various sites of pilgrimage: in 1705 at Montbernage in Poitiers, the sanctuary of Mary, Queen of All Hearts; in 1707 at Montfort-sur-Meu, the chapel of Our Lady of Wisdom, and at la Chèze in Brittany, the chapel of Our Lady of the Cross; in 1710, the chapel of Mary, Our Lady Queen of All Hearts, at Nantes and the Calvary of Pontchâteau; in 1711, at La Garnache, the chapel of Our Lady of Victories; in 1712, Our Lady of Good Help in the church of Sallertaine; in 1713, the chapel of Our Lady of All Patience at La Séguinière, near Cholet.
III. MONTFORTS MOTIVATIONS AS A PILGRIM
Saint Louis Marie de Montfort is justifiably considered a great pilgrim. He appears to have traveled many thousands of miles on foot. Why did he make so many pilgrimages? We can discern from his writings some of the motivations that led him to undertake his numerous journeys.
1. The grace of touching hearts
In 1708, toward All Saints Day, Montfort preached at Bréal, in Brittany. The parish priest, Father Hindré, was astonished at his success and expressed his surprise. Montfort confided, "Sir, my dear friend, . . . I have made more than two thousand leagues on pilgrimage to ask from God the grace of touching hearts, and He has answered my prayer."15
When leaving for Rome, he revealed the missionary motive behind his journey in a letter to the townspeople of Montbernage: "I ask you all, in general and individually, to follow me with your prayers on the pilgrimage which I am going to make for you and many others. I say, for you, because I am undertaking this long and difficult journey in dependence on the Providence of God to obtain from him through the prayers of Mary, your perseverance. I say, for many others, because I bear in my heart all the poor sinners of Poitou and elsewhere, who are sadly placing their salvation at risk. They are so dear to my God that he gave all his blood for them and would I give nothing? He undertook such long and arduous journeys for them, and would I undertake none? He went so far as to risk his own life and wouldnt I risk mine too?" (LPM 6).
His pilgrimages were missionary in character, as his travels always were: "I am a hunter of souls / For my Savior Jesus" (H 91:2). Even during his pilgrimage to Notre-Dame de Chartres, he was prone to wander off the road to evangelize. Later he wrote: "Ive taken on a vagabond spirit / To save my poor neighbor" (H 22:1).
Montforts pilgrimages were characterized not only by their missionary goals but also by their apostolic style: he traveled without any money, abandoning himself totally to Providence. On his return from Rome, a priest asked him, "Why didnt you travel by horse?" And the pilgrim is supposed to have simply replied, "The apostles never traveled by horse."16
Like the pilgrims of the Middle Ages, Montfort considered pilgrimage a path of penitence, but he added his own apostolic intentions. The trials of the road, with the sweat and physical exhaustion; the sun, the rain, and the cold; the difficulties of finding lodging and shelter; the various attitudes of the people he encountered: these basic elements of a pilgrimage held enormous penitential value for Montfort. And at the conclusion of his journey, he presented his fatigue as an offering, a prayer: "St. Augustine . . . tells us, The one who does not mourn in this world like a stranger and a pilgrim will not rejoice in the world to come as a citizen of heaven" (FC 25).
In PS, he again describes this spiritual attitude of the penitent, calling on the Penitents to fast and to walk barefoot at times. Always a missionary, he offers up his repentance in order to carry out the work of the Gospel: "Oh my God, for your Gospel, / I wish to suffer from town to town . . ." (H 22:13).
Ever faithful to himself, Father de Montfort counsels obedience during a pilgrimage as the best penance: "I roam throughout the world / Like a lost child . . . / All of my worth / Comes from my obedience" (H 91:1). This hymn, which depicts the life of the "good missionary," also depicts Father de Montfort, pilgrim of the Absolute, a pilgrim who takes part in this form of popular religion while maintaining great fidelity to the institutional Church. We have seen how, a few weeks before he died, he traveled on a pilgrimage to ask for missionaries and the gift of Wisdom (PS).
2. The search for God
The pilgrimage is also a search for God in Jesus Christ, a search he expresses with his entire being. He sings this ardent hymn: "Seek, my feet, seek / The sovereign beauty; / Run quickly, draw near, / Make my pain end / The pain of love. / Jesus is my love / My night and my day" (H 54:12).
The existence of a true pilgrim is characterized by a new vitality which deepens his sense of God, and thus of prayer. He knows he is on the pathway to God, because here below there is no lasting city (H 13:14). Montfort writes: "A Friend of the Cross is one who is holy and set apart from the things that are visible, for his heart is raised above all that is transient and perishable, and his homeland is in heaven; he travels through this world like a visitor and a pilgrim" (FC 4).
Montforts spirit, being solicitous of God, demanded this alertness. Pilgrimage expressed his march toward Christ. He was a pilgrim throughout his life, with prayer in his heart and on his lips. In PS, he is describing his own spiritual approach to prayer when he says that the pilgrims must engage in "continual prayer" on their journey. On the other hand, he himself would stop at length to pray at sites of pilgrimage along his way.
His heart and his voice sang on the pilgrims road: "When I travel, / My staff in my hand, / Feet bare, without belongings, / But also without sadness, / I walk in great ceremony / Like a king in his court" (H 144:1). When he travels this way, his whole bearing is completely captured by those two words that he so often used to close his hymns: "God Alone."
A pilgrimage, with the cadence of walking, enabled Montfort to find the words and the rhythm for his hymns. His pilgrims soul was a singing soul. "Sing and walk," wrote St. Augustine, in a sermon on the Easter season. Whenever the two men stopped on their route, Brother Mathurin would write what Montfort had composed as he walked. Several hymns were thus the products of his travels, and a number of them expressed the spiritual poverty of the pilgrim, such as the "New hymn for the poor in spirit" (H 144) and "The holy voyage" (H 162).
3. Profound communion with Mary
For Montfort, the pilgrimage was also an opportunity to experience a profound union with Mary. His friend Jean-Baptiste Blain thus described his departure for Paris at the bridge of Cesson, near Rennes: "His eyes always returning to heaven, his heart at Saint Sulpice, the constant invocation of Mary on his lips: thus did he take leave of Rennes."17
He often considered pilgrimages a gift that he offered unstintingly to the Virgin Mary. In SM, he suggests that a pilgrimage would be one way of offering to Our Lady each year the homage that is due her (SM 62).
Montfort was sensitive to the efficacy of signs and symbols. He preached Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary with all his being, with his words and his writings, in his way of life and his travels, even in his dress. He moved through towns and countryside with "his rosary, his staff complete with the Cross, his striking and unforgettable features his great aquiline nose, his large mouth, the look of fire in his long, oval-shaped facehis ravaged, tireless body, and his powerful voice."18 Saint Louis Marie was a true pilgrim of God.
The intense desire and search for God, constant prayer, penitence, and obedience to Mary: these qualities form the spiritual profile of the eternal pilgrim such as Montfort. Indeed, we see in him the four means of obtaining Wisdom that he describes in LEW 181-222.
IV. PILGRIMAGES WITH SAINT LOUIS MARIE
1. Montforts tomb
Upon Montforts death, his own tomb became a place of pilgrimage. "Each day, more and more of the faithful would arrive in Saint-Laurent-sur- Sèvre; some had traveled a great distance, and most of the pilgrims proclaimed that their prayers had been answered. Several cures were attributed to the Servant of God."19 The tomb of Saint Louis Marie de Montfort and the tomb of Blessed Marie Louise of Jesus still attract both individual pilgrims and groups. Each year, at the beginning of October, a large regional pilgrimage to the Basilica of Saint-Laurent- sur-Sèvre is organized. Since 1989, the mother house of the Montfort Missionaries has received pilgrims during the summer. The pilgrims arrive not merely from different regions of France but from other countries as well.
2. Following Montforts steps
It is becoming more and more customary for members of the Montfort Congregations, and others who live Saint Louis Maries spirituality and are thus part of the extended Montfort Family, to make a pilgrimage not only to his tomb but to the places where Father de Montfort spent his life: his birthplace at Montfort-sur-Meu and its surroundings, Rennes, Dinan, La Chèze, Pontchâteau, Nantes, Vallet, Mervent, Saumur, Poitiers, La Rochelle. They come not out of curiosity to see the old stones and walls and houses that attract so many others but because these places evoke Montforts life and make his message speak even more eloquently to contemporary men and women. These ten-day-or-more pilgrimages, especially when lived in the context of prayer and study of the texts of Montfort, often conclude with the perfect renewal of the baptismal vows.
Since 1949 an immense Montfort pilgrimage to Lourdes, France, takes place every year at the end of April, around April 28, the feast day of Saint Louis Marie de Montfort. Approximately 10,000 people, including more than 800 sick people, take part; 1,800 volunteers, 1,200 stretcher bearers, many nurses, and 40 doctors serve the sick. Montfort Missionaries from all over the globerenewing Louis Maries love for pilgrimagesregularly conduct pilgrimages to Lourdes, where a large statue of Saint Louis Marie adorns the walk leading to the upper basilica.
4. The pilgrimage from Saint Pompain to Notre-Dame of Ardilliers, Saumur
As mentioned above, Montfort several times went on pilgrimage to Saumur. In 1712 he wrote a "rule" for the thirty-three who made the pilgrimage to Our Lady of Pity of Ardilliers at Saumur, asking them to pray for vocations to his Company of Mary. Since 1982 a group of Brothers of St. Gabriel, with other members of the Montfort family, retrace Montforts route in order to recapture the same spirit, the same faith, and the same supplication. As much as possible, the directions Saint Louis Marie gave for the pilgrimage of 1716 are observed. Like Montfort, they make the pilgrimage on foot from Saint Pompain to Notre-Dame des Ardilliers, with the goal of "obtaining true missionaries and Wisdom through Mary." The words of Father Montfort give them encouragement: "I am sure . . . they will obtain from God through the intercession of his Blessed Mother great graces not only for themselves but for the whole Church of God" (PS 13). They travel two by two, without choosing their walking companions, alternating between prayer, silence, and conversation.
On their arrival in Saumur, a large group of friends welcomes them and joins the celebration that concludes the pilgrimage.
V. A MODEL PILGRIM FOR TODAY AND THE FUTURE
Today the meaning and power of going on pilgrimage appear to have been rediscovered. Some thought it would disappear after the upheavals of the 1960s, but in fact the opposite has happened. The number of pilgrims traveling to Lourdes, Rome, Jerusalem, and other cities has increased. More than twenty million pilgrims travel through Europe each year. Guadalupe alone receives a similar number. John Paul II has said that pilgrimage is "a key to our religious future." And Raïssa Maritain, quoted by her husband Jacques, wrote, "Our great spiritual need today is to contemplate our paths."20 She meant that our everyday lives are a path to God. All men and women are pilgrims who search for some meaning in their lives; who question themselves, look within themselves and beyond themselves; who search for truth, and look for places, simple or grandiose, which seem to them to carry a message. Lifes pilgrimage is the journey to the Promised Land, Jesus. A pilgrims journey to a holy site, with all its hardships, joys, penances, is a summary of lifes journey to God. The pilgrimage not only summarizes this life but, made with sincere prayer, calls down Gods blessings so that the pilgrim will arrive safely and for all eternity in Jesus, the Holy One of God.
Saint Louis de Montforts way of perfection is nothing less than a Marian pilgrimage into the blazing light of God Alone. His four means of attaining union with Wisdom characterize the pilgrimage: the Christian sets out with an intense desire to know God, to march on with a prayer in his heart and on his lips, and to practice mortifications by accepting joyously the difficulties of the journey.
"Leave all things and you will find all things by finding Jesus Christ, incarnate Wisdom," wrote Saint Louis Marie (LEW 202). His missionary life is marked by renunciation of all else to follow the way of Christ. His pilgrimages are so filled with grace, for they are always Marian. As John Paul teaches, "The Blessed Virgin Mary continues to go before the people of God. Her exceptional pilgrimage of faith represents a constant point of reference for the Church, for individuals and for communities, for peoples and nations, and, in a sense, for all humanity" (RMat 6).
So that we may be pilgrims throughout our lives, Saint Louis Marie exhorts us to fix our gaze on Jesus Christ: "He is our model of living, / Let us imitate his feelings, / Try to follow him, heart to heart / In his steps and in his movements" (H 144).
F. Garat, E. Guil
Notes: (1) A. Solignac, Pélerinages, Introduction (Pilgrimages, Introduction), in DSAM 12/1 (1984), 890. (2) Cf. A. Dupront, Pélerinages et lieux sacrés (Pilgrimages and Sacred Places), in Encyclopédie universelle (1972), 12:729-734. (3) Cf., for example, J. Henninger, H. Cazelles, M. Join-Lambert, Pélerinages dans lancien Orient (Pilgrimages in the Ancient Near East), in Dictionnaire de la Bible, suppl. 7 (1966), 567-589; S. De Fiores, Itinéraire spirituelle (Spiritual Itinerary), in Dictionnaire de la vie spirituelle (Dictionary of the Spiritual Life), Cerf, Paris 1983, 549-564; Fr. John, Le chemin de Dieu. Etude biblique sur la foi comme pélerinage (The Way of God: A Biblical Study on the Pilgrimage of Faith), Taizé 1983. (4) The manuscript of this work, which is in the archives of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, is attributed to the Sulpician A. Brenier (1651-1714), founder of the Sulpician residence where Louis Marie Grignion was a student from 1695 to 1700. (5) Blain, 101. (6) B.-M. Morineau, Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort Flammarion, Paris 1947, 9, 12. (7) Blain, 98-101. (8) Le Crom, Un apôtre marial, Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort (1673-1716) (A Marian Apostle: St. Louis Marie de Montfort), Librarie, Mariale, Pontchateau 1942, 85. (9) Ibid., 97. (10) Besnard I, 102. (11) Ibid., 104. (12) The Rule has come to us through Grandet, with some minor differences, and through Besnard (cf. OC 814). (13) Le Crom, Un apôtre marial, 160. (14) Grandet, 95-100. (15) Besnard I, 151. (16) Cf. Grandet, 101. (17) Blain, 18. (18) G. Rigault, Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, in Les Traditions Françaises (The French Traditions), Tourcoing 1947, 48. (19) Le Crom, 376. (20) J. Maritain, Le paysan de la Garonne (The Peasant of the Garonne), Desclée de Brouwer, Paris 1966, 340.
Taken from: Jesus Living in Mary: Handbook of the Spirituality of St. Louis de Montfort (Litchfield, CT: Montfort Publications, 1994).
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