International Eucharistic CongressRome,
18-25 June 2000
The Jubilee of the Year 2000 will be an intensely Eucharistic
1. As the Jubilee of the Year 2000 leads us into the third
millennium, it induces us to contemplate with new eyes the
Incarnation of the Son of God in such a way that we will experience
the constant, renewing grace that flows from this, both personally
and as a community, and go forward in a new life, driven by the
breath of the Spirit, toward the Source of Life. We believe in fact
that "Christ is your Son before all ages, yet now he is born in
time. He has, come to lift up all things to himself, to restore
unity to creation, and to lead mankind from exile into your heavenly
The redeeming mystery of Christ, which began in the Virgin Mary's
womb and was fully manifested on the Cross, pervades the whole of
history and consecrates humanity from generation to generation.
Jesus' Pasch is truly a historical event that has everlasting
effectiveness. Every time we celebrate the Eucharist we draw from
the redemption that springs from the Lord's death and resurrection,
until he will come again. This testifies to the fact that God is
with us, for us, and for all: "In the sacrament of the
Eucharist the Saviour, who took flesh in Mary's womb 20
centuries ago, continues to offer himself to humanity as the source
of divine life".(2)
2. In order to highlight Christ's living and saving presence in
the Church and in the world, on the occasion of the Great Jubilee,
John Paul II has decided to hold an International Eucharistic
Congress in Rome.(3) For this reason, the Holy Year implies taking a
strong awareness of the Eucharistic mystery, the centre of the whole
life of the pilgrim Church in time. These are not two separate
events since one gets its full meaning in the light of the other.
The Eucharist in fact is the memorial and living presence of Christ
who is the same yesterday, today and always, and the Church
gratefully celebrates the bimillennary memory of his birth.
3. The International Eucharistic Congress represents a call to
pastors and the faithful to give greater value to every Eucharistic
celebration, especially at the Sunday assembly, the weekly
remembrance of the Lord's Pasch, so that those who take part in it
will conform their lives to the great mystery which is celebrated.
Therefore, specific and adequate preparation for this event is
For this purpose, the local Churches are being offered some areas
of reflection which can be developed and deepened in prayer and
catechetical meetings, while also keeping in mind the various
cultural, social and religious contexts. The International
Eucharistic Congress is a favourable occasion for professing and
celebrating the fact that "in the most blessed Eucharist is
contained the whole spiritual good of the Church, namely Christ
himself our Pasch and the living bread which gives life to men
through his fleshthat
flesh which is given life and gives life through the Holy
The explanatory outline treats the following themes: at the basis
of the Eucharistic mystery there is Jesus' command to make
remembrance of his paschal sacrifice (I); the presence of Christ's
paschal mystery is offered in the signs of the bread and the wine
(II); taking communion at the Eucharistic meal is sharing in
Christ's life, by receiving its fruits and committing oneself to
following his example (III); the Eucharist is a mystery of faith: it
implies faith and nourishes the life of faith (IV).
I. Do this in memory of me
From the Last Supper to the Eucharistic celebration
4. The celebration of the Eucharist was willed by Jesus himself
and entrusted to the Church. On the eve of his Passion, while he was
at table with his disciples, he wanted to make them share in a
living way in his Pasch, and so he instituted the Eucharist as the
memorial of his death and resurrection, and gave the command to
celebrate it until his glorious return.(5)
Therefore, we celebrate the Eucharist to obey Christ's wishes.
Liturgical remembrance of the Lord's sacrifice
5. The greatness of the Eucharist lies precisely in this: through
the words spoken and the actions performed by the priestwho
presides over the liturgical assembly in Christ's name (in
persona Christi, according to the well-known expression)the
Pasch of the Lord Jesus is made present and effective: "He is
the true and eternal priest who established this unending sacrifice.
He offered himself as a victim for our deliverance and taught us to
make this offering in his memory".(6)
The sacrifice of the Cross is not repeated, just as Jesus'
historical events are not repeated, but these mysteries of the
Lord's life are made present in the sacramental action:
"Father, we celebrate the memory of Christ, your Son. We, your
people and your ministers, recall his passion, his resurrection from
the dead and his ascension into glory; and from the many gifts you
have given us, we offer to you, God of glory and majesty, this holy
and perfect sacrifice: the bread of life and the cup of eternal
The liturgical memory includes the whole historical mystery of
Christ the Saviour, the Son of God, "born of a woman" (Gal
4:4): "If the Body we eat and the Blood we drink is the risen
Lord's inestimable gift to us, viators, it still brings along with
it, as fragrant Bread, the taste and scent of the Virgin
Mother".(8) In truth, from the first instant of life in his
mother's womb, Jesus offered himself up for the glory of God and for
the life and resurrection of the world (cf. Heb 10:5-10). The high
point of his sacrifice is the hour of the Cross; its fruit is the
Resurrection; the saving gift is people's sharing in divine life.
By making the past present, the Eucharistic memorial anticipates
the promise of future glory. This is acclaimed in chorus in the
heart of every Mass: "Christ has died, Christ is risen, Christ
will come again".
Ecclesial remembrance of Christ's command
6. Obedience to Jesus' words, 'Do this in memory of me', is paid
as a community. The Eucharist is not a private matter and its
ecclesial nature does not allow it to be thought of or experienced
as an individual action, even if it involves the individual person.
On the contrary, it is always an action of the Church for building
up the Church.
With the awareness that "the Church makes the Eucharist and
the Eucharist makes the Church", the Christian community has
always celebrated the memorial of Christ's Pasch as the source and
culmination of its identity and mission. For this reason, gathering
together each Sunday, in the Lord's name, to be nourished at the
table of the Word and the Bread of life, is obedience to the wishes
which Christ made known on the eve of his Passion.(9) We cannot call
ourselves Christians and then neglect Jesus' command, "Do this
in memory of me".
In celebrating the Lord's death and resurrection, each time the
Church finds her vitality again and rediscovers her vocation as the
people of the New and Everlasting Covenant, a pilgrim people, along
the byways and amidst the trials of the world, moving toward
communion with God in the heavenly Jerusalem. There "he will
make his home among them; they shall be his people, and he will be
their God; his name is God-with-them. He will wipe away all tears
from their eyes; there will be no more death, and no more mourning
or sadness. The world of the past has gone" (Rv 21:34).
Living remembrance of Jesus' example
7. By remembering Christ's Pasch, the Church is called by the
Spirit to unite herself to the immaculate victim presented to the
Father. In this way, Christ's sacrifice also becomes the sacrifice
of those who take part in it. (10)
We know in fact that the command, "Do this in memory of
me", is closely connected with the new commandment which was
also given by Jesus to his disciples when he was at table with them:
"If I, then , the Lord and Master, have washed your feet, you
should wash each other's feet. I have given you an example so that
you may copy what I have done to you" (Jn 13:14-15).
In truth, Jesus cannot be remembered in the liturgical act
without remembering his act of total love in daily life. It is this
that makes the disciples truly obedient to their Lord and Master. It
can never be thought that Christ's disciples will follow a path
which is not the path of the dead and risen Lord. Obvious proof of
this is the martyrdom that has accompanied the history of the
Church until our times. The relics of martyrs which have been placed
since ancient times under the altars where the memory of the
"Victim whose death has reconciled us"(11) is celebrated,
are a constant reminder of the living memory of Jesus' command. Only
the strength of the Eucharist has enabled, and still enables
countless men and women to give witness with their lives to the
extraordinary newness of the Lord's Pasch.
II. 'Take this and eat it'
The Eucharistic food lets us enter into communion with Christ and
makes us only one ecclesial body
8. The sacramental signs of Christ's sacrifice are the
consecrated bread and wine. Partaking in them means entering into
communion of life with the Lord Jesus and becoming only one thing
with him and with those who are nourished at the same table of new
Bread of new life
9. Nourishment is absolutely necessary for life and eating
together is a sign of familiarity. In the Eucharist, the Lord Jesus
not only makes us his table companions but he gives himself to us as
spiritual food so that we will live in him: "Our partaking of
Christ's body and blood only aims at transforming us into what we
are receiving, at making us take on in everything, in body and
spirit, the one in whom we have died, been buried and risen
"Eating the Body of Christ" brings with it the audacity
of divine love and the scandal of heavenly wisdom, just like
Christ's Incarnation: "I am the living bread which has come
down from heaven. Anyone who eats this bread will live for ever; and
the bread that I shall give is my flesh, for the life of the world.
He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me and I live in
him" (Jn 6:51, 56).
Jesus' mysterious words became meaningful for his disciples when
they were sitting at table with him on the eve of his Passion and
"he took some bread, and thanked God for it and broke it, and
he said, 'This is my body, which is for you; do this as a memorial
of me'. In the same way he took the cup after supper, and said,
'This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Whenever you drink it, do
this as a memorial of me'" (I Cor 11:23-25).
These are the same words which on the priest's lips and by virtue
of the Holy Spirit, the Lord Jesus utters again in our Eucharists.
"Since he proclaimed and said of the bread, 'This is my body',
who will still dare to doubt? And since he affirmed and said, 'This
is my blood', who will ever doubt and affirm that it is not his
blood? Therefore, let us receive them in all certainty as the true
body and blood of Christ. in the sign of the bread you are given the
body, and in the sign of the wine, you are given the blood, so that
by receiving the body and blood of Christ, you become one body and
one blood with Christ".(13)
This is a wondrous calling: in taking and eating the Bread of
life, it is truly good and right to give thanks!
Only one bread to form only one body
10. After becoming a part of Christ through Baptism like branches
of the one same vine (cf. Jn 15:5), we recognize one another as
children of the same Father around the Eucharistic table: "The
bread we break is a communion with the body of Christ. The fact that
there is only one loaf means that, though there are many of us, we
form a single body because we all have a share in this one
loaf" (I Cor 10:16-17).
By responding to Jesus' invitation, "Take this and eat
it", the Church is built in the bond of unity. This is what we
ask the Father in celebrating the Eucharist: "May all of us who
share in the body and blood of Christ be brought together in unity
by the Holy Spirit".(14) "The bread is rightly considered
the image of Christ's body. The bread in fact comes from many grains
of wheat. They are made into flour and the flour is then worked into
dough with water and baked with fire. So too the mystical body of
Christ is one but it is made up by the whole multitude of humankind
and brought to its perfect condition by means of the fire of the
The unity of the body, however, does not mean the uniformity of
its members; the one bread gives life to the different ministries
and charisms in the ecclesial body, helps each one to live according
to the vocation received and keeps the unity of the Spirit. In this
way, from the Head, the body which is well fitted and joined
together gets the strength to grow and build itself up in charity
(cf. Eph 4:1-16).
The Church, which is one and holy because of the Spirit that
pervades her, is nonetheless divided among her children who have
become separated over the course of history because of sin and
reciprocal misunderstandings. Although they have received the same
Baptism, Christians cannot participate at the same table because of
the awareness that unity in charity requires unity in truth.
As a constant call to full communion, in the meantime, the
Eucharistic celebration is a plea to all baptized persons to come
together and at the same time a sign of the common commitment to go
on toward the fulfilment of Christ's prayer: "May they all be
one. Father, may they be one in us, as you are in me and I am in
you" (Jn 17:21).
A bread that invigorates along the way
11. Jesus' words, "Take this and eat it", are connected
with the invocation of the human heart that needs to satiate the
many kinds of hunger that mark the earthly pilgrimage: hunger for
food and the essential things for life, hunger for justice and
freedom, hunger for love and hope. In the bread and wine, God gives
people not only the food that nourishes them but also the sacrament
that renews them so that they will never be lacking in this
sustenance for the body and the Soul.(16) The prayer that we direct
to our heavenly Father, "Give us this day our daily
bread", finds its full response in the divine Word and in the
Eucharist. To us todayjust
like the people who asked Jesus, "Sir, give us that bread
answers, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will never
be hungry; he who believes in me will never thirst" (Jn
To nourish oneself with Christ at the holy altar is to recognize
that "as we eat his body which he gave for us, we grow in
strength", (17) and to experience the truth of his promise,
"Come to me, all you who labour and are overburdened, and I
will give you rest" (Mt 11:28). Therefore, the power of the
consecrated bread and wine invite us to return with perseverance to
eat and drink at the Eucharistic banquet in order to regain the
strength to progress along the way toward definitive communion with
Faith, nourished by the "bread of life" and the
"chalice of salvation", does not cease to reaffirm that
Jesus is the real response that puts an end to our search for the
meaning of life and its future: "Anyone who does eat my flesh
and drink my blood has eternal life and I shall raise him up on the
last day ... anyone who eats this bread will live for ever" (Jn
6:54, 58). Especially at times when suffering raises questions that
require a response of love, everyone should realize that Christ's
words, "Take this and eat it", are directed precisely at
them. The Eucharistic bread is the strength of the weak, the support
of the sick, the balm that heals wounds, and the viaticum for those
leaving this world. It is the strength of the faithful who work in
environments and circumstances in which their presence is the only
possibility of proclaiming the Gospel by giving witness to Jesus
Christ, "the way, truth and life" (Jn 14:6). "Eating
the bread of life" has the purpose of making visible that for
which it is truly worthwhile to live.
III. 'Given up for all of you'
The bread that is broken and shared, for the life of the Church
in the missionary service of the world
12. Communion with the bread of life and the chalice of salvation
revives the awareness that "God is love. God's love for us was
revealed when God sent into the world his only Son so that we could
have life through him; this is the love I mean: not our love for
God, but God's love for us when he sent his Son to be the sacrifice
that takes our sins away. We ourselves say and we testify that the
Father sent his Son as saviour of the world" (I Jn 4:8-10, 14).
A gift that gives life
13. True love involves self-giving without any conditions.
Outside of this horizon it becomes possession, risks turning into
blackmail and is confused with illusion. True love, on the contrary,
is a full offering for the sake of another and it forgets self.
Christ's example is like this and is consumed in freedom and
gratuitousness: "The good shepherd is the one who lays down his
life for his sheep. The Father loves me, because I lay down my
life.... No one takes it from me. I lay it down of my own free
will" (Jn 10:11, 17-18). Moreover, it should not be overlooked
that Jesus' giving his life takes on an even greater intensity:
"What proves that God loves us is that Christ died for us while
we were still sinners" (Rom 5:8). Jesus, in fact, shed his
blood not only for those who correspond to his love.
In this way, divine charity reveals its perfection: to give
gratuitously and benefit both the just and the wicked: love for the
exchange the giftis
mercy; love for enemiesfrom
whom nothing good can be expectedis
forgiveness. From this gratuitous love manifested to us by Christ, redemption
springs, i.e., the remission of sins and the reconciliation of
sinners: "God loves us with so much love that he was generous
with his mercy: when we were dead through our sins, he brought us to
life with Christit
is through grace that you have been saved" (Eph 2:4-5).
A gift without frontiers
14. Jesus "affirms that he came 'to give life as a ransom
for many'; this last term is not restrictive, but contrasts the
whole of humanity with the unique person of the Redeemer who hands
himself over to save us. The Church, following the Apostles, teaches
that Christ died for all men without exception: 'There is not, never
has been, and never will be a single human being for whom Christ did
not suffer'".(18) By entrusting the sacrament of his total
giving to the Apostles, Christ hands himself over for every
descendant of Adam: the bond made through the Incarnation does not
admit any exclusion between man and woman, rich and poor, free men
and prisoners, black and white, Jew and Greek, European and
Asian.... "The gift itself considerably outweighed the fall. If
it is certain that through one man's fall so many died, it is even
more certain that divine grace, coming through the one man, Jesus
Christ, came to so many as an abundant free gift" (Rom 5:15).
In his ministry, Jesus directs his word of salvation to everyone.
If he had any preferences, it was for those who were neglected or
marginalized. When he multiplied the bread and fish for the hungry
crowd, he made no distinction among persons: "They all ate as
much as they wanted" (Lk 9:17). In the same way, everyone is
invited to the Eucharist, the Lord's Supper, to take communion with
the Bread that makes all baptized persons brethren in the community.
In the New and Everlasting Covenant, sealed by his precious blood,
Christ knocked down every wall of separation in order to create in
himself only one new man (cf. Eph 2:14-18).
A gift that requires responsibility
15. Before the Bread of life broken "for us", we can
only say with humble faith, "Lord, I am not worthy to receive
you, but only say the word and I shall be healed". We must not
forget that the night of the great sacrament was also the night of
Unhappily, it is possible to receive the Body and Blood of Our
Lord unworthily. Welcoming Christ requires us to let him live, speak
and work in us through our voices and our hands, and to let him
continue his sacrificial mission in our lives spent "for
others", without excluding anyone. "Everyone is to
recollect himself before eating this bread and drinking this cup;
because a person who eats and drinks without recognizing the body is
eating and drinking his own condemnation" (I Cor 11:28-29).
Therefore, anyone who has violated God's commandments in a serious
way should be purified from sin through the sacrament of Penance
before taking the Eucharist.
On the one hand, in fact, the Eucharist is the source of
reconciliation and commits believers to be effective promoters of
forgiveness. On the other, so that everyone can worthily receive the
Body of Christ, they must be reconciled not only with God but also
with their brothers and sisters and the community. This is the
meaning in the Roman rite of the sign of peace which is exchanged
before the Communion that brings everyone together into only one
Body animated by the fruits of the Spirit: "love, joy, peace,
patience, kindness, goodness, truthfulness, gentleness and
self-control" (Gal 5:22).
To receive the Bread given "for all of you" in truth,
we must recognize Jesus in our poorest, smallest and most disdained
brothers and sisters. The Eucharist calls for a response of renewed
life that is open to sincere love. St John Chrysostom reminds us
about this: "You have tasted the Blood of the Lord, yet you do
not recognize your brother.... You dishonor this table when you do
not judge worthy of sharing your food someone judged worthy to take
part in this meal.... God freed you from all your sins and invited
you here, but you have not become more merciful".(19)
A gift for missionary commitment
16. By containing all the spiritual value of the Church, the
Eucharist is presented as the source and culmination of
evangelization. Since it crowns a believer's initiation process into
the life of Christ and carried out in the Church, it urges
Christians to proclaim, both in words and deeds, the mystery
celebrated in the faith.(20) In fact, the Eucharistic banquet
encourages those who partake in it to be committed to the mission so
that the Gospel of salvation and the invitation to draw from its
fruits will be made known to all. The celebration of the Eucharistic
sacrifice is the most effective missionary action that renews the
world and people's lives.
Breaking the Bread of life involves us personally and in a
community way in helping those who do not know the Gospel to open up
to the gift of faith, and those who have drifted away to
rediscovering the joy of communion with Christ the Saviour. Every
Mass concludes with the missionary command, "Go", to bring
everyone the announcement of the risen Lord and his
"peace". Service to the poor, witness to charity, the
defence and promotion of every person's life, the struggle for
justice and the constant search for peace flow from and are
developed and sustained by the Eucharistic mystery.
IV. Mystery of the faith
From faith that is celebrated to faith that is lived in
contemplation and hope
17. The Bread of life gives life to those who receive it with
faith. Jesus taught this to his listeners at Capernaum and in every
other place: "Do not work for food that cannot last, but
work for food that endures to eternal life, the kind of food the Son
of Man is offering you, for on him the Father, God himself, has set
his seal'. Then they said to him, 'What must we do if we are to do
the works that God wants?'. Jesus gave them this answer, 'This is
working for God: you must believe in the one he has sent' " (Jn
The Word reveals the Mystery
18. Without Revelation the Eucharist is incomprehensible. Like
the disciples at the Last Supper and the wayfarers of Emmaus (cf. Lk
24:13-35), we need the Lord to break the bread of the Word for us
and to arouse the ardour of love in our hearts to adhere with faith
to his mystery of death and resurrection which is made present in
the sacrament of the altar. For this reason, the Mass is made up by
the liturgy of the Word and the Eucharistic liturgy, two parts which
are closely connected and ordained to one another.(21) Listening to
the Word which the Lord himself utters for us in the liturgical
assembly arouses the response of faith which prepares us to take
part in the banquet of Life.
The living Presence
19. The connection between the historical event and the sacrament
is well expressed in the Eucharistic hymn, "Ave verum corpus
natum de Maria Virgine". It affirms that today, in the
Eucharistic signs, we truly find the One who became flesh in Mary's
virginal womb to be God-with-us. We truly find him today in the
Eucharistic signs. Christ's presence in the Eucharist is a
"real" presence offered "in the sacrament", that
is, under the veil of signs and acts carried out according to
Christ's wishes and in the way, set down by the Church through
apostolic tradition. "This presence is called 'real'by
which is not intended to exclude the other types of presence as if
they could not be 'real' too, but because it is presence in the
fullest sense: that is to say, it is a substantial presence by which
Christ, God and man, makes himself wholly and entirely
Faith opens to adoration
20. Awareness of the greatness of the Eucharist, which is kept
night and day in our churches, is a call to believers to return
before the Mystery also outside of the Mass, and to continue the
prayerful attitudes that animate the Eucharistic celebration. The
silent prayer of thanks and supplication increases our faith by
helping us to live in hope and charity.
Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, hours of adoration,
Eucharistic processions, especially on the solemn feast of Corpus
Christi, and Eucharistic congresses concentrate our attention on the
One who is the Bread of life, life itself. They remind and give
witness to all that man does not live by bread alone. In the
Virgin's example of silent and fruitful listening, contemplation
helps grasp the presence of the Living One in the Eucharist and aids
in transfiguring the deaths that mark the earthly city into a
commitment for life and hope in the resurrection. "A great
prayer for life is urgently needed, a prayer will rise up throughout
Bread of eternal life, sign of the Pasch of the universe
21. For men and women today who wish to live a life that is not
ephemeral and to survive beyond the limitations of time and space,
Jesus has promised the possibility of being grafted on to his own
life and aspiring to an everlasting existence: "Anyone who does
eat my flesh and drink my blood has eternal life, and I shall raise
him up on the last day" (Jn 6:54). St Ignatius of Antioch
recalls that the Eucharist is "the only bread that is a
medicine for immortality, an antidote against death, food for
eternal life in Jesus Christ".(24) In the Eucharist, the
blessed hope is contained and already in act that nourishes the
Church's and every believer's expectation and desire for the Lord's
return: "Come Lord Jesus". It is the Church, the bride,
who says to her spouse, Christ, "Come". And he becomes
present in the consecrated bread and wine and confirms the promise
of his glorious return: "I shall indeed be with you soon"
Moreover, while the Eucharist attests to the renewal of the world
brought about by the Saviour,(25) it also commits believers to be
responsible for nature, the earth and the air which are entrusted by
the Lord of the universe to people's care. In believing that the
bread and wine, fruits of the earth and human toil, become the Body
and Blood of Christ, we get a glimpse now of the transformation of
creation which, at the end of time, the one Saviour of the world
will give back, definitively redeemed, into the Father's hands.(26)
With the Church of Rome
In communion with the Church of the Apostle Peter's Successor who
presides in charity
22. The International Eucharistic Congress will take place in
Rome where the Apostles Peter and Paul, together with many other
martyrs, have given Christ and the Church the supreme witness of
faith and love. Their example and the symbolic force of opening the
"Holy Door" calls upon believers to enter once again into
the mystery of Christ and of the Church, in order to face the way to
the third millennium with a new spirit.
Therefore, the convocation of the Congress commits first of all
the Church of Rome, led by the Successor of the Apostle Peter. In
giving thanks to the Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the only
Saviour of the world, the Church invokes the blessing of the Holy
Spirit so that she will express the mission faithfully, also in this
event, which, through a providential divine plan, has been entrusted
to her for the benefit of the Churches spread out over the earth.
With this attitude she is preparing to welcome the pilgrims who
will visit during the Jubilee Year and offer them the wealth of her
tradition and the witness of her faith. The ancient example of young
preferred "to lose his own life" rather than let the Life
be desecrated that he was carrying under the species of the
Eucharistic bread ,(27)
is a shining stimulus to become committed, in a personal way, to
favouring everyone's encounter with Christ the Saviour.
May the Virgin Mary, who in a missionary action presented the
Saviour to the shepherds of Bethlehem and to the Magi who came from
the East to Jerusalem, teach every Christian community how to give
thanks to the Lord who fills the hungry with goods, and to express
in life the mystery that is celebrated in faith.
Vicariate of Rome.
Birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary,
8 September 1998.
1 Cf. Roman Missal, Preface of Christmas II.
2 John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Tertio millennio adveniente
(10 November 1994), n. 55.
3 Cf. ibid.
4 Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Presbyterorum
ordinis, n. 5.
5 Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum
Concilium, n. 47; Catechism of the Catholic Church, n.
1337; General Instruction of the Roman Missal, n. 48.
6 Cf. Roman Missal, Preface of the Holy Eucharist I.
7 Roman Missal, Eucharistic Prayer I.
8 John Paul II, Allocution at the Angelus Domini (5 June
9 Cf. John Paid 11, Apostolic Letter Dies Domini (31 May
1998), nn. 31-54.
10 Cf. General Instruction of the Roman Missal, nn. 55f.; Catechism
of the Catholic Church, n. 1368,
11 Roman Missal, Eucharistic Prayer III
12 St Leo the Great, Discourses, 12, in Liturgy of the
Hours, Wednesday, Second Week of Easter.
13 "Catecheses" of Jerusalem, Catech. 22,
mystagogy 4, in Liturgy of the Hours, Saturday, Octave of
14 Roman Missal, Eucharistic Prayer II.
15 St Gaudentius of Brescia, Treatises, 2, in Liturgy
of the Hours, Thursday, Second Week of Easter.
16 Cf. Roman Missal, Prayer over the Gifts, 11th Sunday in
17 Roman Missal, Preface of the Holy Eucharist I.
18 Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 605.
19 St John Chrysostom, Homiliae in primam ad Corinthios,
27, 4, in Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1397.
20 Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Presbyterorum
Ordinis, n. 5.
21 Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum
Concilium, n. 56.
22 Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Mysterium fidei (3 September 1965),
in Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1374.
23 John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium vitae (25
March 1995), n. 100.
24 St Ignatius of Antioch, Epistula ad Ephesios, 20, 2 in Catechism
of the Catholic Church, n. 1405.
25 Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Constitution Gaudium
et spes, n. 38.
26 Cf. I Cor 15:24; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council,
Constitution Gaudium et spes, nn. 38-39.
27. Cf. Inscription of Damasus the Catacombs of Callistus,
Damasus, Epigr., 15.