|ROME, 23 JUNE 2009 (ZENIT)
Answered by Legionary of Christ Father
Edward McNamara, professor of liturgy at the Regina Apostolorum
Q: Which is the right place or position to begin the celebration of
Mass, bearing in mind the two tables: table of the word and table of the
Eucharist? I have the experience of priests who start either from the
celebrant's chair (which is either in front of the altar, or on the side
of the altar), or from the altar, or still from the pulpit.
A.M., Harare, Zimbabwe
A: The entrance procession and the beginning of Mass are described in
the General Instruction of the Roman Missal (GIRM), No. 50:
"When the Entrance chant is concluded, the priest stands at the chair
and, together with the whole gathering, makes the Sign of the Cross.
Then he signifies the presence of the Lord to the community gathered
there by means of the Greeting. By this Greeting and the people's
response, the mystery of the Church gathered together is made manifest.
"After the greeting of the people, the priest, the deacon, or a lay
minister may very briefly introduce the faithful to the Mass of the
It is clear, therefore, that the priest should ordinarily begin a Mass
with the faithful from the celebrant's chair. This chair, as specified
in GIRM, No. 310, "Must signify his office of presiding over the
gathering and of directing the prayer."
It is not liturgically appropriate to begin the Mass either at the ambo
or at the altar because each liturgical place should be reserved for its
proper purpose, the ambo for the table of the Word, the altar for the
table of the Eucharist.
This is why liturgical norms specify that commentaries, monitions and
other announcements should not be delivered from the ambo but from some
other place. Once the initial veneration of the altar is completed, it
should not be used until the presentation of the gifts. It is also
better to wait until this moment before placing the missal, visible
microphone, extra ciboria and other necessary liturgical elements upon
A related question is the most suitable location for the priest's chair.
According to GIRM, No. 310: "The best place for the chair is in a
position facing the people at the head of the sanctuary, unless the
design of the building or other circumstances impede this: for example,
if the great distance would interfere with communication between the
priest and the gathered assembly, or if the tabernacle is in the center
behind the altar. Any appearance of a throne, however, is to be avoided.
It is appropriate that, before being put into liturgical use, the chair
be blessed according to the rite described in the Roman Ritual.
"Likewise, seats should be arranged in the sanctuary for concelebrating
priests as well as for priests who are present for the celebration in
choir dress but who are not concelebrating."
To this we may add the suggestions offered by the U.S. bishops in the
document "Built of Living Stones":
"63. The chair of the priest celebrant stands 'as a symbol of his office
of presiding over the assembly and of directing prayer.' An appropriate
placement of the chair allows the priest celebrant to be visible to all
in the congregation. The chair reflects the dignity of the one who leads
the community in the person of Christ, but is never intended to be
remote or grandiose. The priest celebrant's chair is distinguished from
the seating for other ministers by its design and placement. 'The seat
for the deacon should be placed near that of the celebrant.' In the
cathedral, in addition to the bishop's chair or cathedra, which
is permanent, an additional chair will be needed for use by the rector
or priest celebrant.
"64. 'The [most appropriate] place for the chair is at the head of the
sanctuary and turned toward the people unless the design of the building
or other circumstances [such as distance or the placement of the
tabernacle] are an obstacle.' This chair is not used by a lay person who
presides at a service of the word with Communion or a Sunday celebration
in the absence of a priest."
Although these documents allow for a great deal of flexibility
(depending on the design of the church), it is safe to say that placing
the chair in front of the altar is not a good idea as it tends to
detract from the altar's centrality. There may be some ceremonies, such
as religious professions or the institution of ministers, where a chair
or faldstool is temporarily placed before the altar and is removed once
its use has ceased.
Locating the chair at the head of the sanctuary behind the altar was
quite popular in churches in the immediate aftermath of the liturgical
reform, and this option remains in the missal. However, it is not always
the best option and this is why the latest edition of the missal has
added the clause regarding possible impediments due to the design,
distance or the presence of the tabernacle.
One of these motives for an exception could probably be applied to
almost any church. In recent years there has also been a positive trend
toward returning the tabernacle to the sanctuary in many parish
churches. Because of this it is becoming fairly common to place the
chair to one side of the altar often parallel to the ambo. This is
usually the right-hand side as one enters the church, since the most
common placement of the ambo is to the left.
This is facilitated by the norm in the new missal that the altar servers
do not flank the celebrant but have a place of their own. It is easier
to find a distinct location for one chair (plus a suitable seat for the
deacon) than for a row.
Follow-up: Where the Priest
Should Begin Mass [7-7-2009]
In the wake of our June 23 piece on where Mass begins, a Zambian reader
offered the following comment:
“Your response to the question of where the priest should begin Mass is
really impressive and accurately delivered (making reference to the GIRM). I
also observed the same problem, but can't the architectural design of
the sanctuary or church affect where the priest should begin Mass? For
example, there might be an immovable altar and ambo with fixed
microphone stand for which a microphone has a very short cable, yet
because of the size of the church a microphone will be of great
necessity. Is such kind of a church-setup a liturgical blunder (or
There are many churches around the world which present obstacles to an
optimal unfolding of the liturgy. This can sometimes be due to the
presence of ancient and rightly untouchable artistic treasures such as
screens, canonical choirs and dividing walls. Likewise, some modern
churches, including a few designed by world-renowned architects, seem to
forget that celebrating Mass is their primary purpose.
Inevitably, such hindrances occasionally oblige priests to adopt
practical pastoral solutions and to improvise while a definitive
solution is pending.
In the case presented by our reader the definitive solution is not found
in removing the fixed altar and ambo as these elements should be fixed
in a church. Rather, it is in redesigning the sound system so as to
allow for a variety of microphone locations and, if possible, the use of
The possibility of installing multiple microphones should always be
contemplated when designing new churches as there are many occasions,
such as the Good Friday reading of the Passion or at weddings and
funerals, where several will be needed.