|This manuscript was prepared by Margaret Whitehead for a case in
Wichita, KS. It has been widely circulated in manuscript form but never
published. We received this file without the footnote numbers in the
text. The footnotes are provided as a source of additional information.
The State of Kansas is involved in a statewide restructuring of
social services and educational services. The Catholic schools in the
Diocese of Wichita have become part of this State educational
restructuring as a result of decisions made by the Catholic
Superintendent and Associate Superintendent of Schools in Wichita
(Appendix A). Some Catholic parents who have studied the State
educational restructuring plan, which is called the Quality Performance
Accreditation or the QPA, believe that this close involvement with the
State Program will result in the destruction of the Catholic character
of their schools. After unsuccessful attempts to deal with the Diocesan
officials, they have now decided to try to forestall this unwanted
result by seeking canonical relief.
The following pedagogical study of the Kansas restructuring plan, the
QPA, begins with a review of what Catholic education is supposed to be.
This will serve as a standard to measure the QPA program against as I
review some of the significant aspects of the new status of education
and social services in the State of Kansas.
The Identity of the Catholic School
Education is not an individual activity,... but a social one. In the
process, three individual groupings are in partnership: the family, the
Church and the State, and `education which is concerned with man as a
whole, individually and socially, in the order of nature and in the
order of grace, necessarily belongs to all these three societies'[Pius
Catholic schools exist as an important part of the Church's mission
of "proclaiming the way of salvation to all men, of revealing the
life of Christ to those who believe and of assisting them with
unremitting care so that they may be able to attain the fullness of
life." Catholic schools have a very specific identity and role in
the life of the Church; they also have a very definite relationship to
the State which is meant to be a cooperative one but also distinct and
they represent an extension of the teaching role of the family they exist to assist families in their
primary role as teachers of their own children.
Church and State
Although the relationship between the Church, the family and the
State are meant to be cooperative and complementary, this cooperation
cannot be automatically assumed. It is up to the families and to the
Church to critically assess their social situation and make appropriate
decisions in each time and each society. In our changing times, the
benevolence and compatibility of the constantly growing government
intervention in education must be carefully assessed.
If ideologies opposed to the Christian faith are taught in the
schools, the family must join with other families, if possible through
family associations, and with all its strength and with wisdom help the
young not to depart from the faith. (Emphasis added)
The Role and Rights of the Family
The system of schools and education exists primarily for children and
young people: to help them develop their full potential in order to live
satisfactory lives, to attain their supernatural destiny and to
contribute to the common good of the society. But children do not
spontaneously appear in the world and develop on their own. They come
into the world as part of a social group which has responsibility for
them from the beginning the family. The Catholic Church
recognizes the family as the most basic fundamental unit of society with
its own rights which are prior to those of the State:
Every family, in that it is a society with its own basic rights, has
the right freely to organize its own religious life in the home under
the control of the parents. These have the right to decide in accordance
with their own religious beliefs the form of religious upbringing which
is to be given to their children. The civil authority must therefore
recognize the right of parents to choose with genuine freedom schools or
other means of education. Parents should not be subject directly or
indirectly to unjust burdens because of this freedom of choice.
Furthermore, the rights of parents are violated if their children are
compelled to attend classes which are not in agreement with the
religious beliefs of the parents or if there is but a single compulsory
system of education from which all religious instruction is
excluded...For this reason the protection of the right to religious
freedom is the common responsibility of individual citizens, social
groups, civil authorities, the Church and other religious communities.
The rights of parents to choose and control the education of their
children has also been recognized by many contemporary institutions and
societies. For example, the United Nations Charter states that
"parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that
should be given to their children," and the Council of Europe: Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms, #2, states, "In the exercise of any functions
which it assumes in education and teaching, the State shall respect the
rights of parents to ensure that such education and teaching shall be in
conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions."
In the order of history and of reality, education starts with the
family , and the family role is irreplaceable. No other institution has
ever been able to do for the child and for society what a good family
can do. If families seem to be failing today, it is much more realistic
to assess how society is failing to support them and change society than
to have schools and institutions attempting to take over the family's
The Principle of Subsidiarity
The Church supports strongly the concept of subsidiarity in the
functioning of social groups.
...Pope Pius XI said that 'it is an injustice and at the same time a
grave evil and a disturbance of right order to transfer to the larger
and higher collectivity functions which can be performed and provided
for by lesser and subordinate bodies [Quadragesimo anno,1931].' As
applied to education, the primary right belongs to the family.
The principle of subsidiarity is essential to the proper ordering of
society and especially of education but it is often ignored. The highly
centralizing tendencies of modern governments, most notably communist
and fascist governments, and modern means of communication and
information collection have lead to the widespread abuse of this
principle with disastrous results.
Some may be surprised to find out that among many American educators
and educational theorists of the twentieth century, the principle of
subsidiarity has been and continues to be resisted and the rights of
families to control the education of their own children are far from
being universally recognized. The following quotation from a recent book
by a respected professor at Princeton University is not unusual:
It is one thing to recognize the right (and responsibility) of
parents to educate their children as members of a family, quite another
to claim that this right of familial education extends to a right of
parents to insulate their children from exposure to ways of life or
thinking that conflict with their own...
A society committed to conscious social reproduction has a compelling
response to those adults who object to the form or the content of
education on grounds that it indirectly subverts or directly conflicts
with their moral values. "The virtues and moral character we are
cultivating," the educational authorities can reply in the first
instance, "are necessary to give children the chance collectively to
shape their society. The kind of character you are asking us to
cultivate would deprive children of that chance, the very chance that
legitimates your own claim to educational authority."
The Roots of the Catholic School in the U.S.
In the order of history, the Church has assisted the family in the
formation and education of children especially through religious
teaching, sacramental preparation and through the establishment of
In the United States, the remarkable system of parochial schools,
which has been unequaled any place else in the world, developed as a
response to Protestant and political anti-Catholic prejudice in the 19th
century. The Catholic school system had its early beginnings in the work
of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton and the pronouncements of the Catholic
Bishops through the resolutions of the First(1852), Second(1866) and
Third(1884) Plenary Councils of Baltimore.
The bishops were concerned about the dangers to the faith and morals
of children who attended public schools which, on principle, excluded
religious teaching or which conveyed anti-Catholic attitudes and ideas
in the teaching. They were also concerned about placing children under
the tutelage of teachers who "are selected from every sect
indiscriminately: and this, while no proper precaution is taken to
prevent them injuring the children, so that there is nothing to stop
them infusing into the young minds the seeds of error and vice."
The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1884, made it clear that
every Catholic parish was to erect a Catholic school. This Diocesan
system of education grew and flourished because these schools had a
clear Catholic identity and purpose:
The main purposes of Catholic elementary education are both ultimate
and proximate. Cooperating with the family, the Church, and the state,
the schools seeks to form the true and perfect Christian who will so
fulfill his destiny in time as to attain his destiny of union with God
for eternity. This formation calls for the total development of the
The Vocation of the Catholic Teacher
Within the Catholic plan of education there is a clear concept of the
role and training of the teacher in the classroom. Teaching is
understood by Catholics to be a vocation not just a profession. Although
teachers need professional expertise, they require even more
"charity both towards each other and towards their pupils, and
inspired by an apostolic spirit, they should bear testimony by their
lives and their teaching to the one Teacher, who is Christ." They
should also exhibit "commitment to the Church" and its
Among the main characteristics and duties of the Catholic teacher are
the "communication of truth" and the passing on to students of
"the cultural patrimony handed down from previous
All educational procedures are determined in accordance with how one
defines the student. The definition of the student in turn depends on
one's definition of the person: mechanistic, or open to the heavens, or
something in between.
The student in a Catholic classroom is valued as a child of God, made
in the "image and likeness" of God and redeemed by the loving
sacrifice of Jesus Christ as a person of high dignity and worth.
Each person has a vocation, an important role in God's plan for the
world, and a supernatural destiny which goes beyond this material world.
"The true and full dignity of the human being consists in the
vocation to walk with God, to relate to Him in love and
Each and every person has been created by God with a body, a soul, an
intellect and a will. The person can grasp truth, respond to grace,
choose the good and give and receive love. Each person's dignity is
enhanced by his ability to freely choose the good to make moral choices. Catholic
education cannot aim at producing technicians but must aim at forming
Here, therefore, students are instructed in human knowledge and
skills, valued indeed for their own worth but seen simultaneously as
deriving their most profound significance from God's plan for His
creation. Here, too, instruction in religious truth and values is an
integral part of the school program. It is not one more subject
alongside the rest, but instead it is perceived and functions as the
underlying reality in which the student's experiences of learning and
living achieve their coherence and their deepest meaning.
Educational Philosophy and Curriculum Development
All educational systems and curricula are based on philosophical
assumptions and principles. Some of these assumptions define the nature
of the student as mentioned above but others are more general. How we
define education depends on all these underlying philosophical and
religious assumptions. Although the Catholic religion is not identical
to any given philosophical system, it makes use of compatible
philosophical ideas in its educational philosophy. Contrariwise,
Catholic educators must also avoid educational philosophies and
curricula which are not compatible with Catholic principles and beliefs:
Can a Catholic school remain Catholic without attention to its
identity and the development of a Christian philosophy and theology? Not
for long. The Catholic school without a Christian philosophy does not
become neutral: it comes under the influence of the current community
ideology, or nationalism, or secularism, or faddism. Its mind and its
heart then become those of a different corporate community. Today, more
than ever before, unless a particular Catholic school is considering the
principles that give it its Catholic identity and is trying to live by
them, it does not deserve to stay in existence.
There are a range of educational philosophies which abound in our
times some of which dominate the secular
teaching professions and the universities making it vitally important for those
in charge of Catholic education to make careful judgments and
distinctions before launching any new educational experiments in the
In 1989, when the bishops of the United States last made their ad
limina visit to Rome, Cardinal John O'Connor, Archbishop of New York,
addressed the topic of the "Bishop as Teacher of the Faith" on
behalf of the American bishops. He discussed some of the impediments to
the teaching of the Faith in the U.S. stressing the difficulties of
dealing with " moral philosophies...uncongenial to church
teaching"; widespread use of manipulative group dynamics processes
and illicit understandings of pluralism.
Some of the philosophies which are in some forms compatible with
Catholicism are: Realism which postulates an objective reality and truth
outside the person; Idealism which posits the mind and the intellect of
the person as the most important reality; Christian Existentialism which
stresses the value of the subjective awareness and freedom of the
One of the contemporary educational philosophies which is not
compatible with Catholicism but which is extremely pervasive in modern
education is Pragmatism. Pragmatism holds that knowledge and truth are
constantly changing and the thinking person must constantly adjust
himself to new realities through action. The pragmatist focuses on what
is relevant rather than on what is true or important. Empirical data are
seen as the only way to verify what is true; this system has no way to
include the existence of the transcendent God. John Dewey, the most
influential American educator of the twentieth century was a pragmatist.
Pragmatism grew out of Empiricism and Positivism, both of which
emphasize sensory knowledge and the exclusive use of empirical or
sociological data to determine meaning and truth.
Cardinal O'Connor described very clearly , in the bishop's report,
the deficiencies of this approach:
Logical Positivism did not have to attack metaphysics. It simply
treated metaphysical propositions as meaningless. Only the observable,
the measurable, became important. American psychology became through
John Watson, the mere study of observable therefore external behavior. John Dewey turned the
psychology of behaviorism into an educational philosophy of
Instrumentalism, which in large part, by way of Columbia Teachers'
College in New York, came to influence hundreds of thousands of teachers
across America including religious...In essence, learning was to be
measured by change in external behavior; the purpose of teaching was to
effect such change.
Another influential educational theorist, Professor B.F. Skinner of
Harvard, has carried these reductionist educational ideas to the extreme
of denying the existence of the spiritual nature of man. He believes
that progress can only be made if we get "Beyond Freedom and
Dignity." He sees the human person as a complex, mechanical being
fully explained and controlled by materialistic, scientific
interpretations of environment and behavior:
An experimental analysis shifts the determination of behavior from
autonomous man to the environment an environment responsible both for
the evolution of the species and for the repertoire acquired by each
member...Is man then "abolished"? Certainly not as a species
or as an individual achiever. It is the autonomous inner man who is
abolished, and that is a step forward...He is indeed controlled by his
environment, but we must remember that it is an environment largely of
his own making...We have not yet seen what man can make of man.
Skinner is obsessed with controlling people through the manipulation
of their environment. He is convinced that a "technology of
behavior" will solve all our problems and lead to
Man's struggle for freedom is not due to a will to be free, but to
certain behavioral processes characteristic of the human organism, the
chief effect of which is the avoidance of or escape from so-called
"aversive" features of the environment...The literature of
freedom has identified the other people [who control stimuli] and has
proposed ways of escaping from them or weakening or destroying their
power...but it has made the mistake of defining freedom in terms of
states of mind or feelings, and it has therefore not been able to deal
effectively with techniques of control which do not breed escape or
revolt but nevertheless have aversive consequences...It is unprepared
for the next step, which is not to free men from control but to analyze
and change the kinds of control to which they are exposed.
Skinner's views of the person, reality, religion and education are at
total odds with the Catholic understanding,g as well as with our
traditional understanding of the constitutional rights and duties of
U.S. citizens. This has not reduced his influence and popularity among
educators and educational theorists, however, and many of the
"new" theories of educational progress and curriculum
development are based on Skinner's philosophy notably, Mastery
Cardinal O'Connor in his 1989 ad limina address insisted that
Catholic education had to be countercultural, "a voice crying in
the wilderness," in the face of these trends:
Through innumerable court decisions that have made moral relativism
the norm, the inordinate power of television and movies that glorify sex
and violence, and are inimical to family values and cynical of all
authority, a public educational system that has been almost totally
secularized and various other factors, our American culture has been
changing dramatically in recent years. In response, I see the church
more and more becoming a counterculture, a voice crying in the
wilderness...The great preacher-teacher Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen said
it very clearly: "What the world needs is a voice that is right,
not when the world is right, but a voice that is right when the world is
The Mission of Catholic Education Today
The mission of the Catholic school today has not changed in its
essentials. It grows out of the mission of the Church which Pope John
Paul II, in his letter responding to the 1989 ad limina report of the
American bishops, described as a commitment to the task of being
...witnesses and teachers of the word of truth, the Gospel of our
salvation (cf. Eph. 1:13). The Resurrection, in fact, is the pre-
eminent sign of the power of the Gospel to save men and women in every
age and in every place and culture. [With] an increased awareness of the
challenges which call the Church in the United States to proclaim ever
more effectively the mystery of Christ. While yours is a culture with
many positive values, it is at the same time, like everything human,
marked by elements which need to be purified and uplifted by the saving
message of the Gospel (cf. Evangeli Nuntiandi, 20).
The Pope and the bishops of the United States are calling for renewed
attention to the problems of teaching in our society today and a
dynamic, faith-filled, countercultural response through our schools and
All these considerations are pertinent to the Catholic schools and
Catholic school systems, which, in the Diocese of Wichita, Kansas, under
the leadership of Daniel J. Elsener, Superintendent, and Sr.Clarice
Faltus, the Associate Superintendent of Schools, have embarked upon a
major restructuring of the Catholic educational system in cooperation
with and under the direction of the Kansas State Department of
Education. The rest of this paper will examine the nature of that
restructuring in the light of the guidance and principles given by our
Faith concerning the nature of Catholic education , educational
philosophy and methodology, and the nature of the person and of reality.
Attention will also be directed to the role of the family and the
principle of subsidiarity and how these are affected by the requirements
of the Kansas State Educational Department.
The Process of School Restructuring, Accreditation, and
Accountability in the Catholic Schools of Wichita
The first thing which has to be said about the educational
restructuring of education in Kansas is that it has not been developed
from a local matrix it is not a grassroots program but rather is part of a national
movement to restructure schools which received a major impetus from the
federal government through grants for research, curriculum development
and teacher training programs going back to the 1960s. Since 1988,
President Bush has supported a prominent role for the U.S. Department of
Education in promoting school reform in order to achieve six major
national goals by the year 2000. These goals were decided upon at a
Governor's Conference called by the President and the then Secretary of
Education, Lauro Cavazos, in 1989:
1. All children in America will start school ready to learn.
2. The high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90
3. American students will leave grades four, eight, and twelve having
demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter including English,
mathematics, science, history, and geography; and every school in
America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so
they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and
productive employment in our modern economy.
4. U.S. students will be first in the world in science and
5. Every adult American will be literate and will possess the
knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and
exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
6. Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and
will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning.
In 1991, Lamar Alexander, the newly-appointed Secretary of Education,
announced the America 2000 strategy to achieve these goals. America 2000
contains four basic strategies:
I. For today's students: better and more accountable schools
II. For tomorrow's students: a new generation of American schools
III.For the rest of us (yesterday's students/today's work force): a
nation of students
IV.Communities where learning can happen
The Governor of Kansas and the educational leadership of Kansas at
the state level clearly see the Kansas restructuring as part of a
national movement and even an international movement.
Shortly after the national Governor's Conference called by the
President, Governor Mike Hayden chaired a local education Governor's
Conference attended by Lamar Alexander, who had not yet been appointed
as U.S. Secretary of Education, and other Governors and important
educational leaders. Governor Hayden and the other speakers made it
clear that Kansas wanted to take the lead in a comprehensive
restructuring of the schools.
At this conference , Lamar Alexander recommended what he called
"brand new American schools" that would operate year round
from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. and would take care of the needs of babies and
children from "3 months to 18 years." Dr. Frank Newman,
President of the Education Commission of the States, announced at that
same meeting that our basic challenge was to "remake schooling from
birth to college" and that new teachers should come into the system
as what he styled "change agents."
One of the most important speakers at the Kansas Conference on
education was Dr. Shirley McCune, Senior Director of the Mid-Continental Regional Educational Lab (MCRel), a federally-funded office.
Dr. McCune was introduced by Lee Droegemueller, Kansas Commissioner of
Education, as an expert who had "provided great assistance" to
schools and state departments of education "in our region" and
who had worked with the Kansas Department of Education for many years
developing strategies for change. She worked on "Strategic
Directions Kansas Schools in the 21st
In her talk, Dr. McCune took a comprehensive view of educational
reform, announcing that we're into the "total re-structuring of
the society" and only two things really matter:1.)"The
information capital" that we can put together and our ability to
use information productively; and, 2). Producing "human
capital." Dr. McCune mentioned in passing that although the schools
might want to spend some time teaching about the past and teaching
facts, the most important thing was to prepare students for the future.
She said: "We have to anticipate the future."
She stressed the close relationship between economic development and
"human capital" for the future and announced that the next
five years would be the "most chaotic" of our lives. She also
seemed to be expecting some major redistribution of wealth and resources
in the near future when she said that 80% of the nation's wealth was
held by people over 50 and that wealth would have to be "invested
in children" invested in the schools, that is. It's
not clear what Dr. McCune's credentials are for making economic
predictions nor where her special insight into the 21st century comes,
from but she did make it clear that her educational ideas were based on
these intuitions and visions.
When Dr. McCune came back to education, she supported the current
trend of schools taking on more and more comprehensive services to
students( providing food, psychological services, special education
services). She said that schools are "the center of all human
resource development." She does not seem to understand or respect
the role and rights of families in her framework.
She announced emphatically that curriculum isn't teaching "facts
and past history," since we can't even imagine what facts students
will need in the future, but rather teaching a range of knowledge and
skills for processing information. In other words,, for Dr. McCune,
education is not a matter of transmitting a body of knowledge at all but
merely a "process."
She also claimed that experts have learned that "the only way we
learn to think is when we are talking to others or writing," and
that "the only way anyone can learn is from their own frame of
reference...All learning begins with the affective parts of life."
In other words, there is no specific intellectual content in education.
Furthermore, the inner spiritual nature of the human person, made in the
"image of God," is simply not encompassed by her educational
theories considered to be state-of-the-art in
contemporary secular education.
Dr. McCune didn't state the philosophical and economic underpinnings
of her educational and social theories but they are evidently derived
from the Pragmatic philosophies described earlier and from the
instrumentalist and behaviorist theories of John Dewey and B.F. Skinner.
Moreover, her understanding of the student and the schools within the
context of "economic development" certainly fits more with
some of the major tyrannies of the 20th century such as communism or
fascism than with the Catholic understandings. In her theories, the role
of the family and the principle of subsidiarity are totally absent.
Dr. McCune is only one of the major influences on the Kansas school
restructuring process, but as we continue to examine the process, it
will become clear that her thinking is only too representative of the
thinking of all the influential educators who are involved in this
Comprehensive Social Restructuring
In Kansas, the comprehensive views of Dr. McCune are decisive in the
way education reform is being carried out. The educational restructuring
is seen by the Kansas legislature and State Department of Education as a
major part of a greatly enlarged plan on the part of the State to
intervene in the lives of its citizens from birth to death. In 1991, the
Kansas Legislature researched and began to implement a comprehensive
plan to "prevent problems before they become crises" by
targeting expanded services to support children and their families.
This research led to the publication of a brochure describing the
support for children and families which they planned to provide for all
children and families in the State of Kansas: "Facing the Future: A
Blueprint for Kansas Children and Families."
The "Blueprint" and the preceding research memorandum
describe an expanded pattern of state intervention and
"guidance" in the lives of private citizens. It starts by
redefining education and the nature of the child being educated:
This Blueprint for investing in the future of Kansas children and
families redefines education as a process that begins at birth and
encompasses all aspects of children's early development, including
physical, social, emotional and cognitive growth. The Blueprint treats
early childhood development, education, social services, job training
and economic development as parts of an interdependent system of human
investments which must be addressed together rather than independently
or piecemeal...Children are as much an economic resource as clean air,
abundant water, good roads and infrastructure. When they grow into
productive adults, they are the leaders and workers of tomorrow.
Both the "Blueprint" and the Legislative Memorandum
indicate some very specific state interventions which are needed. Under
Target II, "Invest in Young Children Ages 0-5," I will merely
cite some of the recommendations which indicate the degree of state
control and "guidance" which is being proposed for
implementation in the private lives of families and their pre-school
1. Subsidize enriched child care for very young children identified
as coming from families in which parenting skills are deficient or the
family is dysfunctional, including parental involvement in the operation
of the child care as a parenting teaching tool or in terms of one-to-one
training involving the child care provider and a parent or parents.
9. Mandate developmentally appropriate early childhood education for
all children age three to five.
10. Develop a system through which a wide range of individuals who
may come in contact with a very young child are trained to recognize
risk factors that may signal a need for intervention to protect the
child or intervention to assure that the child receives services that
enable appropriate emotional and physical development. There is already
a system in place to identify physical conditions or diseases in a
preschool child that may lead to developmental problems or delays and to
offer services through the Department of Health and Environment. However
this system is dependent on physician identification and reporting and
is limited to the identification of mental and physical conditions.
12. Expand the Parents as Teachers program statewide and allow child
care providers caring for children under three years of age to offer the
program to parents of children in care.
Target III of the Blueprint is : "Restructure Schools to Respond
to Changing Educational and Developmental Needs of Children."
Points 1 & 2 under Target III endorse school reform and the
"State Board of Education Quality Performance Accreditation
Program." The interventionist role of the state bureaucracy into
family life is again clearly brought out in this section:
9. Fund pilot programs that are modeled on the State of Washington's
school-based Primary Intervention Project (PIP) which provides services
to detect and address the social and emotional problems of children in
kindergarten through third grade to prevent later learning problems.
This program is designed to intervene when verbal and physical
aggressiveness, low self-esteem, withdrawal, and social and emotional
immaturity are identified and when children are identified as victims of
abuse or neglect and those experiencing a family crisis such as death or
Clearly, almost any child could qualify for these services at some
point or for some periods of time during his childhood. No family,
apparently, would be allowed to raise their children without help from
the ever-vigilant social workers.
Point 17, under Target III, is very revealing on the
"grassroots" involvement in the school restructuring process:
17. Mandate community group meeting or town meetings or focus group
formation in every school district to initiate and to facilitate
discussion of the restructuring of the schools.
The "mandated" community meetings apparently do not allow
for discussions concerning the whole concept of
"restructuring" including opposition viewpoints and
information from, for example, parents. This is significant since
"restructuring" has been opposed in Kansas and is being
actively opposed in other states.
Most of the other points under Target III lay out the school
re-structuring plan which we will be examining later in this paper.
Under Target IV, "Improve the Physical Health Status and Mental
Health Status of Children," point 21 emphasizes again the expansion
of surveillance of families planned by the State:
21. Work with health care provider associations to increase the
percent of primary care providers who include the assessment of
cognitive, emotional and parent- child function in their practice along
with appropriate counseling, referral and follow- up.
Under Target V, "Modify Service Delivery Systems to Improve
State-Local Relations and Reduce Institutionalization," under the
guise of reducing institutionalization of children, we find many more
proposals that increase State intervention in the privacy of family
9. Review the confidentiality requirements of state and federal laws
and regulations to determine whether waivers can be obtained to allow
exchange of client information between providers serving the same
family, whether such providers are governmental or private.[If such
waivers are obtained, obviously, there will be no such thing as a
"private" provider of services to families even the concept of
"privacy" is absent from this formulation.]
11. A mechanism should be created for the gathering and analysis of
data regarding families and children with a mechanism built in for
sharing the data across the state.
18. The statutes relating to parental rights and the termination of
such rights should be reviewed in light of the state goal of preventive
services and timely permanent placement of children...
Under Target VI, "Make Business a Partner," point 9
states, "Ask business for guidance in establishing education
assessment and accountability." There should be a difference
between educational goals and assessment and business goals and
assessment. Children really are much more than "economic
resources," however, and the role of business should be quite
subsidiary to that of the parents and families. However, from the Kansas
Blueprint, especially in light of the announced views of their leading
expert, Dr. McCune, it's not clear that the proper relationship of
business goals and needs to educational and to parental goals is
recognized. Most parents, especially religious parents, do not believe
that their children are merely "human capital" produced in
order to support "economic development."
Under Target VII, "Reduce High Risk Behavior in Children and
Families," proposes a variety of governmental programs that simply
take over family responsibilities. There is no indication in this
Blueprint of the need to support the importance of marriage, family
solidarity or moral and ethical values. No role of religious leaders is
even hinted at. This is quite remarkable, since even all the social
science research indicates that high risk behavior among young people is
highly-correlated with family break-down and lack of moral training. The
government is not and never has been an adequate replacement for the
family. In 1990, The Public Policy Institute, a Washington, D.C.,
think tank, made a study of the problems of children and family and came
to quite a different conclusion than the Kansas committee:
We present policies that support and compensate families as they
carry out their critical social role providing for the economic and moral
well-being of children. As we shall see, a large body of evidence
supports the conclusion that in the aggregate, the intact two-parent
family is best-suited to this task. Making this premise our point of
departure takes us towards policies that reinforce families and away
from bureaucratic approaches that seek to replace family functions.
The "Blueprint for Kansas Children and Families," however,
takes a markedly different and even anti-family approach as it provides
an overall context for the restructuring of education in the State of
Kansas. From the point of view of Catholic belief concerning the nature
of the child and the nature of reality, the role of the family, the
principle of subsidiarity and the role of the state, there is much to be
concerned about. From the point of view of our constitutional rights and
government, we find more to be concerned about. This Blueprint in its
concrete aspects, quite apart from its rhetoric about supporting
families, is quite simply opposed to Catholic belief and seems to be in
serious opposition to important aspects of the constitutional system in
the United States as well. Our next step in this paper is to look at the Kansas
educational reform, the QPA or Quality Performance Accreditation
Program, to determine whether it is compatible with our Catholic
understanding of education.
Educational Reform in Kansas
Educational reform in Kansas is based mainly on the theories of the
Effective School Movement which combines the approach of Dr. Lawrence W.
Lezotte , Senior Consultant with Effective Schools, and Dr. William
Spady, an expert on Outcomes-based/ Mastery Learning education and the
Director of the Far West Regional Educational Lab, a U.S. Department of
Education office. According to The Effective Schools Report of July,
1984, the Effective Schools Movement is based on three primary areas of
[1.] Behavioral change and the application of learning theory to
[2.]The identification of sociological factors operating in effective
[3.]Teaching strategies to effect learning and the combination of
these variables and practices in a systematic approach to achieve
learning and management results...PREDICTABLE EXCELLENCE in educational
The Effective Schools Movement (1960-1984) was initiated by Dr. Ron
Edmonds and Dr. Wilbur Brookover among others. Dr. Lezotte has worked
with Ron Edmonds. They identified five sociological characteristics of
Strong administrative leadership
High expectations for children's achievement
An orderly atmosphere conducive to learning
An emphasis on basic skill acquisition
Frequent monitoring of student progress`
Catholic Schools = Effective Schools
This effective schools research identified some of the overall
characteristics of a good school but it didn't provide the blueprint for
achieving them. In fact, traditional U.S. Catholic schools have
exhibited these characteristics to a much greater extent than any other
type of school and Catholic schools have similarly had a record of
success in educating high-risk children of all types ever since their
founding poor children, children from other
cultures, children from homes where English was not spoken, children
from broken homes, etc. They have not only educated children but they
have contributed to building up successful communities. Some of the most
recent research done by the U.S. Department of Education ...found that
Catholic school students consistently outscore students in the public
schools in reading, mathematics, and science. They are especially
effective in educating minority and low-income students, much more so
that the public schools or other private schools(National Assessment of
Educational Progress Studies).
In spite of this record of success documented by the empirical
research which the leaders of the Effective Schools Movement claim to
rely on, the Catholic achievement was ignored as a model way to achieve
Effective Schools because it didn't fit with their pragmatic philosophy,
their ideology. Instead they turned to behavior modification research,
the Mastery Learning process/Outcomes-Based Education, developed by B.
F. Skinner and his associates. Perhaps, nothing better could be expected
of secular educators who do not enjoy the advantages of the Catholic
educational tradition. What is difficult to understand, however, is why
some of our Catholic educators are abandoning their own established
theories and turning to this materialistic approach to education; it has
never been as effective as traditional Catholic education and is built
on a philosophy hostile to Catholicism.
Mastery Learning/Outcomes-based Learning
Research being carried out by B.F. Skinner and N. Crowder (1950-1960)
developed "the concepts of self-instructional mastery (programmed)
instruction," in which the teachers "performed...programmed
actions to design and implement lesson plans or curricula." The
four-step Mastery Learning program consists of:
Step 1: State initially the final mastery learning results you wish
your learners to achieve by first writing the learning objectives and
measurement standards namely the actual correct answers you
wish your learners to demonstrate at the end of an instructional
Step 2: Derive those correct learner response(s) to be elicited from
each learner at each learning step ... as a student progresses from
point of entry along a field- tested FUNCTIONAL LEARNING PATH up to the
predictable mastery of stated learning objectives and criterion test
Step 3: Design and implement that sequence of learning steps using
only those instructional means which will elicit correct response(s) by
each learner at each learning step: provide immediate feedback as to the
correctness of learner responses; provide for immediate correction of
errors; and control the progress of learning as students proceed in
small steps along the tested learning path to master the learning
objectives and criteria with predictable success. [CURRICULUM
Step 4: Try-out (field-test) the mastery lesson plan with groups of
learners for which the lesson plan has been designed; and based on
actual performance data obtained from these learners, revise the master
lesson plan (as required) by retrying the revised program while
continuing to evaluate student responses until master learning results
are delivered. [ASSESSMENT]
Dr. Skinner's Mastery Learning techniques have a close affinity to
the famous Pavlovian behavior modification training tested on animals in
the 1930s and does diverge significantly from traditional educational
practices and from the Catholic understanding of the nature of the child
and the type of education compatible with that nature. Nevertheless,
they are the basis for the Kansas school restructuring plan which the
Wichita Diocese has elected to join. In 1968, some of the Mastery
Learning experts coming out of Michigan State University and the
University of Chicago (the home base of Benjamin Bloom, one of the
leading theorists) announced their view of the child as follows: "We view the child with his defined characteristics as input to a
school organization which modifies his capabilities toward certain goals
and objectives as output."
In order to implement this training program, the reformers realized
that teachers would have to be re-trained to become facilitators of the
programmed learning process rather than dispensers of knowledge.
Catholic Teachers, however, are expected to be more than facilitators;
they are expected to "communicate truth" and teach "the
cultural patrimony handed down from previous generations." (See p.
6) This required re-training was developed by, among others, Dr.
Madeline Hunter, who, "beginning in the 1960s focused on those
required teaching practices to be performed for delivery of success for
learners. These practices are entitled Mastery Teaching Practices."
Public and Catholic school teachers in Kansas are being trained in these
methods in workshops and through the Effective Schools Conferences
sponsored by the Kansas State Board of Education.
In a joint talk given at the National Catholic Education Association
in April, 1992, by Sr. Clarice Faltus of the Wichita Diocese and Sr.
Michelle Faltus of the Kansas City Diocese, Sr. Michelle stressed that
teachers today are coming from state universities and colleges and thus
do not have a religious basis to their education. She said they need
help to increase their faith. However, Sr. Michelle and Sr. Clarice make
it clear that the teacher training they are proposing is also based on
the kind of secular models we have been reviewing here.
Comprehensive School Management Systems to Guarantee Equity &
After designing training programs for the students and the teachers,
the secular education reformers realized that they needed to have a
top-to-bottom management system that supported their educational
initiatives. In the 1960's several plans were worked out including SAFE,
the Systematic Approach for Effectiveness which allegedly could:
A) Guarantee the delivery of predictable mastery learning results by
all teachers for all learners, in all content areas, in all grade
B) Guarantee the installation of the most COST-EFFECTIVE
management-for-results practices to be applied by all professionals in
the school district assuring implementation of those quality controls
necessary to deliver predictable mastery results.
Mastery Learning claims to achieve educational excellence and equity
thus the frequent emphasis on all students learning all that is taught.
Dr. Lezotte explains that:
Conceptually, an effective school can be defined as one that can, in
outcome terms reflective of its teaching for learning mission,
demonstrate the joint presence of quality (acceptably high levels of
achievement) and equity (no differences in the distribution of that
achievement among the major subsets of the student population).
The Kansas State Board of Education defines equity as follows:
Freedom from bias or favoritism. All students learn the specified
curriculum regardless of factors in their background which have
ordinarily been identified as those preventing such learning.
Most people understand that the goal of educational equity refers to
equal opportunity for each student, however, most of the major theorists
in education are ideologically committed to equal outcomes for each
student, and they enthusiastically assert that Mastery Learning will
bring this about. Their faith in Mastery Learning has not always been
supported by research evidence, however. In Mastery learning
Reconsidered, a 1987 research study on the effects of Mastery Learning
by Robert E. Slavin, sponsored by The Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, found that:
The most striking conclusion of the present review is that other than
perhaps focusing teachers and students on a narrow set of objectives,
group-based mastery learning has modest to non-existent effect on
student achievement in studies of at least four weeks duration (p.48).
A similar system of educational management, called the PPBS for
Planning, Programming and Budgeting System, was developed under the
auspices of the Federal Government to promote a comprehensive management
approach to education similar to that of some businesses desiring to
produce a "predictable product." In education, however, the
"predictable product" is a child, and the outcomes and goals
refer to the child's attitudes, values, feelings, and behaviors not just
his knowledge and intellectual skills.
The Partnership Among Business and Industry, Parents and Educators
The influence of business concepts and even assembly-line techniques
on the Effective School Movement is quite marked. Dr. Shirley McCune,
quoted earlier, stresses the close relationship between economic
development and "human capital" and sees the schools as the
center for the development of "human resources." Dr. Lezotte
in his talks and papers often refers to the management and business
experts he has consulted. The Kansas State Board of Education has
recommended the Deming approach to "quality control" in
Effective Schools. W. Edwards Deming worked with the U.S. Government
during World War II to develop methods to produce quality products for
the War effort. He went to Japan after the war to help McArthur deal
with the Japanese census; later he returned to work with Japanese
businessmen to help them re-organize their workforce to successfully
produce quality products. As a result of his experiences, Deming
developed a fourteen point program to teach his "quality
The Kansas Mission Statement and educational goals are filled with
references to "work skills," and "working in the global
economy," and, of course, "predictable results for all
students." In fact, if you imagine the school as a Honda Factory,
the student as the Honda, (the quality and predictable outcome you wish
to produce), Mastery Learning as the assembly line (the programmed
instruction for each child), and the teacher as the factory worker
facilitating the process and making brief interventions whenever a
glitch occurs, you will have some insight into the QPA program.
One would have thought that such an educational system would have
little appeal for a Catholic, but the "Exit Outcomes of the Catholic
Diocese of Wichita" are also replete with references to
"Collaborative Workers, "Adaptable Problem-solvers," and
"Innovative Producers" (Appendix F). Sr. Michelle, in the
previously mentioned joint talk given with Sr. Clarice at the NCEA this
year, also stressed that with Outcomes-based Education,"We are
preparing our children to go into the work world." She handed out
the SCANS Report produced in June, 1991 by The Secretary's Commission on
Achieving Necessary Skills, U.S. Department of Labor and emphasized that
schools must determine new standards which are applicable to the
"real world." They must have "relevant content."
Because the QPA so closely approximates practices which are quite
legitimate and effective in manufacturing and business, it is easy to
see how businessmen would be attracted to the new restructuring program,
which has a superficial plausibility. It is a mistake however to expect
that the same ideas would apply wholesale to the education of a child
who is in no way object but rather a person redeemed by Jesus Christ,
having an essential role in God's plan for the world and an eternal
destiny a person made for love not for
"productivity." The narrowness of focusing so much educational
theory on supposed economic goals of the 21st century is brought out
well by G. K. Chesterton, the noted Catholic author:
The materialist theory of history [or education], that all politics
and ethics are the expression of economics, is a very simple fallacy
indeed. It consists of confusing the necessary conditions of life with
the normal preoccupations of life...It is like saying that because a man
can only walk about on two legs, therefore he never walks about except
to buy shoes and stockings...But there is a deeper fallacy besides this
obvious fact; that men need not live for food merely because they cannot
live without food. The truth is that the thing most present to the mind
of man is not the economic machinery necessary to his existence; but
rather that existence itself...There is something that is nearer to him
than livelihood, and that is life.
In conjunction with the Mastery Learning process, the Kansas
Department of Education is also recommending Cooperative Learning
techniques. Mastery Learning and Cooperative Learning are two
foundations of their new approach to education. The third foundation is
Mastery Learning is called individualized learning because although
each student is expected to go through the same curriculum steps, in the
same order different students may do it at different rates.
Individualized education in this framework does not usually mean
one-on-one instruction or different electives for different students. If
bright students complete their objectives quickly, they are expected to
serve as models and to help the slower students. In Cooperative
Learning, most classroom assignments are given to groups of children,
not to individuals, and the group works to complete the assignment and
receives a group mark.
This is the Cooperative Learning Model. All students are to achieve
equal outcomes in this framework and peer tutoring by the more competent
students is designed to achieve this. Cooperative Learning emphasizes
the importance of the group working together and keeping together with
the teacher facilitating the progress of all. It is considered a
democratic ideal to avoid the elitism of just some students succeeding.
In this system all students will succeed even if some students are held
back. Although some cooperative group work in a classroom is highly
desirable, it is a different story when the whole work of the classroom
is done this way and normal teaching and learning disappear.
One of the leading educational experts in the educational reform
movement, Dr. John Goodlad, claims that the Cooperative Learning model
is necessary because other practices "limit(s) the opportunity for
children in the lower groups to keep pace with their peers.." He
describes the process in the following way:
The class moves along together, with quizzes `that don't count' being
used to identify the need for more time and with the teacher and peers
who have achieved the specified level of mastery working with those who
have not until mastery has been achieved...One characteristic of these
and similar approaches is that they legitimate and reinforce helping one
another and working cooperatively as desired implicit learnings...These
recommended means for securing a higher level of mastery and eliminating
failure are effectively blocked when students of differing
accomplishments are divided into separate classrooms, rather than into
groups within classrooms...When this so- called interclass grouping is
used, the attainments of the most able students are lost as standards of
excellence as is the availability of those students as tutors. For those
readers who worry that the progress of the most able will be retarded,
let me remind you that teaching another is one of the most effective
ways to acquire mastery.
While cooperation and helping the less fortunate are Christian
virtues, this system does not seem to be a correct manifestation of
these virtues. The individual needs and potential of the students are
not being met; rather the needs of some students are being sacrificed in
a social engineering scheme to make it look like "all students are
One cooperative-behavior modification classroom program that has
actually been used in Kansas Public Schools is called Learnball and it
is a composite of all these theories applied to the classroom. In
Learnball, Mastery Learning with its instant gratification reinforcement
is utilized in a variety of ways but what is stressed is the importance
of the "most valuable reward possible for young people,i.e., peer
approval" ; the teacher is again presented as a facilitator but she
does, of course, control the framework; the students are made to
"feel they shared in the decision-making" even though all of
the choices had to be "totally acceptable to the teacher".
Learnball eliminates the possibility of failure by eliminating the
possibilities of right answers: " It [Learnball bid system] opens
up the participation so that the 'all or nothing' of a right or wrong
answer is greatly modified to allow for individual differences ; it
involves all students in cooperative learning activities in which the
academically-gifted students become "assistant teachers" to
the other students .
Learnball also claims to simulate real life by having students form
classroom teams that use the names of successful businesses such as Coke
In a peer system where agreement and team unity are essential, it is
important to have labels with universal appeal...[and] it is a good idea
to make a parallel between classroom learning and adult work. Using
company names links learning to the ability to earn a living.
Remarkably Learnball shows that the most important aspects of
cooperative education are keeping everyone on the same level and
teaching the students to conform to peer pressure. Learnball uses a
"peer norm approach to discipline" because "students
value the esteem of their peers more than anything and Learnball
provides ways for them to earn it". "[Learnball] Superbowls
are also the best way to increase the power of the peer norm." With
classes like this, it is no wonder that so many young people today have
so much difficulty resisting negative peer pressure when we want them
to. Their education negates objective moral norms and values and
enhances the power of group norms. No saints or heroes will emerge from
this system to the degree that the system is successful in achieving its
own aims and goals. Clearly Cooperate Education as understood by the
educational establishment and as carried out in the classrooms of Kansas
involve concepts that are quite opposed to the Catholic understanding of
virtue, moral norms and the nature of the human person. It is also
The Kansas State Board of Education Mission Statement further
announces the goal of preparing each person for "caring, productive
and fulfilling participation in our evolving, global society" and
five of the ten supporting Outcomes are directed toward preparing
students "to live, learn and work in a global society." This
global society is based on "the assumption that cultural,
ecological, economic, political and technological ties transcend
This global education is designed to teach the young the
relationships and connectedness among peoples and between the human race
and the planet. It has a vision of the evolution of the person and the
planet toward a new and better future which will be "created"
by the young: "Now young people face futures for which their
parents' culture cannot prepare them. The young must create the future
themselves." Revealed Truth found in Catholic teaching, for
example, apparently provides them no assistance in facing these new
"futures." Furthermore, they will need "new codes of
behavior" and "new ethics" to accomplish these goals.
They will also need a new "spirituality":
The word "spiritual" does not refer to religious matters,
so called. All activity which drives the human being forward towards
some form of development physical, emotional, mental,
intuitional, social if it is in advance of his present
state is essentially spiritual in nature and is indicative of the
livingness of the inner divine entity. The spirit of man is undying: it
forever endures, progressing from point to point and stage to stage upon
the Path of Evolution, unfolding steadily and sequentially the divine
attributes and aspects.
The content of global education does not concern itself much with
history, geography, languages, etc. it is not a study of the world but
rather of "mother earth" and of her future as seen from the
perspective of secular ecology and certain esoteric ideas about the
oneness of all living beings and existing matter. It seeks to make the
students "true planetary citizens" and to bring about a
unified, peaceful world order under direction of "world managers
and caretakers." Global education gives the child "a greater
sense of his unity with his environment," and appreciation of the
creation but not the Creator. The divine is
thought to be located within the universe and within the person:
Science in my view is part of the spiritual process; it is a
transcendence and elevation of the human race into an ever vaster
knowledge and consciousness of the universe and of its unfathomable
Myrliss Hershey of Friends University, Kansas, has conducted
Inservice Workshops for teachers at the Ingalls School in Wichita.
Ingalls School is a global education center in Wichita. Catholic
teachers are sent to Ingalls to be trained as global educators.
In a televised 1990 Global Education Inservice Workshop, produced and
circulated by the Wichita Public Schools, Dr. Hershey very explicitly
indicates that Dr. Robert Muller , formerly of the United Nations, and
his World Core Curriculum, quoted above, form the foundation of global
education and she uses materials from this Curriculum in the workshop.
She also recommends the use of the United Nations as a major resource
for global educators. From the way both she and Dr. Muller talk, the
United Nations is their "Vatican."
Dr. Hershey rather vaguely cautions the teachers against using all
the materials in the curriculum, some of which may not be suitable for
public schools. However, Dr. Hershey, herself, frequently uses concepts
and ideas which are quite readily identified with pantheistic and
monistic Eastern religions and even paganism. She advised the teachers
in the videotaped Inservice to recommend that their students watch Ted
Turner's network because he puts on good environmental programs that
should be supported.
Although not mentioned by name, one of the more popular programs on
TNT is a Saturday morning cartoon called "Captain Planet" in
which children are taught an "environmentalist creed to replace the
Ten Commandments (`I promise to have love and respect for Planet
Earth.')" and the earth goddess, Gaia, comes to life in order to
She [Gaia] chooses five children from around the world as her
surrogates. Armed with magic rings...they are sent forth to battle oil
companies and other industrial heretics. Letting your kids watch this
stuff is like turning them over to a Druid priest for religious
Dr. Hershey referred to the Gaia Hypothesis several times Gaia, the pagan earth goddess. She
claimed that the "Earth is actually a living entity, much as we
are." She said that we were "created for the earth; we are the
nerve ends of the planet." She recommended the use of the Gaia Kit,
a game that can be used in primary grades. The Gaia Kit is a fairly
explicit representation of the view that humans are expendable parts of
the earth. It also is fairly explicit in its acceptance of
Global education focuses on environmental problems and most
environmentalists especially U.N. environmentalists fervently believe that overpopulation
is the most serious and ominous problem facing the world and threatening
its future. Many environmentalists are hostile to the Catholic Church
because it opposes population control.
Although Catholics are concerned about global problems and believe
that people should be prudent stewards of the earth, they, along with
the Pope and the Vatican, do not hold with the idea that overpopulation
is the major world problem and that abortion and immoral means of birth
control can be advocated as ways to deal with populations:
Population growth of and by itself is seldom the primary cause of
environmental problems. In most cases, there are no causal links between
the numbers of people and degradation of environment...the Holy See has
expressed its opposition to the setting of quantitative population
targets or goals...Systematic campaigns against birth directed toward
the poorest populations, may even lead to "a tendency toward a form
of racism or the promotion of equally racist forms of
eugenics" (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 25).
Dr. Hershey also recommended that global education be infused
throughout the whole curriculum and in every grade. Some of the Kansas
recommendations for subject outcomes indicate that this is already being
done. She also recommended that global educators challenge assumptions,
"belief systems", and that they have to get "to that area
of attitudes, values and beliefs before we [can] change...affect daily
Getting Inside the QPA
The Kansas Quality Performance Accreditation process includes a
mission statement, four focus areas, ten outcome goals, recommendations
for a performance-based/outcome- based curriculum and a data collection
system. Each local school district, and each school within the district,
is expected to develop its own local mission statement and some local
outcome goals and each district may choose from among recommended
The Kansas State Board of Education's mission for Kansas
Education is: To prepare each person with the living, learning, and
working skills necessary for caring, productive, and fulfilling
participation in our evolving global society.
The four Focus Areas "identified as needed to accomplish the
statewide mission" are:
1. School improvement through effective school principles
2. High standards of performance through an integrated curricular
3. Human Resource development/staff training and retraining.
4. Community-based outreach programs/the community learning concept.
In the Introduction to the Kansas State Board of Education
publication, "Assessment!, Assessment!, Assessment!", it is
emphasized that Kansas education "is to prepare each person for the
future...to equip our populace with the necessary skills to meet the
demands of a global society." (p.A-1) In the official booklet on
Kansas Quality Performance Accreditation, it says: "A comprehensive
`outcome' process will have the school and the student be part of a
dynamic community, which has as its mission lifelong learning for a
competitive global society." The mission statement makes it clear
that the state educators envision a comprehensive program for everyone,
not just school-age children, and as we saw with Dr. McCune's
presentation the emphasis is on being productive in the future in what
is assumed to be a "global society".
The Mission Statement and the Focus Areas lack many of the usual
educational themes related to subject content, knowledge, character
development and patriotism (everything is global, nothing is national in
this scheme). In one of the QPA resource books provided for local use, a
"Model for Designing Outcome-based Curriculum" designed by
William Spady and Kit Marshall indicates that education must change its
focus from producing "Academically Competent Students" with
knowledge based on academic subjects to one based on producing
"Competent Future Citizens" with skills to handle "Future
Context Challenges/opportunities." (Appendix B)
The ten Outcomes required by the Kansas State Board of Education
continue these themes:
1. Teachers establish high expectations for learning and monitor
achievement through multiple assessment techniques.
2. Schools have a basic mission which prepares the learners to live,
and work in a global society.
3. Schools provide planned learning activities within an orderly and
environment which is conducive to learning.
4. Schools provide instructional leadership which results in improved
student performance in an effective school environment.
5. Students have the communication skills necessary to live, learn,
work in a global society.
6. Students think creatively and problem-solve in order to live,
work in a global society.
7. Students work effectively both independently and in groups in
live, learn and work in a global society.
8. Students have the physical and emotional well-being necessary to
learn and work in a global society.
9. All staff engage in ongoing professional development based on the
outcomes identified in the school improvement plan.
10. Students participate in lifelong learning.
The QPA Process Resembles the Old Progressive School Movement
At this point, I would like to bring out the fact that much of this
supposed new plan to restructure schools to prepare students for the
real world of the future is really pretty old and has been tried many
times without achieving the wonderful goals envisioned by the reformers
and without pleasing the school clients the students and their families.
Although there are some new features to this plan such as the extensive
federal and business involvement, the comprehensive assessment process,
and the computerized data collection on each child, family and teacher,
it is basically a rehash of the Progressive Education of John Dewey and
other reformers of the last century and early 20th century.
Diane Ravitch, previously of Columbia Teachers' College and now an
Assistant Secretary of Education in the U.S. Department of Education,
has described the ups and downs of Progressive Education in her
influential book, The Troubled Crusade, American Education 1945-1980:
Progressive education...had its origin during the quarter-century
before World War I in an effort to cast the school as a fundamental
lever of social and political regeneration.'...its forebears included
Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens, Jane Addams, John Dewey, William James,
and scores of others who participated in the larger progressive reform
movement... The publication of the Cardinal Principles of Secondary
Education in 1918 launched pedagogical progressivism into the mainstream
of the organized education profession...[It] was written by the NEA's
[National Education Association] Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education...The objectives of secondary education should be
determined, said the report, `by the needs of the society to be served,
the character of the individuals to be educated and the knowledge of
educational theory and practice available.' So little did the commission
think of traditional, school-bound knowledge that the original draft of
the report failed to include `command of the fundamental processes,' its
only reference to intellectual development, as a main objective of
The final document stressed that schools should derive their goals
from the life activities of adults in society. That this was tricky
business was revealed, for instance, by the commission's statement that
college-preparatory studies were `particularly incongruous with the
actual needs and future responsibilities of girls,' which led them to
urge that homemaking be considered of equal value to any other school
The appeal to science and scientific method that characterized prewar
progressivism was converted in the 1920s and 1930s into a polemical tool
to be wielded on behalf of innovative methods and was often used to
justify widescale use of testing in order to divide students into
ability groups for administrative purposes.
Progressives insisted that their reforms had been validated by
science, not recognizing the tentative nature of scientific
investigation, nor the difference between science and social science.
In fact, few of the supposedly 'scientific' findings of the period
had any validity...'The study of the learning process by the
experimental method has been on the whole disappointing. The 'laws'
which seem at a given time to be well established have an irritating
habit of collapsing as evidence accumulates.'
To these educational currents was added the impact of a new branch of
educational 'science' called 'curriculum-making... In How To Make a
Curriculum(1924), Bobbitt identified 821 objectives for the curriculum
maker; he made clear that the starting point in the shaping of a
curriculum was an analysis of life activities...The field of curriculum
development, as it emerged, was firmly linked to this sort of social
utilitarianism, which set the task of the schools as the adjustment of
the individual to the society.
Accountability Who Controls the Accreditation Process?
In the school restructuring and accreditation process, much is made
of local input, locally-managed schools and supposed parental
involvement and accountability. Fr. Matthew C. McGinness of the Chancery
Office of the Diocese of Wichita has stated that "the measurable
outcomes are determined by the Catholic School System itself, and the
individual Catholic school. They are not regulated by the State."
(Appendix C ) This is a mistaken understanding of what the QPA process
is all about and it does not accord with the published State
requirements. The State only allows local communities to add some
additional local outcomes based on local conditions to the
State-Mandated outcomes but these outcomes must accord with the overall
State Mission Statement.
The state-level learner outcomes for Kansas are identified in the
state mission for public education adopted by the Kansas State Board of
Education. These outcomes may also be referred to as learner exit
outcomes since they are the state expectations for all learners after
participation in the schooling process, K-12. Each local district must
incorporate the state-level learner outcomes within their identified
local district/school exit outcomes.
Since all local mission statements and goals must accord with and be
based on the State directives, all discussions of site-based management
and local input have to be understood in an extremely limited way. They
do not mean that local districts and parents have control of their
schools, as they have had in the past, only that they can participate in
a tightly-controlled process and/or that they have a role in managing
the process toward the State-determined outcomes.
In fact, everyone is expected to be involved in the process so that
he will "take ownership" of the changes mandated and can be
held responsible for supporting the changes. Dr. Larry Lezotte, the
expert on Effective Schools who advises the Kansas State Department of
Education, says that to be successful "these improving schools must
feel as if they have a choice in the matter, and, equally important,
they must feel as if they have control over the processes of
change." This does not mean they do have any control, however. The
process involves well-known group dynamics techniques derived from Kurt
Lewin's social applications of mathematical theories. In the previously
mentioned paper, given by Cardinal O'Connor, the process is described as
a problem and a deterrent to passing on the Faith:
...America was caught up in dialogue, which was frequently unrelated
to the exchange of information or the communication of truths. Dialogue
was simple a process intended to achieve consensus. Dialogue was
successful or unsuccessful to the degree in which consensus occurred or
failed to occur. Substance became irrelevant. The medium became the
message...I suggest that an unnoticed result of group dynamics and process
which has made episcopal teaching exceedingly difficult is a form of
anti-intellectualism. The true and the good can be discerned only by
feeling. It was understandable that many young people turned to Zen,
while others turned to hard rock music, drugs and free-for-all-sex.
In April, 1992, at the National Catholic Education Association's
annual conference, Sr. Clarice Faltus, Associate Superintendent of the
Diocese of Wichita, in her talk given with Sr. Michelle Faltus of the
Kansas City Diocese on "Accountability- based Systems and Diocesan
Curriculum Guides," described the group processes which she has
initiated in Wichita in order to make the new reform successful. She
Unless people discuss the processes and purposes that we're trying to
work with, they're not going to call themselves to accountability for
those things. If they are part of the process of writing the mission
statement, they feel more accountable and because they had a part in it,
they can be held accountable.
She is clearly describing the controlled consensus-forming process
which only seems to give people control. Participants may have some
minor influence in the outcome but they are being manipulated to accept
the overall framework of change. These group dynamics techniques of
control were also very common during earlier phases of educational
reform in the U.S. The following quote describes the same process being
used during the 1930s :
When curriculum revision first got underway, superintendents and
principals tried working with representative committees of teachers but
found that the teachers who did not participate in the study group
failed to share the group consensus. So it became a matter of principle
that all teachers participate in the curriculum revision. In every such
program, the leaders said over and over again that the process of
building a new curriculum must be a democratic process, that all
decisions arrived at were democratic group decisions, and that in the
nature of a democracy, all members of the group must abide by decisions
of the group. Progressive educators acknowledged that they used
techniques of group dynamics to engineer consent for their philosophy
and programs. There is no indication that any progressive leader
questioned the ethical implications of manipulating teachers, parents,
and students. Hollis Caswell, dean of Teachers' College and a leader in
curriculum revision programs, suggested that teacher resistance to
curriculum reform was best dealt with by "the setting of group
goals"...It was a curious notion of the democratic process, since
the goals of curriculum revision were never truly open for discussion;
despite the rhetoric about participation and cooperation, the outcome of
curriculum revision was fixed-in-advance by the experts.
In this Kansas Accreditation Process there has been much talk about
accountability and it is claimed that the schools will be accountable to
the parents. This is not the case, however. Accountability is to the
State and to the Quality Performance Accreditation system not to the parents or the local
community. In the "Quality Performance Accreditation Year II District Application," the applicant has to sign a
"Statement of Assurance" stating that they agree " to
meet the following  criteria established by the State Board of
Education for districts entering the QPA process during the 1992-93
school year." (Appendix A, final page). The eleven criteria listed
represent a commitment to the whole process.
Assessment, Assessment, Assessment
The Kansas QPA is based on a school improvement process, the
Effective Schools Program, which requires detailed data on the students,
the teachers, the school, the families and the community.
Effective school improvement is data driven. All decisions regarding
the management and development of the school improvement plan should be
based upon the careful review and analysis of relevant data.
The data collected will be "comprehensive" and will cover
the five achievement target areas: "knowledge, thinking, behaviors,
products and affect." The data collected will be used by teachers
for "decision-making, instruction and control; "by students
for "decision-making, learning and interpersonal
beliefs"; by parents to evaluate "teachers
& schools" and to set "expectations, planning and
rewards;" by Counselors "for tracking students and
planning:" by principals for evaluation and planning and by
colleges for "selection and advanced placement." And it will
be used by the State to ensure that students "progress toward State
and local outcomes."
The curriculum must be aligned with the assessment in precise detail:
"Student achievement rises, the closer the alignment is between
instruction and assessment and between curriculum and assessment."
"Instruction is based on predetermined outcomes, and student
assessment is parallel to the outcomes." The curriculum is not only
aligned with the outcomes it is also "integrated" which means
that subjects will be taught in an interdisciplinary way so that
students will learn the thinking and behavior processes which they are
aiming at knowledge of a subject area being
An INTEGRATED CURRICULUM is one that unites all curricula through
defined outcomes in order to meet the specific needs of all learners.
The integrated curriculum permeates the whole schooling process through
a structure of vertical and horizontal relationships. Vertically, the
curriculum is integrated by linking each level of outcomes.
Horizontally, integration occurs through the inclusion of outcomes from
a variety of programs in courses and/or grade level...On various
occasions, Lezotte has expressed his belief that an integration of
disciplines leads to an integration of thought and that students need to
develop comprehensive understanding and abilities.
Clearly, the integrated State curriculum aligned with the detailed
assessment process does not leave much space for local concerns,
especially religious concerns. The State educational establishment
intends to affect the minds, hearts and behavior of the students, to
bring about "an integration of thought," in accord with their
own desired outcomes. "QPA is a process which demands new thinking,
new strategies, new behavior and new beliefs."
In traditional academic education, testing of knowledge and content
areas was considered adequate, however, the QPA requires a different
kind of testing since it aims at more comprehensive behavioral and
affective outcomes and less comprehensive knowledge and content
outcomes. In the Outcomes-based model, the emphasis is on teaching
"learning to learn" processes such as "decision-making" and "critical thinking skills" (which are
variations on the controversial Values Clarification model of thinking).
The theory is that these "learning to learn" processes will
provide students with the flexibility to adapt to the changes which are
bound to come in the future.
The concept of assessment should be viewed more broadly when
measurement of student performance is based on outcomes. Assessment
strategies could include the following: observations, portfolios,
paper-and-pencil tests, oral questioning, projects, student records,
demonstrations and performances.
The QPA Assessment instruments focus on measurable and observable
performance by the individual student as he goes along his learning path
and they are very difficult to judge by any objective standards outside
the given system of education. For example, Criterion-referenced
assessments will track the individual's progress along the
State-determined curriculum plan "to determine if a student has
attained an established level of competence so he or she might move to
the next level of instruction." This is different from a
Norm-referenced test which compares a student's achievement to an
outside norming group and has some objective standard. In a
Norm-referenced test, students are tested in a content area or a general
field of knowledge; in a Criterion-referenced assessment, students are
tested on "subskills within that field."
Authentic or Performance-based Assessments require students "to
demonstrate what they know, what they can do and what they were
taught...They are task-oriented and parallel real-life...Process is a
critical part of the assessment...and [they] often need an extended time
frame for completion." Some types of Performance-based assessments
are: Portfolios in which the student and/or teacher decide upon some
reason and theme for collecting the student's work over a period of
time; Group Projects which demonstrate teamwork and workplace skills;
Open-ended Questions which "provides students the opportunities 'to
construct their own responses, to reach solutions through different
methods, to address situations where there are multiple answers, and to
demonstrate their depth of understanding of a problem;'" Interviews
which allow students and teachers to assess the "perceived
strengths and needs as well as interests and goals;" Other Formats
such as exhibits, science fairs, work samples, process evaluations,
music competitions and product evaluations.
All of these Performance-assessments "involve individual
judgment that is not entirely objective" and "can involve
extraordinary costs." In addition they are quite controversial and
unproven. Those who control the system will control the interpretation
of the results as well and it will be almost impossible for anyone to
judge the success or failure of the new methods objectively.
In this QPA framework, the teachers are considered the cornerstone of
the whole process and they are explicitly held accountable to the State
for the success of the students. Jim Wheeler, Director of the Northeast
Kansas Educational Services Center, expressed what was expected of them
quite well in his workshop at the Third Annual Effective Schools
Conference, 1992. He said that we have to "guarantee students will
learn what we teach." Wheeler also stressed that if students in a
class fail, it is because the teacher did not meet the student's needs.
Both Wheeler and Dr. JoAhn Brown-Nash, one of the Keynote Speakers at
the Conference, explained the importance of having high expectations for
all children. They explained the concept of the "J" Curve , an
upward learning curve which allegedly applies to all children. According
to these theories, which are directly based on Benjamin Bloom's work on
Taxonomy, all children can learn the same things given enough time,
appropriate resources and positive experiences. The gifted child is only
someone who can learn faster than the slow child; there is no
qualitative difference between children in this mechanistic theory. In
the classroom, this means that if a child is not learning, the teacher
must allow him more time, use different teaching approaches and make
sure the child has some positive, "successful" experiences. A
lot of these things are good ideas but they do not guarantee success free will has not been abolished by
God nor can they eliminate some very real
differences in the abilities and achievements of individuals.
In her talk at the 1992 NCEA Convention, Sr. Clarice Faltus explained
that the Wichita Diocese had adopted this Outcomes-based Education Model
of education (under the tutelage of Emporia University) because they
accepted the three basic premises of this approach:
1. All students can learn and succeed. (The "J"Curve)
2. Success breeds success. "It's contagious."(Positive
3."We control the conditions of success." We are in charge
because we can
write our own curriculum for the needs of our children
allows us to give the student what he needs.(As shown
earlier, this is not
Of course, you can have high expectations and use multiple approaches
to teaching which promote achievement with children from all backgrounds
without adopting this model and the Catholic schools have succeeded
better than anyone in these areas with a traditional model of education.
What is truly difficult to explain is why this mechanistic,
deterministic and pantheistic education model which is based on a
combination of pragmatic philosophy, pop-psychology and the systematic
invasion of the privacy and psyches of children should be preferred and
adopted by Catholic educators.
In terms of religious belief, it limits the horizons of the teachers
and the students to this world and to economic success in this world; it
is dangerously superficial ; it seems to deny free will, the reality of
sin and suffering and the need for salvation. ("We control the
conditions of success.")
The Mission Statement and Exit Outcomes of the Diocese of Wichita
under the QPA System
The schools in the Diocese of Wichita have been immersed in this QPA
process for several years already (Appendix E) and the teachers and the
school communities have already been through many of the required
consensus-forming meetings and are continuing to be trained and
consulted in accord with the pre-determined plans of the Effective
Schools Program leaders. As part of the QPA, the Mission Statement of
the Diocese has been changed, and "interdisciplinary outcomes"
and "Exit Outcomes" have been chosen.
The Mission Statement (Appendix E) claims first and foremost that:
Catholic Schools in the Diocese of Wichita [will]
PROVIDE the most effective means of integrating the Catholic Faith in
the religious, academic, physical, moral, emotional, psychological, and
cultural growth and development of each child.
As we have shown from our examination of the process, the QPA
couldn't possibly be the "most effective means of integrating the
Catholic Faith" into anything since it is opposed to the Catholic
Faith in most essential ways and requires the integration of a secular,
mechanistic, anti-intellectual approach to education and a materialistic
view of the child and of the world into the curriculum. According to our
...instruction in religious truth and values is an integral part of
the school program. It is not one more subject alongside the rest, but
instead it is perceived and functions as the underlying reality in which
the student's experiences of learning and living achieve their coherence
and their deepest meaning.
The 'underlying reality' of the QPA means that the Catholic Faith
will have to be, at best, an addendum to the real work of the reform
process which is to prepare each person for economic success in this
world, in the 21st. century, in "our evolving global
society." (See Kansas State Mission Statement on page 35.)
The Wichita Mission Statement claims that the schools will :
PARTICIPATE in the teaching ministry of the Catholic Church.
However, the teaching ministry of the Catholic Church involves
teaching the "truth of Jesus Christ" and the "power of
the Gospel to save men and women in every age and in every place and
culture." It requires that each person be respected as a child of
God and taught to "know, love and serve God in this life and be
happy with Him forever in the next." There are no supernatural
outcomes posited in the Wichita Diocese statements; no salvation; no
need for grace; no references to vocations; no call to holiness; no
relationship to Jesus Christ; no sacraments; no confidence in the saving
power of God. The specific Outcomes in the Diocesan Mission Statement
are very limited indeed:
ENABLE Children to understand their responsibility to serve as
dedicated Christian leaders and stewards
EXPECT children to demonstrate individual success, work to their
potential, and become life-long learners.
In the Acceptance of Accountability shown right under the Mission
Statement, there are twenty-four separate "interdisciplinary
learning outcomes" listed. The first one states that to
"achieve the purposes and goals of the mission statement," the
students will "Practice Christian Values to continue the Ministry
of the Church," but it is not clear just which Values they will
practice nor that they will understand that the Ministry of the Church
is directed to salvation, not to enabling people "to become
productive citizens in a global society( fifth statement)," in the
There are twenty-three statements after this one and it is not until
the twentieth statement that there is a reference to prayer and then it is only to prayer in the
classroom there are no references to the Mass,
the Sacraments, to Jesus Christ; to vocations etc. The last statement
claims that "Religion is not just a subject to be taught, but lived
in our schools." It's not clear that it will truly be taught or
lived based on what we have seen.
The Exit Outcomes of the Diocese of Wichita (Appendix F ) reveal the
same absence of Catholic truth : no savior and no salvation; no
supernatural goals; no grace, no prayer, no evangelization, no
vocations, no Church; no specific knowledge of religious doctrine,
subject matter or salvation history. They're all gone from this
framework. Keep in mind that the Exit Outcomes in the QPA process
announce the specific learning and behavior that all students must
exhibit before they get out of school.
The only semi-Catholic reference is found in the first of the
To accomplish the Mission, the instructional resources and support
services of the Diocesan Schools will be allocated across the Curriculum
to enable all students to demonstrate that they are:
Self-directed learners: who practice Catholic values to create a
positive vision for themselves and their future, set priorities and
achievable goals, create options for themselves, monitor and evaluate
their progress and assume responsibility for their actions.
The "Catholic values" mentioned here do not seem to have
any relationship whatsoever to truth, to holiness, the Gospel, the
Church, The Commandments, virtue, etc., but only to the subjective need
of the "self-directed learners" to have a "positive
vision for themselves and their future." Catholic values have
become a kind of self-esteem game that will make the learner feel more
positive about life. This type of exercise fits only too well with the
overall methodology of the QPA, but it is a travesty of Catholicism.
The four other Exit-Outcomes have no references to Catholicism as
such but instead are totally compatible with the secular Kansas State
Mission. The last Exit-Outcome refers to:
Community Stewards: who give their time, talent and treasure to
improve the welfare of others and the quality of life in their parish,
local and global communities
This idea is derived from Catholic belief but it is an extremely
limited expression of Catholic stewardship which should also involve giving our
faith to others, that is, evangelization. As stated, the Exit-Outcome
would be totally acceptable to the extreme environmentalists and the
On the evidence, The Kansas QPA is a comprehensive educational
restructuring based on philosophies, methodologies and technology which
are antithetical to Catholicism and to the authentic mission of the
Catholic Church. By involving the Catholic Diocese of Wichita in the QPA
process, the Catholic school administrators have turned the Catholic
schools into annexes of the public schools for all practical purposes.
They have done this at time when the philosophy of the public schools in
the United States is more uniformly opposed to Catholic truth than it
has ever been. Public Schools are certainly more anti-Catholic today
than they were in the 19th century when the Catholic bishops felt it was
necessary for the salvation of souls to establish the Catholic school
The Catholic schools should be looking to their own authentic
Catholic roots, identity and mission and opposing the QPA on behalf of
Catholic children and families and for the benefit of the whole society.
This is the moment for Evangelization of our society not capitulation to
some of its worst trends. Catholic parents have every reason to oppose
this transformation of the Catholic schools into hostile public-style
schools, indistinguishable in fact, from the public schools in most
Buetow, Harold A., The Catholic School, Its Roots, Identity, and
Future, p.139, Crossroad, New York, 1988.
Declaration on Christian Education, Gravissimum Educationis,
#3 in Flannery, O.P., Austin, Vatican Council II, The Conciliar and
Post Conciliar Documents, p. 729, The Liturgical Press,
Collegeville, Mn., 1975.
John Paul II, The Role of the Christian Family in the Modern World
(Familiaris Consortio), # 40.
Second Vatican Council, Declaration on Religious Freedom, #5
and #6 in Flannery, op.cit. supra,pp. 803-804.
United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, #26, 1948.
Op.cit., Buetow, p. 179: "Long ago the family was considered the
sole agency responsible for education. Then the Church and even later,
the State, became co-partners. Today, the Western world takes State
participation in schooling and education for granted, even to the extent
of according the State the major, if not sometimes the only, share of
the `partnership.' Frequently people forget that it was once otherwise,
and many people never question other possibilities."
Charter of the Rights of the Family, Presented by the Holy See
to all persons, institutions and authorities concerned with the mission
of the family in today's world; October 22, 1983. See also: Whitehead,
Margaret M. and McGraw, Onalee, Foundations for Family Life Education,
Educational Guidance Institute, Arlington, Va., 1991, Chapter 4.
Op.cit. Buetow, p.143.
Gutman, Amy, Democratic Education, Princeton University Press,
Princeton, N.J., 1987, p. 29.
Ibid., p. 39.
Op.cit., Buetow, Chapter 2.
Ellis, John Tracy, Documents of American Catholic History, The
Bruce Publishing Co., Milwaukee,1956, p.418. Quoted from the
Instruction of the Congregation of Propoganda de Fide Concerning
Catholic Children Attending American Public Schools, November 24,
1875. This Instruction, plus the worsening anti-Catholic sentiment in
the U.S. toward the end of the 19th century, led to the emphatic
declaration of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1884 that
Catholic schools should be built in every parish and Catholic children
should attend them.
New Catholic Encyclopedia, The Catholic University of America,
Washington, D.C., 1967, p.1029. See also Declaration on Christian
Education, # 8.
op.cit., Declaration on Christian Education, #8 in Flannery, Documents
of Vatican Council II. See also Lay Catholics in Schools:
Witnesses to Faith, The Sacred Congregation for Catholic Education,
Sharing the Light of Faith, National Catechetical Directory
for Catholics of the United States, National Conference of Catholic
Bishops, 1977, #208.
Lay Catholics in Schools: Witnesses to Faith, The Sacred
Congregation for Catholic Education, 1982, #16.
op.cit., Buetow, p. 274.
op.cit., Buetow, p. 278.
To Teach as Jesus Did, A Pastoral Message on Catholic Education,
National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1972, #103.
0p.cit., Buetow, p. 17.
Origins, March 23, 1989, Vol. 18: No.41, p.684.
op.cit., Buetow, pp.50-66.
Realism accords to the objects of a person's knowledge an existence
which is independent of the person thinking about them. (P.65)
Idealism's major positions area view of the contemporary scene `under
the aspect of eternity', a theory of truth in which propositions must
cohere with one another to form a harmonious whole, delight in
dialectics, the centrality of mind, and the ultimate triumph of good
over evil...Both Catholic schools and Idealism are concerned with the
realization of the self in the context of a relationship with the
Ultimate Being. (p. 66)
Theistic Existentialism, despite criticism, is consonant with
Catholicism in such areas as revolt against dehumanizing technological
applications to the person, abhorrence of movements against
individuality, and opposition to the concept of the school as a factory.
Catholicism shares with Theistic Existentialism a desire for individual
freedom, personal authenticity, commitment, responsibility, the use of
the humanities as a vehicle to present the problems of humankind,
emphasis on personal conversion, the dramatic quality of the human
condition, the greatness as well as the uniqueness of the person...(p.
op.cit., Buetow, p. 29.
Op.cit., Origins, March 23, 1989, p. 685.
Skinner, B.F., Beyond Freedom and Dignity, Alfred A. Knopf,
Inc., New York, 1971. Reprinted in 1989.
Ibid., Skinner, pp. 214-215.
Ibid., Skinner, p. 5.
Op. cit., Origins, p. 686.
L'Osservatore Romano, March 27, 1989, p. 5: "The Holy
Father's Letter to the Bishops of the United States: Our Task Is to
Speak Always the Truth of Jesus Christ."
Letter to Dr. Sharon E. Freden, Assistant Commissioner of Education,
Topeka, Kansas, March 27, 1991, from Sister Clarice on behalf of the
Diocese of Wichita: "Attached is an application from the Catholic
Diocese of Wichita requesting to be included in the Quality Performance
Accreditation Pilot Program for the state of Kansas." See Appendix
"Pacesetters in Innovation, Cumulative Issue of All Projects in
Operation as of February, 1969, Title III," U.S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare; Ronald Havelock, "Guide to
Innovation in Education," developed under contract with U.S. Office
of Education, 1970; Roy L. Davis, Chief, Community Program Development
Branch, HEW, "New Models for Health Curriculum and Teacher
Training," Health Services Report, Feb., 1973. A Department of
Education memorandum from Dr. Donald Senese, Assistant Secretary of
Education, OERI, Nov., 1989 estimated that 90% of all educational
research is carried out by the Federal Government.
"America 2000, An Educational Strategy," U.S. Department of
Education, 1991, p.8.
Ibid., pp. 11-24.
Lezotte, Lawrence, School Improvement Based on Effective Schools
Research, September, 1989, pp.13-15: "Phase V: Alignment Beyond
the Local School District...Finally, the effective schools movement has
become an international movement in the true sense of the term...The
international dimension begins to give a global perspective to the
notion that we can organize schools that truly teach all
Information on this Conference held on November 2, 1989, is on
Op.cit., Buetow, p. 155: "it is becoming more and more apparent
that the cultural deprivation of children is almost as harmful as social
and economic deprivation. Children who are culturally deprived do not
learn readily, have difficulty with symbolic and abstract thought, and
have a sparse pool of knowledge and experience upon which to draw during
the maturation process." Also:
"The great power of a totalitarian system is that it doesn't
just control armies and parties, it tries to control information and
access to the past," according to Rudolph A. Pikhoia, director of
the Russian state archives, as reported in The Washington Times,
"Depth of Soviet repression comes to surface at archives,"
July 15, 1992.
Memorandum, Kansas Legislative Research Department: To: Special
Committee on Children's Initiatives Re: Strategies for Implementing
Targets for Children's Services. September 11, 1991.
"Facing the Future: A Blueprint for Kansas Children &
Families;" a brochure printed by Kansas Action for Children, a
statewide advocacy organization working to insure that the needs and
rights of children in Kansas are met [which also] provide[s] a link
between the public and the Special Committee on Children's Initiatives.
Pages are not numbered but this quote comes from the first page.
Op.cit., Kansas Legislative Research Department Memorandum, 9-11-91,
This is accords with a federal initiative too. Legislation before the
Congress authorizes money to be used for these programs: H.R. 520/S.551.
For example, Kentucky has an active grassroots organization which
opposes that State's school restructuring plan: Parents and
Professionals Involved in Education,Inc.(PPIE).
In Pennsylvania, a grassroots organization of more than 50,000
citizens, Citizens for Educational Excellence, is opposing their State's
restructuring plan which is farther along than the Kansas plan. In
Pennsylvania, in 1992, the State General Assembly passed a Resolution,
#293, calling upon the State Officials to delay the "consideration
and implementation" of the restructuring until " a thorough
and complete investigation of the substance and process of these
proposed regulations by a special legislative committee..."
Kamarck, Elaine Ciulla and Galston, William A.; "Putting
Children First: A Progressive Family Policy for the 1990's."
Progressive Policy Institute Study, 1990, Washington, D.C.
"A Design for Building Outcomes-Focused Curricula, A Resource
for Kansas Educators," Kansas Board of Education, p. iii. Dr. Lee
Droegemueller, the Commissioner of Education in Kansas, said very
emphatically that: "QPA says we're going to change our schools
according to the Effective Schools Model," in his Welcome Address
at the 3rd. Annual Effective Schools Conference on April 30, 1992.
The Effective School Report, July, 1984; "Effective
Schools for Results" by Dr. Robert E. Corrigan and Dr. George W.
Ibid. See also School Improvement Based on Effective Schools
Research by Lawrence W. Lezotte, September 1, 1989, p. 6.
Coleman, James S. and Hoffer, Thomas, Public and Private High
Schools: The Impact of Communities, New York: Basic Books, 1987.
In Support of Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools, Statement of
the United States Catholic Bishops, USCC, November, 1990, p. 5.
Op.cit., The Effective School Report, July, 1984.
Learning and Instruction in Chicago Inner-City Schools, A Position
Paper, Prepared for the Planning Staff of the Chicago Public Schools..by
William W. Farquhar and Les S. Shulman, Michigan State University and
Chicago Public Schools Committee: Evelyn Carlson, Associate Supt., Laura
Ward, Chairman, Sophie Bloom et al., June, 1968.
In passing, it is interesting to note that the same comprehensive
Mastery Learning Plan described above was implemented in Chicago inner
city schools starting in 1968 . In the mid-1980's, after examining the
Chicago Public Schools, Secretary of Education, William Bennett
announced that things were so bad in the Chicago Public Schools that
they had reached the point of "meltdown." Everyone agreed with
him and so yet another major restructuring plan was initiated in
Op.cit., The Effective School Report, July, 1984.
Sr. Clarice Faltus, Associate Superintendent of the Diocese of
Wichita, in her letter of March 27, 1991 to Dr. Sharon Freden of the
Kansas Board of Education states that Catholic teachers "will be
attending an Outcomes-based Education Workshop given by Dr. William
Spady in June, 1991."
The programs of the State sponsored Effective Schools Conferences
list workshops on Mastery Learning,e.g., The Second Annual Effective
Schools Conference, April 30-May 2, 1991, Workshop #203, "Outcomes
Based Education/Mastery Learning 'Putting It Into Action'"
Op.cit., The Effective School Reporter, July, 1984.
Op. cit., School Improvement Based on Effective Schools Research,
1989, p. 5.
Op.,cit., Design, p. 24.
Some examples from two of the major theorists: Goodlad, John, A
Place Called School: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984:
"Some advocates of mastery learning believe that differences in
individual learning rates can be eliminated...virtually all students can
be brought along a full grade per year by techniques involving peer
assistance, diagnostic testing, corrective feedback and the
Bloom, Benjamin, All Our Children Learning: New York, McGraw-
Hill Book Company, 1981. Bloom believes that differences in learning
occur as a result of errors in teaching or learning and thinks that if
student error is systematically corrected at each stage, there will be
little difference in final outcomes (p.213).
Geiger, Bernard, M., OFM, Immaculata Magazine, December, 1972,
"PPBS Blessing or Curse?" and "PPBS
and Public Education" by Gail Dearborn, 1984, GEM Article.
March 3, 1992, Memo from Craig R. Shove, Team Leader, Outcomes
Education Team, to QPA Pilot Schools and Interested Kansas Educators.
May 1, 1992 presentation at the Third Annual Effective Schools
Conference, May 1, 1992, sponsored by Kansas State Board of Education,
Approaching Effective Schools From a Quality Perspective. This
presentation is based almost entirely on Demings' definitions and
recommendations to achieve quality control in the manufacturing
This SCANS Report emphasizes those aspects of education which should
prepare people to make a living: "Workplace Know-How."
Interestingly the Jobs Analysis in Appendix D of this Report by
businessmen and educators, which is supposed to tell how to prepare the
workers of tomorrow to deal with the new age of information and
technology focuses on what could only be considered Blue Collar jobs:
Chefs, Front-desk clerk, Assistant Housekeepers, Bank Tellers, Truck
Drivers etc., P. D-1. Do they really think that the entire education
system has to be restructured to prepare students for these jobs? Is
this the "real world" of the future?
Chesterton, G.K., The Everlasting Man; Image Books, New York,
1955; pp. 137-138.
A mother of a Virginia public school student in 6th grade related
that her daughter usually ended up doing all of the work in her group
but everyone got the same mark.
Goodlad, John, A Place Called School, Prospects for the Future,
McGraw-Hill Book Company,New York,1984; p. 296.
Ibid., Goodlad, p. 296.
Learnball League International, P.O. Box 18221, Pleasant Hills, Pa,
15236.Used in the Andover, Kansas public schools.
Ibid., p. 71.
Ibid., p. 75.
Ibid., p. 75.
Ibid., p. 85.
Op.cit., A Design for Building Outcomes-Focused Curricula, p.
Statement of Margaret Mead quoted in the Rationale for the Global
Education Program for Peace and Universal Responsibility,1990.
Muller, Robert, World Core Curriculum Manual, p.7. See also p. 2,
Item 2 and item 7. On page 12, Muller puts a gnostic interpretation on
the Book of Genesis to bring out our "Godlike" ability to
develop these new codes even more clearly: "Fourthly as described
in the story of the Tree of Knowledge, having decided to become like God
through knowledge and our attempt to understand the heavens and the
earth, we have also become masters in deciding between good and
Ibid., P. 46 and quoted from page 1 of Education in the New Age,
by Alice Bailey, well-known theosophist and occultist.
Ibid., p. 1.
Ibid., p. 13. See also the "Declaration of Human
Responsibilities for Peace and Sustainable Development," developed
at a Conference in Search of the True Meaning of Peace, June, 1989,
Costa Rica, and presented to the United Nations General Assembly as an
official document: "Given that all forms of life are unique and
essential, that all human beings have the right to development and that
both peace and violence are the product of the human mind, it is from
the human mind that a sense of responsibility to act and think in a
peaceful manned will develop. Through peace-oriented awareness,
individuals will understand the nature of those conditions which are
necessary for their well-being and development (Chapter IV, Art. 9;
Op.cit., Muller, World Core Curriculum Manual, p. 24.
Ibid., p. 12.
Dr. Robert Muller has called himself a Catholic, notably in his
address to the NCEA in 1985, but he also makes clear that his
appreciation of Catholicism is based on its universality and social
services, not upon its doctrine. Dr. Muller indicated in his talk that
all religions had something positive to contribute to global
understanding and most of his insights seem to come from the Eastern
religions. He stressed the oneness of all being in this NCEA talk,
"Do not make a distinction between science, material knowledge and
spirituality. This is all spirituality",and in his World Core
Curriculum, he uses occult and Eastern resources and concepts
Feder, Don, "The Growing Paganism of the Environmental
Movement," column carried in the June 27, 1992 issue of Human
Dr. Hershey did not describe the game on the workshop video but it
was described, as it was taught at another workshop, in the Lamplighter
Newsletter, as a plastic sheet that could be spread out on the
floor. A huge earth occupied the center, and he held velcro pieces of
elements and people in his hand. The teachers were to place the sun on
the spread sheet and ask the children, "Can mother[earth] live
without the sun?" The correct answer being no, the sun would stay.
Then he would place a cloud on the sheet, "Can mother live without
air?" No being the correct answer, the cloud remained. Then water
in the form of a wave, "Can mother live without water?" Of
course not. Then came the faces of the children on a velcro add-on.
"Can mother live without children?" Yes is the correct answer,
so the children are removed from the earth. His comment was that
teachers should expect small children to be very disturbed at being
removed from the earth. They might even cry and demand to be put back.
In that case, the teacher should explain that mother earth is a self
generating mother and that she can generate herself at will, and that if
indeed we are just a part of her, she can bring us back anytime. In
fact, if the time is bad, and she is overcrowded, then the children
should not (especially if they have taken an earth pledge) see going
away as anything but noble and honorable at this time, for they can come
back in this teaching.
Vatican Position Paper, Earth Summit: Environment, Development and
Population, prepared for the June 3-14, 1992 U.N. Conference on
Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. Printed in Origins, June
11, 1992,pp. 70-72.
Op.cit., Design, p. 20.
Op.cit., "A Design for Building Outcomes-Focused Curricula, A
Resource for Kansas Educators," January 1992; p. 7.
"Kansas Quality Performance Accreditation", Kansas State
Board of Education, March 12, 1991, p. 2.
Ibid., p. Iv.
Ravitch, Diane, The Troubled Crusade, American Education 1945-1980;
Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, New York, 1983; pp. 45- 46.
Ibid., pp. 47-48.
Ibid., pp. 48-49.
Ibid., pp. 49-50.
Letter to Mary Jo Heiland, dated April 7, 1992.
Op.cit., "Design for Building Outcomes-based Curricula," p.
2: See also pp. 11, 13, 15, 19 in the "Design" document where
directions for developing local outcomes all contain directives on
including state concepts, e.g.,: "A. Review the state and district
mission statements, the state outcomes, and the district exit and
program outcomes to identify key ideas, concepts, processes and
issues," p. 19.
Op.cit., Lezotte, School Improvement Based on Effective Schools
Op.cit., Origins, March 23, 1989, p. 685.
Ibid., Origins, March 23, 1989, p. 685.
Sr. Clarice is heard on an audiotape made at the NCEA Conference.
Ibid., Ravitch, pp.53-54.
Op.cit., Building a School Profile, p. 15.
Assessment!, Assessment!, Assessment!, Kansas Quality
Performance Accreditation(QPA); Kansas State Board of Education,
Topeka, Ks., January, 1992., pp. A-1, A-3.
Ibid., p. A-3.
Ibid., p. A-1.
Ibid., p. A-5.
Op. cit., A Design for Building Outcomes-Focused Curricula, p.
Ibid., p. Iii.
Op.cit., Assessment!, Assessment!, Assessment!, A-1.
Sizer, Theodore, Horace's School, Houghton Mifflin Company,
New York, 1992:
A parent: "You mean to say that the students will do better if
you cover fewer things?" "Yes. Precisely," said the
mathematics teacher..."We must give the basic tools, the basic
ideas, and show how these ideas were derived and can be used. We must
get the students into the habit of such use and into the habit of
learning on their own-by means of this use...If we do this, we'll wean
them from us, from textbooks, from the list of facts that we give
Ibid., Assessment etc., A-2.
Ibid., p. B-2.
Ibid., pp. C-1 & 2.
Ibid., pp. C-2 & 3.
Ibid., p. C-3.
Ibid., p. C-4.
The Washington Post, May 18, 1992, Subtracting Multiple Choice
From Tests,"But Michael H. Kean, vice-president in charge of public
and governmental affairs for the CTB MacMillan/McGraw-Hill, the largest
publisher of the current standardized tests, said he believes the
country is unwisely latching onto a testing system as a panacea to fix
bad schooling...Theodore R. Sizer, professor of education at Brown
University and chairman of the group, Coalition of Essential Schools
[said] 'But I think it is exceedingly unwise to make them into a
national [or state] set of standards. Who sets the standards and by what
right do they do it?...The Congressional Office of Technology
Assessment, in a February report, also advised applying brakes to the
momentum 'building rapidly' for the new national [state] tests. Among
the questions raised" Will grading standards be clear? What happens
to students who don't test well? Is this the best use of money for
The Washington Post, May 22, 1992, "Teachers Give New Md.
Test Failing Grade," "The union that represents Maryland
teachers called on state education officials today to discard the
results of a new test[ the Maryland School Performance Assessment
Program] taken by nearly 170,000 public school students this month,
saying the test was riddled with flaws...it contains questions they
think are too sophisticated for a particular grade level and material
they consider to be offensive." (Appendix D)
Workshop Title: "Monitoring Student Progress Using Direct and
Continuous Measurement Systems", given May 1, 1992.
The "J" Curve is the opposite of the Bell Curve which
assumes that talents and intellectual ability are distributed over a
scale with the majority of the people having adequate talents and
intellectual ability; a few being deficient in talents and intellect;
and a few having a superabundance of talents and intellectual ability.
See footnote #57.
Coles, Robert: "The ability to attend to the mysteries of life,
to confess ignorance or partial understanding, is not part of the
present system of education. To the contrary, the curriculum supposes
that all problems are solvable, and that view undoubtedly contributes to
despair and cynicism when students find out that it is not true...leaves
them helpless to understand the powerful forces at work in the world and in themselves." (quoted in
"The Values Vacuum" by Harriet Tyson-Bernstein, in American
Educator, Fall, 1987.
Op.cit., To Teach as Jesus Did, #103.
Op.cit., See footnote # 31.