CARDINAL ELECTORS
-------------------------------------------

VATICAN CITY, APRIL 18, 2005 (Zenit.org).- Short biographical sketches of the cardinals who will have a role in electing the next pope. This list omits Cardinals Jaime Sin and Adolfo Suárez Rivera, who will not participate in the conclave for health reasons.  Images of electors can be seen here.


Geraldo Majella Agnelo, 71
Archbishop of Săo Salvador da Bahia, Brazil

Geraldo Majella Agnelo was born Oct. 19, 1933, in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Săo Paulo on June 29, 1957, and holds a doctorate in liturgy from the Pontifical Athenaeum of St. Anselm, Rome.

He was director of the philosophical seminary, Aparecida; spiritual director and professor at Immaculate Conception Seminary, Ipiranga; professor of liturgical and sacramental theology at Pius XI Theological Institute; and rector of Our Lady of the Assumption Seminary.

On May 5, 1978, he was appointed bishop of Toledo and received episcopal ordination that Aug. 6. On Oct. 4, 1982, he was promoted to archbishop of Londrina. He was president of the Brazilian bishops' Liturgical Commission.

On Sept. 16, 1991, he was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Sacraments. He was named archbishop of Săo Salvador da Bahia on Jan. 13, 1999.

In May 1999 he was elected president of the National Conference of Brazilian Bishops in May 2003.

He was elevated to cardinal in the consistory of Feb. 21, 2001.

Curial membership:

  • Migrant and Itinerant Peoples (council)
  •  Cultural Heritage of the Church (commission)

     


Bernard Agré, 79
Archbishop of Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Bernard Agré was born March 2, 1926, in Monga, Ivory Coast. He was ordained July 20, 1953, and holds a doctorate in canon law from the Urbanian University, Rome.

He was a headmaster in Dabouń rector of the pre-seminary in Bingerville; parish priest of Notre Dame Parish in Treichville; and vicar general of Abidjan. On June 8, 1968, he was appointed bishop of Man and received episcopal ordination Oct. 3. On March 6, 1992, he was named bishop of the new Diocese of Yamoussoukro and on Dec. 19, 1994, was promoted to archbishop of Abidjan.

From 1985 until 1991, he was president of the Episcopal Conferences of Francophone West Africa and, from 1972 until 1996, chairman of the Pan-African Episcopal Committee for Social Communications.

He was also a member of the Committee of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001. He was president delegate for the 10th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in October 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
  •  Family, Justice and Peace, Social Communications (councils)


Francisco Álvarez Martínez, 79
Retired archbishop of Toledo, Spain

Francisco Álvarez Martínez was born July 14, 1925, in Santa Eulalia de Ferrońes Llanera, Spain. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Oviedo on June 11, 1950, and holds a doctorate in canon law from the University of Comillas, Madrid.

He was personal secretary to Archbishop Lauzurica y Torralba and did parish work in the Corredoría neighborhood. He was later chancellor and secretary of the archdiocesan curia and also served as chaplain to university students of the Teresian Institute.

On April 13, 1973, he was appointed bishop of Tarazona and received episcopal ordination June 3. He was named bishop of Calahorra and La Calzada-Logrońo on Dec. 20, 1976, and was transferred to Orihuela-Alicante on May 12, 1989.

He was promoted to archbishop of Toledo on June 23, 1995, and was a member of the Standing Commission and the Executive Committee of the Spanish episcopal conference.

He became archbishop emeritus of Toledo on Oct. 24, 2002. He was elevated to cardinal in the consistory of Feb. 21, 2001.

Curial membership:

  •   Christian Unity, Laity (councils)


Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic, 75
Archbishop of Toronto


Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic was born Jan. 27, 1930, in Gabrje, Slovenia, and emigrated with his family first to Austria in 1945 and then to Canada in 1948. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Toronto on June 4, 1955.

After serving for two years as a curate, he earned degrees in theology from the Angelicum and in Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome.

He taught Scripture at St. Augustine's Seminary (1960-67) and then earned a doctorate in theology at the University of Wuerzburg. From 1970 to 1976 he taught New Testament exegesis at the Toronto School of Theology and served as dean of studies at St. Augustine's.

On March 26, 1976, he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Toronto and coadjutor of the same see on May 22, 1986. He became archbishop of Toronto on March 17, 1990.

He is the author of many written works. He was a delegate at the Synod of 1990 on the Formation of Priests and at the Synod of 1994 on Consecrated Life.

He was elevated to cardinal in the consistory of Feb. 21, 1998.

Curial membership:

  •  Divine Worship and Sacraments, Clergy, Eastern Churches (congregations)
  •  Migrants and Itinerant People, Culture (councils)
  •  Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
     

Carlos Amigo Vallejo, 70
Archbishop of Seville, Spain

Carlos Amigo Vallejo was born in Medina de Rioseco, Valladolid, Spain, on Aug. 23, 1934. He was ordained a priest for the Order of Friars Minor on Aug. 17, 1960.

In 1970 he was appointed superior of his order’s Santiago Province. On Dec. 17, 1973, he was appointed archbishop of Tangier, Morocco; he was ordained bishop on April 28, 1974. He took part as a member of the Holy See Delegation in the Meeting for Islamic-Christian Dialogue in Tripoli, Libya, in 1976.

On many occasions he served as mediator in disputes between nations, and encouraged the establishment of centers for the social promotion of Muslim women; he also sought to improve Christian, Muslim and Jewish relations. He was appointed Archbishop of Seville on May 22, 1982.

As member of the bishops’ conference, he participated in the 1994 Synod of Bishops on Consecrated Life. He has been archbishop of Seville since 1982. He was elevated to cardinal in the consistory of Oct. 21, 2003.


Curial membership:

  •  Health Care Workers (council)
  •  Latin America (commission)

     

Ennio Antonelli, 68
Archbishop of Florence, Italy

Ennio Antonelli was born at Todi, Italy, on Nov. 18, 1936. He was ordained a priest for that diocese on April 2, 1960. He holds a doctorate in classical studies from the University of Perugia.

Cardinal Antonelli was chaplain of the Catholic Teachers’ Association and of various Catholic Action groups, and also served as a seminary rector. He taught literature and art history and lectured in dogmatic theology at the theological institute of Assisi, and was likewise deeply involved in parish activities.

He was appointed bishop of Gubbio on May 25, 1982, and ordained on Aug. 29. He built the new seminary, the diocesan pastoral center and a house for the clergy. On Oct. 6, 1988, he was appointed archbishop of Perugia-Cittŕ della Pieve.

He has held various offices within the Italian bishops' conference and has been active in the hospital, school and university apostolates, setting up chaplaincies and creating groups for social/cultural commitment.

On March 21, 2001, he succeeded Cardinal Silvano Piovanelli as archbishop of Florence. He was elevated to cardinal in the consistory of Oct. 21, 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Laity, Social Communications (councils)

 

Francis Arinze, 72
Prefect of Congregation of Divine Worship and the Sacraments

Francis Arinze was born Nov. 1, 1932, in Eziowelle, a city of the Archdiocese of Onitsha, Nigeria. At age 15 he began his secondary studies at the All Hallowa Seminary (Ognissanti) of Nuewi, studies which he concluded in 1950 at Enugu.

For the following two years he taught at the same seminary until 1953, when he took up philosophy studies at Bigard Memorial Seminary at Enugu. In 1955 he began to take courses in theology at the Urbanian University. Only three years later he was ordained to the priesthood during a ceremony which took place at the church of the Urban University in Rome on Nov. 23, 1958.

From 1961-1962, he was professor of liturgy and also taught logic and basic philosophy at Bigard Memorial Seminary at Enugu. He was then appointed regional secretary for Catholic education for the eastern part of his country. When transferred to London, he took courses at the Institute of Pedagogy, earning a diploma in 1964.

On July 6, 1965, he was named coadjutor to the archbishop of Onitsha. On Aug. 29, 1965, he was consecrated bishop. Two years later he was asked to take over the pastoral government of the archdiocese, and on June 26, 1967, he was named archbishop.

In 1979 his brother bishops elected him president of the episcopal conference of Nigeria, a post he filled until 1984, when John Paul II asked him to head as pro-president the Secretariat for Non-Christians (now the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue).

He remained Archbishop of Onitsha until April 1985, while awaiting the nomination of a successor.

He was president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue from May 1985 to October 2002.

On May 8, 1994, he presided in the capacity of first president delegate at the solemn closing of the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops at the altar of the Chair of St. Peter's Basilica.

On Oct. 1, 2002, he was named prefect of the Congregation of Divine Worship and the Sacraments.

Curial membership:

  •  Doctrine of the Faith, Oriental Churches, Causes of Saints, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)
  •  Laity, Christian Unity, Culture (councils)
  •  International Eucharistic Congresses (committee)
  •  Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
  •  Special Council for Africa and Special Council for Lebanon of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
  • He was elevated to cardinal in the consistory of May 25, 1985.
     


Audrys Juozas Backis, 68
Archbishop of Vilnius, Lithuania

Audrys Juozas Backis was born Feb. 1, 1937, in Kaunas, Lithuania. He grew up in France, where his father was a foreign service officer at the Lithuanian Legation, Paris. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Kaunas on March 18, 1961, and holds a licentiate in theology from the Gregorian University and a doctorate in canon law from the Lateran University.

He entered the Holy See's diplomatic service in 1964 and was posted to the Philippines, Costa Rica, Turkey, Nigeria and the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. He was the council's undersecretary from 1979 to 1988.

On Aug. 5, 1988, he was appointed apostolic nuncio in the Netherlands, receiving episcopal ordination on Oct. 4.

On Dec. 24, 1991, he was named archbishop of Vilnius. He now serves as president of the Lithuanian bishops' conference. He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Catholic Education (congregation)
  • Social Communications (council)
  • Cultural Heritage (commission)
  • Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Philippe Barbarin, 54
Archbishop of Lyon, France

Philippe Barbarin was born Oct. 17, 1950, in Rabat, Morocco. He was ordained a priest Dec. 17, 1977, for the Diocese of Creteil, France, and holds degrees in philosophy and theology.

He served as vicar and chaplain for students in Vincennes and as a student chaplain and parochial vicar in Saint-Maur. In Boissy-Saint-Leger he served as parish priest and as chaplain for students and was the diocesan delegate for ecumenism.

He was a "fidei donum priest and lecturer of theology at the Major Seminary of Fianarantsoa in Madagascar, as well as a parish priest of Bry-sur-Marne.

On Oct. 1, 1998, John Paul II nominated him as bishop of Moulins, and he received episcopal ordination that Nov. 22.

Cardinal Barbarin is a member of the Social Commission of the Bishops' Conference of France. He also serves as president of the bishops' Committee for Health.

Since July 16, 2002, he has been archbishop of Lyons. He was elevated to cardinal in 2003.

Curial membership:

  • Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)



William Baum, 78
Retired major penitentiary

William Wakefield Baum is also the retired archbishop of Washington, D.C. He was born Nov. 21, 1926, in Dallas, Texas. At an early age he moved to Kansas City, Missouri, where he received his primary education.

In 1939, at age 13, he entered St. John's Minor Seminary of Kansas City. He did his philosophical and theology studies at Kenrick Seminary in St. Louis. He was ordained a priest May 12, 1951. He then did parish work and taught theology and Church history at the College of St. Theresa.

In 1956 he received a doctorate in theology from the Angelicum, in Rome, in 1958.

On Feb. 18, 1970, Paul VI nominated him bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, Missouri; he was consecrated bishop that April 6. On March 5, 1973, he was named archbishop of Washington. During the same time he was also the president of the bishops' Commission for Ecumenical Affairs.

Elevated to cardinal in 1976, he was named perfect of the Congregation for Catholic Education by John Paul II on Jan. 15, 1980, a post he held until April 1990. He retired as archbishop of Washington in March 1980.

From April 6, 1990, until Nov. 22, 2001, he served as major penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary.

Curial membership:

  •  Bishops, Eastern Churches, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)


Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 68
Archbishop of Buenos Aires

Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born Dec. 17, 1936, in Buenos Aires. He was ordained for the Jesuits on Dec. 13, 1969, during his theological studies at the Theological Faculty of San Miguel.

He was novice master in San Miguel, where he also taught theology. He was Provincial for Argentina (1973-79) and rector of the Philosophical and Theological School of San Miguel (1980-86). After completing his doctoral dissertation in Germany, he served as a confessor and spiritual director in Cordoba.

On May 20, 1992, he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires, receiving episcopal consecration that June 27. On June 3, 1997, was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Buenos Aires and succeeded Cardinal Antonio Quarracino on Feb. 28, 1998. He is also ordinary for Eastern-rite faithful in Argentina who lack an ordinary of their own rite.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001. He was adjunct relator general of the 10th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, October 2001.

Curial membership:

  • Divine Worship and Sacraments, Clergy, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)
  •  Family (council)
  • Latin America (commission)
  • Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Tarcisio Bertone, 70
Archbishop of Genoa, Italy

Tarcisio Bertone was born Dec. 2, 1934, in Romano Canavese, Italy. He was ordained July 1, 1960. He holds a licentiate in theology with a dissertation on tolerance and religious freedom and a doctorate in canon law.

He has been professor of special moral theology at the Salesian University, 1967; professor of canon law, 1976-91; and dean of the Faculty of Canon Law, 1979-85. He collaborated in several Roman parishes and has also worked on the final phase of the revision of the Code of Canon Law.

Since the 1980s, he has served as consultor in several dicasteries of the Roman Curia, especially in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

On Aug. 1, 1991, he was ordained archbishop of Vercelli. Since 1995 he has been secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, charged by Pope John Paul II with the care of the publication of the third part of the "secret" of Fatima.

On 10 December 2002 he was nominated archbishop of Genoa. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Doctrine of the Faith, Clergy (congregations)


Giacomo Biffi, 76
Retired archbishop of Bologna, Italy


Giacomo Biffi was born June 13, 1928, in Milan, Italy. He did his studies at the seminaries of the Archdiocese of Milan. He received a doctorate in theology from the Faculty of Theology at Venegono.

He was ordained priest Dec. 23, 1950, in Milan. He taught dogmatic theology at seminaries in Milan and published numerous works on theology, catechetics and meditation.

On Dec. 7, 1975, he was named an auxiliary bishop for the Archbishop of Milan. He received episcopal ordination on Jan. 11, 1976. He founded and directed the Pastoral Institute of Lombardy.

On April 19, 1984, the Pope called him from Milan where he was auxiliary to lead the Church in Bologna after the sudden death of Archbishop Enrico Manfredini.

He was elevated to cardinal in May 1985. During Lent of 1989 he was called to preach the Spiritual Exercises for the Roman Curia in which the Holy Father took part. He retired as archbishop of Bologna in December 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Clergy, Catholic Education, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)



Josip Bozanic, 56
Archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia

Josip Bozanic was born March 20, 1949, in Rijeka, Croatia. He was ordained a priest June 29, 1975, and holds a licentiate in dogmatic theology and in canon law.

He served as chancellor and as vicar general of the Curia of Krk. He was lecturer of dogmatic theology and of canon law at the Theological Institute of Rijeka.

On June 25, 1989, he was ordained as coadjutor bishop of Krk and in 1989 was appointed as bishop. He has served as apostolic administrator of the Archdiocese of Rijeka-Senj.

In 1997, he was elected President of the Bishops' Conference of Croatia and was reconfirmed in 2002.

In 2001 Cardinal Bozanic became vice president of the Council of the Bishops' Conferences of Europe, a position he continues to hold.

On July 5, 1997, he was nominated archbishop of Zagreb. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Divine Worship and the Sacraments (congregation)
  •  Laity (council)
  •  Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Agostino Cacciavillan, 78
Retired president of Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See

Agostino Cacciavillan was born Aug. 14, 1926, in Novale di Valdagno, Italy. He was ordained for the Diocese of Vicenza in June 1949.

He served as a curate for three years before earning advanced degrees in social science and law and attending the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome. He was later posted to the Philippines, Spain, Portugal and the Vatican Secretariat of State.

In January 1976 Pope Paul VI appointed him apostolic pro-nuncio in Kenya and apostolic delegate in Seychelles. He received episcopal ordination that Feb. 28. Other posts included apostolic pro-nuncio in India (1981) and pro-nuncio in Nepal (1985), apostolic nuncio in the United States and permanent observer at the Organization of American States (1990).

He was named president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See in November 1998. He retired from that post Oct. 1, 2002. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Eastern Churches, Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples; Sainthood Causes (congregations)
  • Apostolic Signature (tribunal)
  • Legislative Texts (council)
  •  Latin America, Vatican City State (commission)



Ricardo María Carles Gordó, 78
Retired archbishop of Barcelona, Spain

Ricardo María Carles Gordó was born in Valencia, Spain, on Sept. 24, 1926. He entered the Major Seminary of the Archdiocese of Valencia and was ordained a priest in June 1951. He obtained a degree in canon law at the Pontifical University of Salamanca in 1953.

In June 1969 he was named bishop of Tortosa and received episcopal ordination that Aug. 3.

In March 1990, the Pope named him archbishop of Barcelona; he took over the post that May 27. He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994. He retired from the Barcelona Archdiocese last June 15.

Curial membership:

  • Catholic Education (congregation)
  • Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
  • Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See


Darío Castrillón Hoyos, 75
Prefect of the Congregation for Clergy

Darío Castrillón Hoyos was born July 4, 1929, in Medellin, Colombia. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Medellín in October 1952 following his theological studies at the Gregorian University, Rome, where he also earned a doctorate in canon law. He also specialized in religious sociology, political economy and ethics in economy.

He served as a curate in two rural parishes, director of the Cursillo movement and delegate for Catholic Action. He also taught canon law at the Free Civil University and was General Secretary of the Colombian Bishops' Conference.

In June 1971 he was named coadjutor bishop of Pereira, received episcopal ordination that July 18, and succeeded the bishop on July 1, 1976.

From 1983 to 1987 he was general secretary of the Latin American bishops' council (CELAM) and president of the same council from 1987 to 1991.

Named archbishop of Bucaramanga in December 1992, he was called by the Holy Father to head the Congregation for Clergy in June 1996 as pro-prefect.

During the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops held Nov. 16-Dec. 12, 1998, he served as president delegate and member of the postsynodal council.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 1998. He was named president of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei" in April 2000.

Curial membership:

  •  Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education, Clergy, Divine Worship and the Sacraments (congregations)
    * Legislative Texts, Social Communications (councils)
  •  Latin America (commission)
  •  Administration of Patrimony of the Holy See (office)
  •  Special Council for America of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Marco Cé, 79
Retired patriarch of Venice, Italy

Marco Cé was born July 8, 1925, in Izano, Italy, into a modest farming family. He did theological studies in Rome at the Gregorian University and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, where he received a doctorate in dogmatic theology and a licentiate in sacred Scripture.

After his ordination in March 1948, he returned to his diocese and became vice rector of the seminary and taught sacred Scripture. In 1957, he was named rector of the seminary.

In April 1970, Pope Paul VI appointed him auxiliary bishop of Bologna. He received episcopal ordination that May 17.

In April 1976, Paul VI named him the chaplain to Catholic Action. In December 1978, John Paul II asked him to take on the Patriarchate of Venice, a post he retired from on Jan. 5, 2002. He was elevated to cardinal in June 1979.

Curial membership:

  • Eastern Churches (congregation)


Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne, 61

Archbishop of Lima and primate of Peru

Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne was born Dec. 28, 1943, in Lima. A champion basketball player, he studied industrial engineering at the National Institute of Engineering and joined Opus Dei in 1962. After working as an engineer, he was ordained for the prelature in August 1977 and holds a doctorate in theology from the University of Navarre.

He did pastoral work in Lima and taught moral theology at the Pontifical Faculty of Theology. He was later regional vicar for Peru and vice chancellor of the University of Piura.

In May 1988 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Ayacucho, receiving episcopal ordination that July 3. He was promoted to archbishop of Ayacucho in May 1995.

He tried to negotiate a peaceful resolution to the siege of the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima (December 1996 to April 1997) and ministered to the Japanese and Peruvian hostages.

He was named archbishop of Lima in January 1999 and elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Sainthood Causes (congregations)
  •  Latin America (commission)


Desmond Connell, 79
Retired archbishop of Dublin, Ireland

Desmond Connell was born March 24, 1926, in Phibsboro, Ireland. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Dublin in May 1951 and holds a doctorate in philosophy from the Catholic University of Louvain.

In 1953 he started teaching in the Department of Metaphysics at University College Dublin, where he was appointed professor of general metaphysics in 1972 and elected dean of the School of Philosophy and Sociology in 1983.

He also served as chaplain to the Poor Clares in Donnybrook, the Carmelites in Drumcondra and the Carmelites in Blackrock.

He was appointed archbishop of Dublin in January 1988 and received episcopal ordination that March 6. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001, and retired as archbishop of Dublin in April 2004.

Curial membership:

  •  Doctrine of the Faith, Bishops (congregations)
  • Laity (council)

 
José da Cruz Policarpo, 69

Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal

José da Cruz Policarpo was born Feb. 26, 1936, in Alvorninha, Portugal. He was ordained in August 1961 for the Patriarchate of Lisbon and holds a doctorate in theology from the Gregorian University, Rome.

He was director of the seminary in Penafirme, rector of the seminary in Olivais and dean of the Theological Faculty of the Portuguese Catholic University. He later served two terms as rector of the same university (1988-96). He is the author of a number of books and scholarly articles.

In May 1978 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Lisbon, receiving episcopal ordination that June 29. In March 1997 he was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Lisbon and succeeded Cardinal António Ribeiro as patriarch in March 1998. He is also grand chancellor of the Portuguese Catholic University and president of the Portuguese bishops' conference.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

  • Catholic Education (congregation)
  • Laity, Culture (councils)


Godfried Danneels, 71
Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, Belgium

Godfried Danneels was born June 4, 1933, in Kanegem, in Eastern Flanders. He earned a licentiate in theology at the Higher Institute of Philosophy of the Catholic University of Louvain in 1954, and in 1961, a doctorate at the Gregorian University of Rome.

In August 1957, he was ordained a priest, and in 1959, he became spiritual director of the major seminary of Bruges. Ten years later he became professor of theology at the Flemish Catholic University of Louvain and in November 1977 he was named bishop of Antwerp by Pope Paul VI. He was ordained a bishop in December 1977.

In 1978 Pope John Paul II designated him a president delegate of the Special Synod for the Netherlands. He was relator of the second general extraordinary assembly of the Synod of Bishops (1985).

In December 1979, he was named archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels. He was elevated to cardinal in February 1983.

Cardinal Daneels is the military ordinary for Belgium and president of the Belgian bishops' conference.

Curial membership:

  •  Secretariat of State (second section)
  •  Eastern Churches, Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)
  •  Ordinary Council of General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops



Ignace Moussa I Daoud, 74
Prefect of the Congregation for Eastern Churches

Ignace Moussa I Daoud was born Sept. 18, 1930, in Meskaneh, Syria. He was ordained in October 1954 and holds a licentiate in canon law from the Lateran University, Rome.

In July 1977 he was elected by the Syrian Patriarchal Synod as Bishop of Cairo, Egypt, and ordained that Sept. 18. He was a member of the Commission for the Revision of the Eastern Code of Canon Law and chaired the commission that translated the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches into Arabic.

In July 1994 he was promoted to archbishop of Homs for Syrians, Syria. In October 1998 he was elected patriarch of Antioch for Syrians and enthroned Oct. 25.

In November 2000 he was appointed prefect of the Congregation for Eastern Churches. He stepped down as patriarch of Antioch in January 2001. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

  • Doctrine of the Faith, Sainthood Causes (congregation)
  • Christian Unity, Legislative Texts (council)
  • Special Council for Lebanon of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, 70
Archbishop of Jakarta, Indonesia

Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja was born Dec. 20, 1934, in Muntilan, Indonesia. Baptized in December 1934, in the Archdiocese of Semarang, he was confirmed in June 1947.

In September 1957 he entered a novitiate of the Society of Jesus in Giri Sonta-Klepu, Central Java, and took his first vows there in September 1959.

In 1964 he received his licentiate in philosophy at De Nobili College, a pontifical athenaeum in Poona, India. In December of that year he was ordained to the priesthood.

He served as provincial of the Indonesian Province of the Society of Jesus from 1981 to 1983. In February 1983 he was appointed archbishop of Semarang and he received episcopal ordination that June 29.

In January 1996 he was appointed archbishop of Jakarta. He has been the military ordinary for Indonesia since June 1984. He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994.

Curial membership:

  •  Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
  •  Interreligious Dialogue, Culture (councils)
  •  Special Council for Asia of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Salvatore De Giorgi, 74
Archbishop of Palermo, Italy

Salvatore De Giorgi was born Sept. 6, 1930, in Vernole, Italy. He was ordained for the Diocese of Lecce in June 1953.

In November 1973 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Oria and became bishop of that see in March 1978. In April 1981 he was appointed archbishop of Foggia and in October 1987 he was appointed archbishop of Taranto.

In 1990 he was named general chaplain of Catholic Action, consultor for the Congregation for Bishops and member of the Pontifical Council for the Family, and resigned as archbishop of Taranto. In April 1996 he was appointed archbishop of Palermo and was elected president of the Sicilian episcopal conference.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 1998.

Curial membership:

  •  Clergy (congregation)
  • Laity, Family (councils)


Ivan Dias, 68
Archbishop of Bombay, India

Ivan Dias was born April 14, 1936, in Bombay, India. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Bombay in December 1958 and holds a doctorate in canon law from the Lateran University, Rome.

He entered the Holy See's diplomatic service in 1964 and was posted to the Nordic countries, Indonesia, Madagascar, Réunion, the Comorros, Mauritius and the Secretariat of State.

In May 1982 he was appointed apostolic pro-nuncio in Ghana, Togo and Benin, and received episcopal ordination that June 19. He later served as apostolic nuncio in Korea (1987-91) and Albania (1991-97).

In November 1996 he was appointed archbishop of Bombay. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Doctrine of the Faith, Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Catholic Education (congregations)
  •  Culture, Laity (councils)
  •  Cultural Heritage of the Church (commission)
  •  Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
  •  Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
     

Edward Egan, 73
Archbishop of New York

Edward Michael Egan was born April 2, 1932, in Oak Park, Illinois. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Chicago in December 1957 and holds a licentiate in theology and a doctorate in canon law from the Gregorian University, Rome.

After serving as a curate, and as secretary to Cardinal Albert Meyer, he was assistant vice rector of the North American College (1960-64). On returning to Chicago he was vice chancellor (1964-68) and co-chancellor for human relations and ecumenism (1968-72). From 1972 to 1985 he was a prelate auditor of the Roman Rota and taught judicial practice at the Studio Rotale and the Gregorian University.

In April 1985 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of New York, receiving episcopal ordination that May 22. He was transferred to the residential see of Bridgeport, Connecticut, in November 1988 and promoted to archbishop of New York in May 2000.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001. He was relator general for the 10th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in October 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Family (council)
  •  Cultural Heritage (commission)
  •  Apostolic Signature (tribunal)
  •  Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
  •  Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
     


Péter Erdő, 52
Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest and primate of Hungary

Péter Erdő was born June 25, 1952, in Budapest, Hungary. He was ordained a priest in June 1975 and holds doctorates in theology and canon law.

He was a professor of theology in the Faculty of Theology of the Archdiocese of Esztergom and at the Gregorian University. He was rector of Rome's Hungarian Pontifical Institute.

He served as professor, department head, dean and rector of the Theological Academy Péter Pázmány, and was principal of the Postgraduate Institute of Canon Law. He also taught at the Pontifical Catholic University Argentina, in Buenos Aires, and at the Lateran University.

In January 2000 he was ordained as an auxiliary bishop of Szekesfehervar. He is now president of the Commission of Ecclesiastical Law of the bishops' conference of Hungary.

In December 2002 he was named archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest and primate of Hungary. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Catholic Education (congregation)
  •  Legislative Texts (council)
  •  Apostolic Signature (tribunal)


Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, 71
Archbishop of Santiago, Chile

Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa was born Sept. 5, 1933, in Santiago. He was ordained for the Schönstatt Fathers in July 1961 and holds a licentiate in theology from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland.

He was a chaplain to students and professionals of the Schönstatt Movement and served as regional superior in Chile. In 1971 he was called to Germany as a member of his community's General Council and in 1974 was elected superior general.

In December 1990 he was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, receiving episcopal ordination on Jan. 6, 1991. In September 1996 he was named archbishop of Valparaiso and was transferred to the Archdiocese of Santiago in April 1998.

He is president of the episcopal conference of Chile. In May 2003 he was elected president of the Latin American bishops' council (CELAM). He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregation)
  •  Family, Culture (councils)
  •  Latin America (commission)



Frédéric Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi, 74
Archbishop of Kinshasa, Congo

Frédéric Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi was born Dec. 3, 1930, at Mazalonga, Lisala, in then Zaire. After having studied in the minor seminary of Bolongo, he continued at the major seminary of Kabwe in Western Kasai, where he completed the first cycle of philosophy (1949-1953) and a year of theology (1953-1954).

He entered the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and completed the novitiate at Katoka, Western Kasai, before completing the first cycle of theology in 1958.

Ordained a priest in July 1958, Frédéric Etsou was then named vicar in two parishes of Kinshasa.

He was sent to Europe to study for a doctorate in sociology at the Catholic Institute of Paris, and in pastoral theology at the Lumen Vitae in Brussels, Belgium. He also studied science and letters at the Institute of Higher Studies d'Oltremare in Paris, France.

In 1968, he returned to Kinshasa where he was named dean in a parish and at the same time vice provincial of his congregation.

In July 1976 he was named coadjutor archbishop of Mbandaka and received episcopal ordination on Nov. 7, 1976. In November 1977 he became resident archbishop of Mbandaka-Bikoro. In July 1990, he was named archbishop of Kinshasa.

He was elevated to cardinal in June 1991. Since July 2000, he has been president of the Congolese bishops' conference.

Curial membership:

  •  Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
  •  Family, Culture (councils)
  • Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See

     


José Freire Falcăo, 79
Retired archbishop of Brasilia, Brazil

José Freire Falcăo was born Oct. 23, 1925, at Erere, Diocese of Limoeiro do Norte. In 1938 he entered the seminary of Prainha at Fortaleaz, where he did his higher studies, as well as philosophy and theology.

In June 1949 he was ordained a priest at Limoeiro do Norte. Immediately after he began his ministry as vicar of the cathedral. He was also vice director of the diocesan secondary school, professor at the minor seminary and in other schools, as well as the chaplain to Catholic Action.

In April 1967 he was named coadjutor bishop of Limoeiro do Norte, with the right of succession. He received episcopal ordination June 17, 1967, and two months later, on Aug. 19, he assumed the pastoral governance of the diocese. In November 1971 he was named archbishop of Teresina. In February 1984 he went to the Diocese of Brasilia.

He was a vice president of the Latin American bishops' council. He was elevated to cardinal in June 1988. He retired as archbishop of Brasilia in January 2004.

Curial membership:

  •  Health Care Workers (council)
  • Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See


Francis George, 68

Archbishop of Chicago

Francis Eugene George was born in Chicago on Jan. 16, 1937. After attending the St. Henry minor seminary, in Illinois, he entered the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate in August 1957.

He studied theology at the University of Ottawa in Canada and was ordained priest in December 1963.

He pursued undergraduate studies in philosophy at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., and then doctoral studies in philosophy at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. In these years, he also taught philosophy at the Seminary of the Oblates in Pass Christian, Mississippi (1964-69), at Tulane (1968), and at Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska (1969-73).

From 1973 to 1974 he was provincial superior of the Midwestern Province of the Oblates at St. Paul, Minnesota. He was then elected vicar general of the Oblates and worked in Rome from 1974 to 1986.

He returned to the United States and became coordinator of the Circle of Fellows of the Cambridge Center for the Study of Faith and Culture in Cambridge, Massachusetts (1987-90).

At that time he pursued doctoral studies in theology at the Urbanian University in Rome, with a specialization in ecclesiology (1988).

Pope John Paul II named him bishop of Yakima in Washington state in July 1990. He was ordained to the episcopate that Sept. 21 and installed as bishop of Yakima on the same day.

In April 1996 he was named archbishop of Portland, Oregon. He took possession of the see a month later. In April 1997 he was named archbishop of Chicago.

He was appointed by the Pope to the Synod of Bishops on Consecrated Life in 1994, and as delegate and special secretary to the American Synod in 1997.

He has been a consultor for the U.S. bishops' conference on the following commissions: Science and Human Values (1994-97), Hispanic Affairs (1994-97), Evangelization (1991-93). He was also president of the episcopal Commission for Bishops and Scholars (1992-94).

He is the representative of the U.S. bishop's conference on the International Commission for English in the Liturgy. He is also a member of the Pontifical Foundation (since 1997) and of the Council of Administration of the Pope John XXIII Center, Boston, Massachusetts (since 1994).

He was elevated to cardinal in February 1998.

Curial membership:

  •  Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Evangelization of Peoples, Eastern Churches (congregations)
  • Cor Unum, Culture (councils)
  •  Cultural Heritage (commission)
  •  Vox Clara (committee)
  •  Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
  •  Special Council for America of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Michele Giordano, 74
Archbishop of Naples, Italy

Michele Giordano was born Sept. 26, 1930, in Sant'Arcangelo, Italy. He studied at the regional seminary of Potenza and then also at Salerno. In the interregional seminary of Posillipo he completed a licentiate in theology. In July 1953 he was ordained a priest and immediately became the pastor of Scanzano.

In 1959 he was appointed director of the Catechetics Center and the Diocesan Center of Social Studies. At the same time he was also the diocesan chaplain to Catholic Action.

In 1968, he was appointed vicar general of the diocese, until December 1971, when he was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Matera and apostolic administrator of Irsina, Gravina and Altamura.

In June 1974 he was appointed archbishop of Matera and Irsina. One of his first initiatives was to reopen the diocesan seminary, closed for 60 years.

In May 1987 he was named to the metropolitan Church of Naples, and took possession on June 27, 1987. In September 1987 the 24 bishops of Campania elected him president of their episcopal conference. He was elevated to cardinal in June 1988.

Curial membership:

  •  Clergy (congregation)
  •  Health Care Workers (council)


Józef Glemp, 75
Archbishop of Warsaw and primate of Poland

Józef Glemp was born Dec. 18, 1929, at Inowroclaw, Poland, the son of a salt miner. During the Nazi occupation he was forced to work in the country on a German farm.

In July 1950 he entered the archdiocesan seminary of Gniezno, where in May 1956 he was ordained a priest.
After two years of pastoral service, in 1958 he was sent to Rome to study canon law at the Lateran University, earning his doctorate.

After his practicum he was given the title of advocate of the Roman Rota. In 1964, he returned to Gniezno in Poland. He became chaplain of the Dominican and Franciscan Sisters and teacher of religion in the house for delinquent minors. He worked as secretary of the seminary of Gniezno and as notary for the curia and the metropolitan tribunal and also as defender of the bond.

In December 1967, he worked in the secretariat of the primate, and for 15 years was one of Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski's close aides.

In March 1979, Pope John Paul II named him bishop of Warmia. After the death of Cardinal Wyszynski in May 1981, he was named archbishop of Gniezno in July 1981, in union with the archdiocese of Warsaw. As bishop of Gniezno he became also the primate of Poland. He was elevated to cardinal in February 1983.

In March 1992, with the restructuring of the Church dioceses in Poland, John Paul II dissolved the union "ad personam" of Gniezno-Warsaw, naming as metropolitan archbishop of Gniezno Bishop Henryk Muszynski.

The Holy Father decided that the title of primate of Poland should remain linked to the historical heritage of St. Adalberto in the Archdiocese of Gniezno and confirmed that Cardinal Józef Glemp, archbishop of Warsaw, who had custody of the relics of St. Adalberto, should continue to bear the title of primate of Poland.

Cardinal Glemp acted as president of the bishops' conference of Poland for 23 years, from 1981 until March 2004.
He was president delegate to the 1st Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, in 1991.

Curial membership:

  •  Eastern Churches (congregation)
  • Culture (council)
  • Apostolic Signature (tribunal)



Zenon Grocholewski, 65
Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education

Zenon Grocholewski was born Oct. 11, 1939, in Brodki, Poland. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Poznan in May 1963. He worked for three years at a parish in Poznan before earning a doctorate in canon law at the Gregorian University, Rome.

From 1972 to 1999 he worked at the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature as notary, chancellor, secretary and prefect.

During this time he was one of the seven members of the commission that studied the draft of the 1983 Code of Canon Law with the Pope, and he taught canon law at the Gregorian and Lateran universities and the Studio Rotale. He was appointed titular bishop of Agropoli in December 1982 and promoted to archbishop in December 1991.

In November 1999 he was appointed prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education. He is currently the grand chancellor of the Gregorian University. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Doctrine of the Faith, Bishops (congregations)
  •  Legislative Texts (council)
  •  Special Council for Oceania of the Secretariat General (Synod of Bishops)


Stephen Hamao, 75
President of Pontifical Council for Migrants and Travelers


Stephen Hamao was born on March 9, 1930, in Tokyo. He was ordained a priest Dec. 21, 1957, and holds a degree in canon law.

He served as chaplain for the Catholic university students of the Archdiocese of Tokyo. In April 1970 he was ordained auxiliary bishop of Tokyo.

In 1979 he was named bishop of the Diocese of Yokohama, where he was responsible for various commissions of the bishops' conference of Japan.

He was also a member of the Council of the Synod of Bishops and head of the Office for Human Development of the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences.

Since 1998, when he was also raised to the dignity of archbishop, he has been president of the Pontifical Council for Migrants and Travelers. He was elevated to cardinal in 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Evangelization of Peoples, Sainthood Causes (congregations)
  •  Cor Unum, Justice and Peace (councils)
  • International Eucharistic Congresses (committee)


Julián Herranz, 75
President of Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts

Julián Herranz was born on March 31, 1930, in Baena, Spain. He was ordained a priest on Aug. 7, 1955, for the Prelature of Opus Dei. He holds a licentiate in medicine with a specialization in psychiatry and a degree in canon law.

Father Herranz was a professor at the University of Navarra. In 1960, he was called to service in the Roman Curia. In 1983 he was appointed secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law.

In 1990, following the re-naming of the commission (today the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts), he was appointed as secretary, receiving episcopal ordination Jan. 6, 1991.

In 1994 he was raised to archbishop and appointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts. He was elevated to cardinal in 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Bishops, Sainthood Causes, Evangelization of Peoples, Divine Worship and the Sacraments (congregations)
  •  Laity (council)
  •  Ecclesia Dei (commission)
  •  Apostolic Signature (tribunal)



Cláudio Hummes, 70
Archbishop of Săo Paulo, Brazil

Cláudio Hummes was born on Aug. 8, 1934, in Montenegro, Brazil. He was ordained a Franciscan priest on Aug. 3 1958, and holds a doctorate in philosophy from the Antonianum, Rome, and a specialization in ecumenism from the Ecumenical Institute of Bossey in Geneva.

He taught philosophy at the Franciscan seminary in Garibaldi, at the major seminary of Viamăo and at the Pontifical Catholic University of Porto Alegre.

He was adviser for ecumenical affairs to the bishops' conference of Brazil, provincial of Rio Grande do Sul (1972-75) and president of the Union of Latin American Conferences of Franciscans.

In March 1975 he was appointed coadjutor bishop of Santo André and received episcopal ordination that May 25. He became bishop of the see that Dec. 29.

In May 1996 he was promoted to archbishop of Fortaleza and was appointed to Săo Paulo in April 1998. He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Doctrine of the Faith, Bishops (congregations)
  •  Laity, Family, Cor Unum, Interreligious Dialogue, Culture (councils)
  •  Latin America (commission)
  •  10th Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
  •  Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See


Lubomyr Husar, 72
Major Archbishop of Lviv for Ukrainians

Lubomyr Husar was born on Feb. 26, 1933, in Lviv. Due to the war, his family fled to Austria and then to the United States. He was ordained for the Eparchy of Stamford for Ukrainians on March 30, 1958.

He taught in the seminary and was parish priest in Kehonkson, New York. After earning a doctorate in theology from the Urbanian University, Rome, he joined the Studite Monks and was superior of the Studion in Grottaferrata, Italy.

In April 1977 he was ordained a bishop and in July 1978 was named archimandrite of Studite Monks residing outside Ukraine.

In 1994 he organized a new Studite monastery in Ternopil, Ukraine, and was elected exarch of Kyiv-Vyshhorod in April 1996. In October 1996 he was appointed auxiliary to the major archbishop of Lviv. He was elected major archbishop of Lviv for Ukrainians in January 2001.

He is president of the Synod of the Ukrainian Catholic Church. He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Eastern Churches (congregation)
  •  Promoting Christian Unity, Interpretation of Legislative texts, Culture (councils)
  •  Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
  •  10th Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops



Marian Jaworski, 78
Archbishop of Lviv for Latins

Marian Jaworski was born on Aug. 21, 1926, in Lwow, Poland (present-day Lviv, Ukraine).

He was ordained a priest June 25, 1950, and, after a year of pastoral work, continued his studies, earning doctorates in theology at the Theological Academy of Krakow and in philosophy at the Catholic University of Lublin.

He taught for several years at the Catholic Theological Academy of Warsaw and later at the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Kraków. He also lectured in metaphysics and the philosophy of religion at the seminaries of various religious orders. From 1981 to 1987 he was the first rector of the Pontifical Theological Academy of Krakow.

In May 1984 he was appointed apostolic administrator of Lubaczów, receiving episcopal ordination that June 23. In January 1991 he was promoted to archbishop of Lviv for Latins, and since 1992 has been president of the Ukrainian episcopal conference.

He was made a cardinal and reserved "in pectore" by John Paul II in 1998, and proclaimed in 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Clergy (congregation)
  •  Family (council)



Walter Kasper, 72
President of Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity

Walter Kasper was born on March 5, 1933, in Heidenheim/Brenz, Germany. He was ordained for the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart on April 6, 1957, and holds a doctorate in theology from the Theological Faculty of Tuebingen.

He taught dogmatic theology and was dean of the theological faculty in Muenster and later in Tuebingen.

He was appointed bishop of Rottenburg-Stuttgart in April 1989 and received episcopal consecration that June 17. In 1994 he was named co-chair of the International Commission for Lutheran/Catholic Dialogue. in June 1999 he was appointed secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.

In March 2001 he was named president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Doctrine of the Faith, Oriental Churches (congregations)
  •  Culture, Legislative Texts (councils)
  •  Apostolic Signature (tribunal)
  •  X Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops



William Keeler, 74
Archbishop of Baltimore, Maryland

William Keeler was born March 4, 1931, in San Antonio, Texas. He received a bachelor's degree from St. Charles Seminary, near Philadelphia, in 1952 and a licentiate in theology from Gregorian University in Rome, in 1956. He was ordained a priest on July 17, 1955, and later received a doctorate in canon law.

He was appointed peritus, or special adviser, to the Second Vatican Council by Pope John XXIII. At the close of the council in 1965, he was named papal chamberlain, with the title of monsignor, by Pope Paul VI. In 1970 he was named Prelate of Honor by Paul VI.

In 1965 he was appointed to serve as vice chancellor of the Harrisburg Diocese and, in time, chancellor and later vicar general. He held the latter position when he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Harrisburg by Pope John Paul II in July 1979. His episcopal ordination occurred Sept. 21, 1979.

He was appointed bishop of Harrisburg in November 1983 and was installed Jan. 4, 1984. He served as the president of the U.S. bishops' conference from 1992 to 1995. He was elevated to cardinal in 1994.

Curial memberships:

  •  Eastern Churches (congregation)
  •  Christian Unity (council)



Michael Kitbunchu, 76
Archbishop of Bangkok, Thailand

Michael Kitbunchu was born Jan. 25, 1929, in Samphran, in the then Apostolic Vicariate of Bangkok.

He studied at the minor seminary of Siracha, in Thailand, and then in Rome at the Urbanian College of Propaganda Fide, earning a licentiate in philosophy and sacred theology. He was ordained a priest on Dec. 20, 1959.

When he returned to his country he served as assistant pastor and then pastor at Bangham, and a few years after, he was given the important parish of Calvary in the capital city.

As archdiocesan consultor, he became rector of the metropolitan seminary of Bangkok in 1965 until December 1972 when Paul VI appointed him archbishop of Bangkok. He was ordained on June 3, 1973. He was elevated to cardinal in 1983.

He has been president of the Thai bishops' conference since May 2000.

Curial membership:

  •  Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)

 

Bernard Francis Law, 73
Archpriest of Basilica of St. Mary Major

Bernard Francis Law was born Nov. 4, 1931, in Torreon, Mexico, son of a U.S. Air Force colonel. He finished his studies at Harvard University; entered St. Joseph's Seminary at St. Benedict, Los Angeles, and from 1955 to 1961 studied at the Pontifical Josephinum College at Worthington, Ohio.

He was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Natchez-Jackson (now Jackson) in Mississippi, in May 1961. From 1963-1968 he was the editor of the Natchez-Jackson diocesan newspaper; from 1968-1971 he was the director of the U.S. bishops' committee on ecumenical and interreligious affairs.

In October 1973 he was appointed bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau in Montana and received episcopal ordination that Dec. 5.

He was appointed archbishop of Boston on Jan. 11, 1984. He was elevated to cardinal in 1985. He was often the spokesman for Catholics in the United States on behalf of Christian unity and the progress of Catholic-Jewish relations.

He resigned as archbishop of Boston in December 2002.

Curial membership:

  •  Eastern Churches, Clergy, Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Evangelization of Peoples, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Catholic Education, Bishops (congregations)
  •  Culture, Family (council)
  •  Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See


Karl Lehmann, 68
Bishop of Mainz, Germany

Karl Lehmann was born May 16, 1936, in Sigmaringen, Germany. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Freiburg im Breisgau in October 1963, and holds doctorates in philosophy and theology from the Gregorian University, Rome.

He taught dogmatic theology at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz. He later taught at the Albert Ludwig University, Freiburg im Breisgau, and was a member of the International Theological Commission.

He also edited the official publication of the documents of the Joint Synod of the Dioceses in the Federal Republic of Germany (Synod of Wuerzburg, 1971-75).

In June 1983 he was appointed bishop of Mainz and received episcopal ordination that Oct. 2. Since 1987 he is president of the German bishops' conference.

In 1991 he was special secretary of the First Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops. He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

  •  Eastern Churches, Bishops (congregations)
  •  Christian Unity (council)
  •  Patrimony of the Holy See (office)
  •  Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez, 68
Archbishop of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez was born Oct. 31, 1936, in Barranca, Dominican Republic. He earned baccalaureate in sacred theology at the Pontifical Seminary St. Thomas of Aquinas in Santo Domingo.

He was ordained a priest on March 18, 1961, in La Vega, and later obtained advanced degrees in pastoral sociology from the International Center for Sociological Formation of Clerics and in social science from the University of St. Thomas in Rome.

Returning to the Dominican Republic, he was named vicar coadjutor of the cathedral in La Vega. Thereafter, in the following years, he attended canon law courses at the Gregorian University in Rome.

He was appointed bishop of the Diocese of San Francisco de Macorís when it was established in January 1978 and received episcopal ordination that Feb. 25.

From December 1979 to May 1984 he was rector of the Nordestana di San Francisco de Macorís University. In November 1981 he was named archbishop of Santo Domingo. From 1984 until December 2002 he acted as president of the Dominican bishops' conference.

In 1982, having founded the University Catholic Foundation supported by the Catholic University of Santo Domingo, he became grand chancellor. He was elevated to cardinal in 1991.

As president of the Permanent Dominican Commission, he has also contributed to the preparation and execution of the celebrations held on the 5th centennial of the evangelization of Latin America.

Curial membership:

  •  Clergy, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)
  •  Social Communications (council)
  •  Latin America (commission)


Alfonso López Trujillo, 69
Retired archbishop of Medillin, Colombia

Alfonso López Trujillo was born Nov. 8, 1935, in Villahermosa, Colombia. He attended the Bogota archdiocesan major seminary. He continued his studies in Rome and obtained his doctorate in philosophy from the Angelicum, also taking also courses in theology and sociology and studying Marxism.

After his ordination as priest in November 1960, he continued his studies in Rome for another two years. He returned to Bogota and taught philosophy for four years at the local major seminary.

In 1968, he was an expert at the second general conference of Latin American bishops held in Medellin. From 1970-1972 he was vicar general of the Bogota Archdiocese. In February 1971 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Bogota and received episcopal ordination that March 25.

He then left the office of auxiliary to dedicate himself to the General Secretariat of CELAM (Latin American bishops' council) of which he was elected general secretary in November 1972, and then reconfirmed in November 1974.

In May 1978 he was named coadjutor archbishop of Medellin, becoming archbishop on June 2, 1979. As general secretary of CELAM he worked intensely in preparing and the carrying out the third general conference of the Latin American bishops held in Puebla, Mexico, at the start of 1979.

Later, he was elected president of CELAM until 1984. He was elevated to cardinal in 1983. He was president of the Colombian bishops' conference.

He was named president of the Pontifical Council for the Family in November 1990, and since Jan. 9, 1991, has been the retired archbishop of Medellin.

Curial membership:

  •  Doctrine of the Faith, Sainthood Causes, Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)
  •  Latin America (commission)


Javier Lozano Barragán, 72
President of the Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers

Javier Lozano Barragán was born Jan. 26, 1933, in Toluca, Mexico. He was ordained a priest Oct. 30, 1955, and holds a doctorate in dogmatic theology.

He taught dogmatic theology and the history of philosophy at the Diocesan Seminary of Zamora. He was president of the Mexican Theological Society and Director of the Theological Pastoral Institute of the Latin American bishops’ council (CELAM).

In August 1979 he was ordained titular bishop of Thinisa in Numidia. From 1979-84 he carried out his episcopal service in the Archdiocese of Mexico. From 1985-97 he served as bishop of the Diocese of Zacatecas. In CELAM, he served as president of the departments for education and economy.

Since 1997 he has been president of the Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers.

He was elevated to cardinal in 2003.

Curial membership:

  • Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)
  •  Culture (council)



Jean-Marie Lustiger, 78
Retired archbishop of Paris

Jean-Marie Lustiger was born in the French capital on Sept. 17, 1926, of parents who were Polish Jews and had emigrated to France at the beginning of the century.

During the Nazi occupation his parents were deported and his mother died in the concentration camp of Auschwitz in 1943. The young Jean-Marie was spared because he was taken in by a family in Orleans.

Through contact with them he was converted to Catholicism and was baptized Aug. 25, 1940, in the chapel of the bishop's residence where 20 years later he would be the pastor.

He studied at the Montaigne Lyceum in Paris, then in Orleans, and later at the Sorbonne. In the years of university studies, he was an active member of the Young Christian Students.

After working for a year as a mechanic in Decazenville in the southwest of France, he entered the Carmelite Seminary in Paris. He earned a degree from the Catholic Institute in theology and a licentiate in letters and in philosophy from the Sorbonne. He was ordained a priest April 17, 1954.

As chaplain of students, he gave assistance in spiritual renewal at Richelieu Center. In 1969, he was called to direct the Parish of St. Jeanne de Chantal.

In November 1979, John Paul II appointed him bishop of Orleans. Episcopal ordination was conferred that Dec. 18.

In February 1981 he took over the post of archbishop of Paris. He also served as ordinary for Eastern-Rite faithful in France without ordinaries of their own. He was elevated to cardinal in 1983.

He was president delegate to the 1st Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, in 1991. He retired as archbishop of Paris in February.

Curial membership:

  •  Secretariat of State (second section)
  •  Eastern Churches, Bishops, Clergy, Institutes of Consecrated life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)



Franciszek Macharski, 77
Archbishop of Kraków, Poland

Franciszek Macharski was born May 20, 1927, in Krakow. During the war, under German occupation, he was a laborer. Following the liberation in 1945, he entered the metropolitan major seminary of Kraków.

At the same time he studied theology at the Jagiellonian University. He was ordained a priest April 2, 1950.

For six years, the young priest served as vicar in the parish of Kozy, near Bielsko-Biala. In 1956 he transferred to Switzerland, Fribourg, to continue his theological studies at the local Catholic University where in 1960 he received a doctorate in pastoral theology.

Returning to Krakow, he was named spiritual director of the metropolitan seminary and dedicated himself to teaching pastoral theology at the Pontifical Faculty of Theology at Kraków. Ten years later, in 1970, he was nominated rector of the same seminary.

In 1977 he was nominated canon of the metropolitan chapter of the cathedral of Wawel by the then archbishop of Krakow, Cardinal Karol Wojtyla.

John Paul II named him archbishop of Krakow in December 1978. The Pope personally conferred episcopal ordination on him Jan. 6, 1979, in St. Peter's Basilica.

He was elevated to cardinal in June 1979. He was president delegate of the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, in October 1999.

Curial membership:

  •  Secretariat of State (second section)
  •  Bishops, Clergy, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Catholic Education, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)



Roger Mahony, 69
Archbishop of Los Angeles

Roger Michael Mahony was born Feb. 27, 1936, in Hollywood, California. In 1950 he entered Los Angeles College, the archdiocesan preparatory seminary of Los Angeles. Thereafter, in 1954, he attended Our Lady Queen of the Angels Seminary at Mission Hills. After having finished his studies at St. John's Seminary in Camarillo, he attended St. John's Theologate.

He was ordained a priest on May 1, 1962. A few days later, he was assigned to the Cathedral of St. John of Fresno. The following autumn, Bishop Willinger asked him to complete his studies at the National Catholic School of Social Services at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.

Shortly after his return to California in 1964, he was nominated diocesan director of the Catholic Charities and Social Service, a position that he held for six years. In 1964 he also became administrator, and thereafter parish priest in Fresno.

Among his many positions, he was executive director of the Catholic Welfare Bureau and the Infant of Prague Adoption Service, and Chaplain of the diocesan society of St. Vincent de Paul. Father Mahony was a member of the West Coast Regional Office of the Bishops' Committee for the Spanish Speaking.

He also was involved in civil problems: he was member of the Fresno Provincial Committee for Economic Opportunities, Committee of Alcoholics' Rehabilitation, United Crusade, Community Workshop, Urban Coalition and Redevelopment Agency of Fresno.

In January 1975 he was named auxiliary bishop of Fresno. He received episcopal ordination that March 19.

In 1973 he became rector of St. John's Cathedral. On 15 February 1980 he was transferred to Stockton as diocesan bishop. He was promoted to the see of Los Angeles in July 1985.

He was elevated to cardinal in 1991.

Curial membership:

  •  Social Communications (council)
  •  Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
  •  Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See



Adam Joseph Maida, 75
Archbishop of Detroit, Michigan

Adam Joseph Maida was born March 18, 1930, in East Vandergrift, Pennsylvania. His father, now deceased, came to the United States from a rural area near Warsaw, Poland.

Adam Maida graduated from St. Mary's High School, Orchard Lake, Michigan, in 1948. Following graduation he entered St Mary's College, Orchard Lake. In 1950, he transferred to St Vincent's College, Latrobe, Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1952 with a bachelor's degree in philosophy. In 1956, he graduated with a licentiate in sacred theology from St. Mary's University, Baltimore, Maryland.

In 1960, he received a licentiate in canon law from the Lateran University in Rome. In 1964, he was awarded a doctorate in civil law from the Duquesne University School of Law, Pittsburgh. He was admitted to practice law before the bar of the state of Pennsylvania and before the U.S. Supreme Court.

In May 1956 he was ordained a priest in Pittsburgh. Following his ordination, he served in the diocese of Pittsburgh as an associate pastor, vice chancellor and general counselor of the diocese, in the diocesan tribunal, and as assistant professor of theology at La Roche College.

In January 1984 he was ordained and installed as the ninth bishop of the Diocese of Green Bay, Wisconsin.

In April 1990, he was named archbishop of Detroit and he was installed June 12, 1990. He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994.

He has served as chairman of the U.S. bishops' Canonical Affairs Committee, among other panels.

He was a member of the John Paul II Cultural Foundation, Rome, and episcopal moderator and president of the John Paul II Cultural Foundation, United States.

Curial membership:

  •  Clergy, Catholic Education (congregations)
  •  Migrants and Travelers (council)
  •  Institute for Religion Works (commission)


Francesco Marchisano, 75
Archpriest of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica

Francesco Marchisano was born June 25, 1929, in Racconigi, Italy. He was ordained a priest in June 1952 and holds a licentiate in sacred scripture and a degree in theology.

He has served in the Roman Curia as undersecretary of the Congregation for Catholic Education (1969-1988). In October 1988 he was appointed secretary of the pontifical commission for the conservation of the artistic and historical patrimony of the Church (now known as Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church), and received episcopal ordination Jan. 6. 1989. He was raised to the dignity of archbishop in 1994.

He became president of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church in 2003 and of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology in 1991. He has also served as member of the Roman Pontifical Academy of Archaeology.

In April 2002 he was nominated archpriest of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica, vicar general of His Holiness for Vatican City State and president of the Fabbrica di San Pietro, the office of the Vatican's chief engineer.

In October 2003 he retired from the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church. In August 2004 he retired as president of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology.

In February he was named president of the Labor Office of the Apostolic See and, on the same date, vicar general of His Holiness for Vatican City State. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

  •  Catholic Education (congregation)
  •  Culture (council)
  •  Cultural Heritage (commission)

Eduardo Martínez Somalo, 78
Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church

Eduardo Martínez Somalo has been one of the closest aides of John Paul II during his ministry as Supreme Pontiff.

He was born March 31, 1927, in Bańos de Rio Tobia, Spain. He studied in Rome at the Spanish College and at the Gregorian University, obtaining a licentiate in theology and in canon law.

Ordained a priest in March 1950, he carried out his pastoral ministry in his native diocese. He was then sent to Rome, once again, to attend courses at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy and to prepare himself to serve as pontifical representative of the Holy See. After receiving a doctorate in canon law from the Lateran University in 1956, he entered the Vatican Secretariat of State.

The following year he was promoted to secretary of the nunciature and nominated professor at the Ecclesiastical Academy.

In April 1970, he was named counselor of the apostolic delegation to Great Britain. In October that same year he was recalled to the Vatican as assessor of the Secretariat of State and therefore direct collaborator of the then substitute of the Secretariat of State.

In November 1975, Pope Paul VI named him apostolic nuncio in Colombia. He received episcopal ordination that Dec. 13.

In May 1979, Pope John Paul II named him substitute of the Secretariat of State, a position which he held until he was made a cardinal in 1988.

Cardinal Martínez was president delegate to the 1st Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, in 1991.

He was prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Sacraments from July 1988 to January 1992. He was prefect of the Congregation of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life from January 1992 to February 2004.

He was named camerlengo, or chamberlain, in April 1993.

Curial membership:

* Secretariat of State (second section)
* Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Sainthood Causes, Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples, Clergy, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Legislative Texts (council)
* Latin America, Institute for Works of Religion (commissions)



Carlo Martini, 78
Retired archbishop of Milan, Italy

Carlo Maria Martini was born Feb. 15, 1927, in Turin, Italy. He entered the Society of Jesus in September 1944 and was ordained a priest July 13, 1952, at age 25.

In 1958, he received his doctorate in theology from the Gregorian University. After some years of teaching at the faculty of Chieri he returned to Rome and earned a doctorate in Scripture at the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Dean of the Faculty of Scripture at the Biblical Institute, he became rector in 1969 to 1978 when he was named chancellor of the Gregorian University.

He was the only Catholic member of the ecumenical committee that prepared the new Greek edition of the New Testament. He is the author of many books, whose topics include the Spiritual Exercises.

In 1978, Pope Paul VI invited him to preach the annual retreat in the Vatican. Pope John Paul II appointed him archbishop of Milan in December 1979 and personally consecrated him on Jan. 6, 1980. He was elevated to cardinal in 1983.

He was president of the Council of the European Episcopal Conferences from 1986 until April 1993. He retired as Milan's archbishop in July 2002.

Curial membership:

* Eastern Churches, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Culture (council)
* Cultural Heritage of the Church (commission)



Renato Martino, 72
President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

Renato Raffaele Martino was born Nov. 23, 1932, in Salerno, Italy. He was ordained a priest in June 1957 and holds a doctorate in canon law.

He entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1962 and worked in the nunciatures in Nicaragua, the Philippines, Lebanon, Canada and Brazil.

Between 1970-75 he served in the Secretariat of State. In September 1980 he was appointed papal nuncio in Thailand and apostolic delegate in Singapore, Malaysia, Laos and Brunei, and was ordained with the title of archbishop on Dec. 14, 1980.

In 1986 he was appointed permanent observer of the Holy See to the United Nations in New York. In 1991 he founded the Path to Peace Foundation to further the Holy See’s mission at the United Nations.

In October 2002 he was appointed president of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Cor Unum (council)
* Patrimony of the Holy See (office)




Theodore McCarrick, 74
Archbishop of Washington, D.C.

Theodore Edgar McCarrick was born July 7, 1930, in New York. He was ordained May 31, 1958, for the Archdiocese of New York and holds a doctorate in sociology from the Catholic University of America, Washington.

He was dean of students and director of development at the Catholic University of America, and later served as president of the Catholic University of Puerto Rico, Ponce, from 1965 to '69. He was recalled to New York in 1969 and appointed associate secretary for education and personal secretary to Cardinal Terence Cooke.

In May 1977 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of New York, receiving episcopal ordination that June 29.

In November 1981 he was named the first bishop of the new Diocese of Metuchen, New Jersey, and in May 1986 was promoted to archbishop of Newark. His appointment as archbishop of Washington was announced in November 2000.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

* Justice and Peace, Migrants and Itinerant Peoples, Christian Unity (councils)
* Latin America (commission)
* Patrimony of the Holy See (office)
* Special Council for America of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Jorge Medina Estévez, 78

Retired prefect of Congregation for Divine Worship

Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez was born Dec. 23, 1926, in Santiago, Chile. Prior to entering the seminary he attended the law faculty at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. He also obtained a baccalaureate in arts and in biology. He entered the major seminary of Santiago and was ordained a priest June 12, 1954.

In 1955 he received his doctorate in theology. Until 1965 he taught philosophy at the seminary and until 1994 theology at the faculty of the Catholic University of Chile, where he also served for several years as dean. From 1974 to 1985, he was pro-grand chancellor of the university.

For many years he was canon penitentiary of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago, and also judge of the ecclesiastical tribunal of Santiago.

He served as a peritus at the Second Vatican Council. He was later a member of the International Theological Commission and the drafting commission for the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

In December 1984 he was named auxiliary bishop of Rancagua, Chile, and received episcopal ordination in January 1985.

In 1986 he was named apostolic administrator of the Diocese of Rancagua and in November 1987 he became bishop there. In April 1993 he was appointed bishop of Valparaíso.

In 1992 the Pope nominated him secretary-general of the 4th General Conference of Latin American Bishops. In 1993 he preached the Holy Father's Lenten retreat.

He is the author of many works: books, theological-pastoral booklets and articles on ecclesiological themes, spirituality and canon law.

In June 1996 the Pope appointed him pro-prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Sacraments. That same day he stepped down as bishop of Valparaiso, and that Sept. 19 he was named an archbishop. He was elevated to cardinal in 1998.

He became prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship in February 1998. He retired from that post in October 2002.

Curial membership:

* Clergy, Doctrine of the Faith, Bishops (congregations)
* Family (council)
* Latin America, Ecclesia Dei (commissions)



Joachim Meisner, 71
Archbishop of Cologne, Germany

Joachim Meisner was born Dec. 25, 1933, in Breslau, Germany (present-day Wroclaw, Poland).

Having entered the seminary of Erfurt, he received a doctorate in theology. He was ordained a priest Dec. 22, 1962, and was made co-pastor of a parish. He was also the diocesan director of Caritas.

In March 1975 he was named auxiliary bishop to the apostolic administrator of Erfurt, East Germany. He was ordained a bishop on May 17, 1975.

As auxiliary bishop of Erfurt, he signed the first agreement between the Church and the state based on the Democratic German Republic's Constitution of 1963.

In December 1976, the members of the bishops' conference of Berlin elected him as their representative to the 4th Synod of Bishops, held at the Vatican in 1977.

In April 1980, Pope John Paul II appointed him bishop of Berlin. He was elevated to cardinal in February 1983.

In December 1988 he was promoted to archbishop of Cologne. He was president delegate of the 2nd Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, in October 1999.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Bishops, Clergy (congregations)
* Legislative texts (council)
* Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
* Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See



Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, 72
Archbishop of Westminster, Great Britain

Cormac Murphy-O'Connor was born Aug. 24, 1932, in Reading, Great Britain. He was ordained for the Diocese of Portsmouth in October 1956 and holds licentiates in philosophy and theology from the Gregorian University, Rome.

He served as a curate in Portsmouth and Fareham, and was director of vocations and secretary to then Bishop Derek Worlock. He was later a parish priest for a year before being named rector of the Venerable English College, Rome. He held that post from 1971 to 1977.

In November 1977 he was appointed bishop of Arundel and Brighton, and received episcopal ordination that Dec. 21.

From 1982 to 2000 he was co-chairman of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission and also served as chairman of several committees of the bishops' conference of England and Wales.

His promotion to archbishop of Westminster was announced in February 2000. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Currently, he is president of the bishops' conference of England and Wales and vice president of the Council of European Bishops' Conference.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments (congregation)
* Family, Culture, Christian Unity (councils)
* Cultural Heritage (commission)
* Vox Clara (committee)
* Patrimony of the Holy See (office)
* Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See


Wilfrid Fox Napier, 64
Archbishop of Durban, South Africa

Wilfrid Fox Napier was born March 8, 1941, in Swartberg, South Africa. He was ordained for the Franciscans on July 25, 1970, following philosophical and theological studies at the Catholic University of Louvain.

After learning Xhosa, he worked in the parish of Lusikisiki and did pastoral work in Tabankulu. In 1978 he was named apostolic administrator of Kokstad and appointed bishop of the same see on Nov. 29, 1980, receiving episcopal ordination the following Feb. 28.

During the turbulent changes that marked the South African political scene, he was deeply involved in mediation and negotiation work along with other national and provincial Church leaders. He served as president of the Southern African Catholic Bishops' Conference from 1987 to 1994.

In May 1992 he was promoted to archbishop of Durban and in August 1994 was named apostolic administrator "sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctae Sedis" of Umzimkulu. Since November 1999, he is president of the Southern African Catholic Bishops' Conference.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)
* Special Council for Africa of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops



Attilio Nicora, 68
President of Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See

Attilio Nicora was born March 16, 1937, in Varese, Italy. He was ordained a priest June 27, 1964. He holds a degree in jurisprudence, a licentiate in theology and a doctorate in canon law.

He taught canon law and public ecclesiastical law in the major seminary of Milan, where he later became rector.

In May 1977 he was ordained auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Milan, later becoming the pro-vicar general.

In 1992 he was transferred to Verona and continued his collaboration with the Holy See on juridical matters. In October 2002 he was named president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See.

He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Secretariat of State (second section)
* Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)
* Legislative Texts (council)
* Vatican City State (commission)



Miguel Obando Bravo, 79
Archbishop of Managua, Nicaragua


Miguel Obando Bravo was born Feb. 2, 1926, in La Libertad, Nicaragua. After having attended the Salesian College of Granada he obtained a baccalaureate in Latin and Greek. In San Salvador he received a doctorate in mathematics, physics and philosophy.

After entering the Salesians he studied theology in Guatemala and thereafter vocational psychology in Colombia, Venezuela and Rome.

He was ordained a priest Aug. 10, 1958, and was professor of mathematics and physics in Nicaragua and El Salvador; prefect of discipline of the Salesian seminary of San Salvador, in 1959; and rector of the Rinaldi Institute.

Named auxiliary bishop of Matagalpa, Nicaragua, in January 1968, he received episcopal ordination that March 31.

In February 1970 he was named archbishop of Managua, taking possession of the archdiocese in April 1970.

He was president of the Nicaraguan bishops' conference for six different terms from 1971-1997 and then again in 1999. He was elevated to cardinal in May 1985.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Clergy, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)
* Latin America (council)



Keith O'Brien, 67
Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, Scotland

Keith Patrick Michael O'Brien was born March 17, 1938, in Ballycastle, Northern Ireland. He was ordained a priest April 3, 1965. He obtained a bachelor of science degree in chemistry and mathematics from the University of Edinburgh and a diploma in education.

He served as assistant parish priest and as a chaplain. He was spiritual director of St. Andrew's College in Drygrange and rector of St Mary' College, Blairs.

In August 1985 he was ordained archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. From 1996-99 he served as apostolic administrator of the Diocese of Argyll and the Isles.

Since March 2002, he has been president of the Scottish bishops' conference. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:


* Migrants and Travelers, Social Communications (councils)


Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, 68
Archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria

Anthony Olubunmi Okogie was born June 16, 1936, in Lagos, Nigeria. He was ordained a priest Dec. 11, 1966. He holds a licentiate in sacred theology.

He served for a short time as pastoral assistant at the Holy Cross Cathedral in Lagos. He was then drafted into the Nigerian army as a chaplain.

In August 1971 he was ordained auxiliary bishop of Oyo. He was transferred to Lagos first as auxiliary bishop, then in April 1973 named archbishop. Cardinal Okogie played a prominent role in the Christian Association of Nigeria, where he served as president.

He also served as president of the Nigerian bishops' conference from 1994-2000. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Social Communications (council)




Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino, 68
Archbishop of St. Cristobal, Havana

Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino was born in Jagüey Grande, Cuba, on Oct. 18, 1936. His father was first a worker in a sugar factory, and subsequently a shopkeeper.

He earned a diploma in arts and sciences in 1955 and after one year at a university, entered the diocesan seminary of San Alberto Magno, directed by the Fathers of the Foreign Mission of Quebec.

After four years studying humanities and philosophy, the bishop sent him to study theology at the seminary of the Foreign Mission in Quebec.

He then returned to Cuba and was ordained priest Aug. 2, 1964. His ministry as coadjutor vicar of Cárdenas was interrupted in 1966 when he was detained in work camps. In 1967, at the end of his imprisonment, he was appointed parish priest of Jagüey Grande.

In December 1978, he was named bishop of Pinar del Rio. He received episcopal ordination on Jan. 14, 1979, in the Cathedral of Matanzas, and on Jan. 21 he took possession of his diocese.

In November 1981 he was promoted to the Archdiocese of Havana as archbishop. In 1988 until November 1998, he was president of the Cuban bishops' conference.

From 1995 to 1999, he was the second vice president of the Latin American bishops' council (CELAM). In December 2001, he was renamed president of the Cuban bishops' conference. He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994.

Curial membership:

* Clergy (congregation)
* Health Care Workers (council)
* Latin America (commission)


Marc Ouellet, 60
Archbishop of Quebec and primate of Canada

Marc Ouellet was born June 8, 1944, in Lamotte, Quebec. He was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Amos in May 1968. He holds licentiates in theology and philosophy, and a doctorate in dogmatic theology.

He served as consultor to the Sulpicians' Provincial Council of Canada, and then director and teacher at the major seminary of Montreal, where he became rector in 1990. He also served briefly as rector of St. Joseph's Seminary, Edmonton.

He was consultor to the Congregation for Clergy, then to the General Council of the Priests of Saint Sulpice. He later taught at the John Paul II Institute at the Lateran University, where in 1997 he was appointed to the chair of dogmatic theology.

In March 2001, he was named secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity; he was ordained a bishop that March 19.

In November 2002, he was appointed metropolitan archbishop of Quebec. He is a member of the Pontifical Academy of Theology. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments (congregation)
* Latin America (commission)
* International Eucharistic Congresses



Bernard Panafieu, 74
Archbishop of Marseilles, France

Bernard Panafieu was born Jan. 26, 1931, in Chatellerault, France. He was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Albi in April 1956.

He served as vicar at Saint-Sauveur di Mazamet, and as chaplain of La Perouse School, Albi, and of the university parish. He was also chaplain of students in Tolosa, parish dean of Brassac and general secretary of the Presbyteral Council of Albi.

He was ordained auxiliary bishop of Annecy on June 9, 1974. In 1978 he was transferred to Aix-en-Provence. He was appointed coadjutor bishop of Marseilles in 1994, and became archbishop April 22, 1995.

Cardinal Panafieu is president of the episcopal Committee for Interreligious Relations and New Religious Trends, and president of the Secretariat for Religious Relations with Islam. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Interreligious Dialogue, Justice and Peace (councils)



Laszlo Paskai, 77

Retired archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest, Hungary

Laszlo Paskai was born May 8, 1927, in Szeged, in southeast Hungary. He entered the Order of Friars Minor and studied theology in Gyoongyos and at the seminary of Budapest.

He was ordained a priest May 3, 1951, and began his pastoral ministry in the Diocese of Nagyvarad. The following year, he obtained a doctorate in theology from the Bucharest Academy, and then returned to his native city to serve as the bishop's master of ceremonies.

From 1955 to 1962, he was a professor of theology and philosophy at the seminary of Szeged. He was prefect of the interdiocesan seminary and then in 1962 was spiritual director and professor of philosophy, ascetical theology and liturgy.

Always as spiritual director, in 1965 he was transferred to the seminary of Budapest and in 1973 he became rector.

In March 1978, Pope Paul VI appointed him apostolic administrator of Veszprem. He received episcopal ordination on April 5, 1978. About a year later, on March 31, 1979, he became bishop of Veszprem.

Three years later, in April 1982, he was promoted to coadjutor archbishop of Kalocsa. In July 1986 he was elected president of the Hungarian episcopal conference and then in March 1987 he was transferred to the metropolitan see of Esztergom. He took possession of the archdiocese and also was given the title of primate of Hungary.

He was elevated to cardinal in June 1988. He retired as archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest in December 2002.

Curial membership:

* Eastern Churches, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)
* Legislative Texts (council)



George Pell, 63
Archbishop of Sydney, Australia

George Pell was born June 8, 1941, in Ballarat, Australia. He was ordained a priest Dec. 16, 1966, and holds a licentiate in theology from the Urbaniana University of Rome, a master's degree in education from Monash University and a doctorate of philosophy in Church History from the University of Oxford.

He served as director of the Aquinas Campus of the Institute of Catholic Education (1974-84) and principal of the Institute of Catholic Education (1981-84). He was Episcopal Vicar for Education in the Diocese of Ballarat and a founding member of the Catholic Education Commission of Victoria.

In May 1987 he was ordained an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Melbourne.

From 1988-97 he was chairman of Caritas Australia. From 1985-87 he was rector of Corpus Christi College, the provincial seminary for Victoria and Tasmania.

He was appointed by Pope John Paul II to represent the bishops of Australia and Oceania at the Special Synod for European Bishops in 1999 and the Synod of Bishops held in 2001.

In April 2002, he was named president of the Vox Clara committee for the English translations of liturgical texts.

In 2001 he was appointed the metropolitan archbishop of Sydney and installed that May 10. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Family, Justice and Peace (councils)
* Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops




Polycarp Pengo, 60
Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

Polycarp Pengo was born Aug. 5, 1944, in the parish of Mwazye, Diocese of Sumbawanga, in Tanzania.

In 1965 he entered the major seminary in Kipalalpala for three years of philosophy and four years of theology.

He was ordained a priest in the Diocese of Sumbawanga in June 1971 and for two years was secretary to the bishop.

From 1973 to 1977, he studied moral theology in Rome at the Lateran University, obtaining a doctorate. He then returned to Tanzania and taught moral theology at the major seminary in Kipalalpala for nine months in 1977. He then was made the first rector of the major seminary in Segerea, a post he held from 1978 to 1983.

He was named bishop of Nachingwea in November 1983 and received episcopal ordination Jan. 6, 1984. He took possession of the diocese Feb. 19, 1984.

In October 1986 he was named bishop of the new diocese of Tunduru-Masasi and he was installed there on Feb. 12, 1987.

He was named coadjutor archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam in January 1990, and took possession of the archdiocese July 22, 1992. He was elevated to cardinal in February 1998.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples, Doctrine of the Faith (congregations)
* Interreligious Dialogue, Culture (councils)
* Special Council for Africa of the General of the Synod of Bishops



Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân, 71
Archbishop of Than-Pho Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân was born in 1934 in Hoa Thanh, Vietnam. He was ordained a priest May 25, 1965.

Following ordination, he was a teacher at the minor seminary of Beato Quy in Cai Rang. In 1975, due to the radical change of political system in South Vietnam, the Church underwent persecution and the seminaries were closed or confiscated by the State.

During this period, Father Pham Minh Mân was made responsible for the formation of priests. In 1988, when six major seminaries in Vietnam were again opened, he was appointed as rector of the Seminary of Santo Quy in Cai Rang.

In August 1993 he was ordained as coadjutor bishop to the Diocese of My Tho. In March 1998 he was named archbishop of Than-Pho Ho Chi Minh. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)


Severino Poletto, 72

Archbishop of Turin, Italy

Severino Poletto was born March 18, 1933, in Salgareda, Italy. He was ordained for the Diocese of Casale Monferrato on June 29, 1957, and holds a licentiate in moral theology from the Alphonsian Academy, Rome.

He was a curate in Montemagno, prefect of discipline at the diocesan seminary and vocation director. In 1973 he founded the Diocesan Centre for Family Ministry.

In April 1980 he was appointed coadjutor bishop of Fossano and received episcopal ordination that May 17. In October 1980 he succeeded Archbishop Giovanni Dadone.

In March 1989 he was named bishop of Asti and in June 1999 was appointed archbishop of Turin. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

* Clergy (congregation)
* Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)

* Cultural Heritage of the Church (commission)



Mario Pompedda, 75
Retired prefect of Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature

Mario Francesco Pompedda was born April 18, 1929, in Ozieri, Sardinia. He was ordained for the Vatican clergy in December 1951 and holds a doctorate in theology from the Gregorian University, a licentiate in Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute and a doctorate in "utroque iure" from the Lateran University.

He started working at the Tribunal of the Roman Rota in 1955 and held various positions, including defender of the bond. He was named a prelate auditor in 1969 and dean in 1993. He was also president of the Appellate Court of Vatican City State.

He was appointed a titular archbishop in November 1997 and received episcopal ordination Jan. 6, 1998.

In November 1999 he was appointed prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and president of the Court of Cassation of Vatican City State. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

He retired as prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in Mary 2004.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments; Doctrine of the Faith; Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)
* Legislative Texts (council)



Paul Poupard, 74
President of Pontifical Council for Culture

Paul Poupard was born Aug. 30, 1930, in Bouzille, France. He was ordained a priest on Dec. 18, 1954, and shortly thereafter he began to teach while he continued his studies and commitment to his pastoral ministry.

He received a doctorate in theology and history from the Sorbonne University. He also obtained a diploma in religious sciences from the School of Higher Studies.

From 1958 to 1959 he worked at the national center of scientific research and from 1959 to 1971 he served as an official of the Vatican Secretary of State.

Upon returning to France, he served for 10 years as rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris, and in February 1979 he was named auxiliary bishop of Paris. He received episcopal ordination April 6, 1979, and in the same period was called to be member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and of the Secretariat for non-Christians.

He served as auxiliary bishop until June 27, 1980, when John Paul II promoted him to archbishop, calling him to serve as pro-president of the Secretariat for Non-believers. Two years later, he became the president of the executive committee of the newly created Pontifical Council for Culture.

He served as president of the Pontifical Council for Dialogue with Non-Believers until April 1993 when this council was incorporated into the Pontifical Council for Culture; he became president of this council in April 1988.

He was elevated to cardinal in May 1985.

Curial membership:


* Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Interreligious Dialogue, Laity (councils)




Janis Pujats, 74
Archbishop of Riga, Latvia

Janis Pujats was born Nov. 14, 1930, in the Nautreni district of Latvia. He attended the Catholic Theological Seminary and was ordained for the Archdiocese of Riga on March 29, 1951.

He engaged in pastoral work mainly in Riga parishes, while teaching art history and liturgy at the Catholic Theological Seminary.

From 1979 to 1984 he served as vicar general in the metropolitan curia. In 1984 he was declared a persona non grata by the KGB and had to return to parish work.

He was appointed archbishop of Riga in May 1991 and received episcopal consecration that June 1. He also serves as president of the Latvian bishops' conference.

He was named a cardinal "in pectore" by John Paul II in the consistory of February 1998, and proclaimed in the consistory of February 2001.

Curial membership:

* Sainthood Causes (congregation)



Vinko Puljic, 59
Archbishop of Vrhbosna, Sarajevo

Vinko Puljic was born Sept. 8, 1945, in Prijecani, in the Diocese of Banja Luka. His family was materially poor but rich in the Catholic faith. He was the 12th of 13 children. His mother died when he was 3. His father remarried and he was raised by his stepmother.

He completed his secondary education at the interdiocesan minor seminary of Zagreb and the minor seminary of Djakovo.

He studied philosophy and theology at the major seminary of Djakovo and was ordained a priest in the Cathedral of Djakovo in June 1970. From 1973 to 1978 he was parish priest of Ravska, near the mine of Ljubija. In autumn 1978, he was named spiritual director of the minor seminary "Vicko Zmajevic" of Zara.

Pope John Paul II appointed him archbishop of Vrhbosna, Sarajevo, in November 1990 and in January 1991 ordained him bishop.

He thus became the sixth archbishop of that see after the reconstruction of the ordinary ecclesiastical hierarchy in 1881 in present-day Bosnia-Herzegovina, after the Turkish occupation which had lasted more than four centuries.

He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994. Since 1995 until March 2002, he was the president of the bishops' conference of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Interreligious Dialogue (council)
 

Rodolfo Quezada Toruńo, 73
Archbishop of Guatemala


Rodolfo Quezada Toruńo was born March 8, 1932, in Guatemala City, Guatemala. He was ordained a priest Sept. 21, 1956, and holds a doctorate in canon law.

He has served as a parochial vicar and as a university chaplain as well as vice chancellor of the Archdiocese of Guatemala. He was the first rector of the National Major Seminary of the Assumption in Guatemala.

He was named auxiliary bishop of Zacapa in April 1972. In 1975, he was appointed as coadjutor bishop of the diocese.

In 1986 he was appointed as prelate of Santo Cristo de Esquipulas. He currently serves as president of the bishops' conference of Guatemala.

Since June 2001 he has been archbishop of Guatemala. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Culture (council)
* Latin America (commission)




Joseph Ratzinger, 77
Dean of the College of Cardinals


Joseph Ratzinger was born April 16, 1927, in Marktl am Inn, Germany. He was ordained a priest June 29, 1951.

He spent his adolescent years in Traunstein, and was called into the auxiliary anti-aircraft service in the last months of World War II. From 1946 to 1951, the year in which he was ordained a priest and began to teach, he studied philosophy and theology at the University of Munich and at the higher school in Freising.

In 1953 he obtained a doctorate in theology. Four years later, he qualified as a university teacher. He then taught dogma and fundamental theology at the higher school of philosophy and theology of Freising, then in Bonn from 1959 to 1969, Muenster from 1963 to 1966, Tuebinga from 1966 to 1969.

From 1969, he was a professor of dogmatic theology and of the history of dogma at the University of Regensburg and vice president of the same university.

In 1962 he became a consultor at the Second Vatican Council. In March 1977, Pope Paul VI elected him archbishop of Munich and Freising and on May 28, 1977, he was ordained a bishop -- the first diocesan priest after 80 years to take over the pastoral ministry of this large Bavarian diocese.

He was elevated to cardinal in June 1977. In November 1981 he was named prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and president of the Biblical Commission and of the Pontifical International Theological Commission.

He was elected vice dean of the College of Cardinals in November 1998. In November 2002, the Pope approved his election, by the order of cardinal bishops, as dean of the College of Cardinals.

Cardinal Ratzinger was president of the Commission for the Preparation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, and after six years of work he presented the new catechism to the Holy Father in 1992.

Curial membership:

* Secretariat of State (second section)
* Eastern Churches, Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Christian Unity, Culture (councils)
* Latin America, Ecclesia Dei (commissions)




Armand Razafindratandra, 79
Archbishop of Antananarivo, Madagascar


Armand Gaétan Razafindratandra was born Aug. 7, 1925, in Ambohimalaza, Madagascar. He went to the minor seminary of Ambohipo and finally, to St. Michael's College directed by the Jesuits, where he earned his diploma.

He studied philosophy for two years at Ambatoroka major seminary and did a three-year course at St. Michael's College. He then returned to Ambatoroka to study theology.

After his ordination to the priesthood on July 27, 1954, he was sent to the Catholic Institute in Paris, to study at the Institute of Pastoral Catechesis and the Institute of Social Studies.

He returned to his country in 1956 and became director of catechetical teaching. He subsequently became a parish priest in Ambohimitsimbina and assistant curate in Ambavahadimitafo.

He later served as rector of the Faliarivo minor seminary and director of the major seminary of Ambatoroka.

He was appointed bishop of Mahajanga in April 1978 and received episcopal ordination that July 2.

He was named archbishop of Antananarivo in February 1994 and installed the following May. He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994.

From 1997 until December 2002, he served as president of the episcopal conference of Madagascar.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Special Council for Africa of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops



Giovanni Battista Re, 71
Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops

Giovanni Battista Re was born Jan. 30, 1934, in Borno, Italy. He was ordained for the Diocese of Brescia on March 3, 1957, and holds a doctorate in canon law from the Gregorian University, Rome.

He taught in the Brescia seminary and served as a curate before entering the Holy See's diplomatic service. He was posted to Panama and Iran, until being recalled to the Vatican Secretariat of State, where he served as personal secretary to Archbishop Giovanni Benelli. In 1979 he was named assessor.

In October 1987 he was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Bishops, receiving episcopal consecration that Nov. 7. Two years later he was named substitute of the Secretariat of State, a post he held for 11 years.

In September 2000 the Pope appointed him prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:


* Secretariat of State (second section)
* Doctrine of Faith (congregation)
* Vatican City State (commission)



Justin Rigali, 69

Archbishop of Philadelphia, Philadelphia

Justin Francis Rigali was born April 19, 1935, in Los Angeles. He was ordained a priest April 25, 1961, and holds a doctorate in canon law.

In 1964 he entered the English-language department of the Vatican Secretariat of State, of which he was appointed director in 1970, after serving in the apostolic nuncio in Madagascar (1966-70).

He worked as the English translator for Pope Paul VI, whom he accompanied on various international journeys. He also served as professor and president of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy.

In 1985 he was appointed as a titular archbishop. From 1985-90, he held many Vatican posts and was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and secretary of the College of Cardinals.

In March 1994 he was installed as archbishop of Saint Louis, Missouri. In July 2003 he was named archbishop of Philadelphia. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments (congregation)
* Vox Clara (committee)
* Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See (office)




Norberto Rivera Carrera, 62
Archbishop of Mexico

Norberto Rivera Carrera was born June 6, 1942, in La Purisima, Mexico.

In 1955 he entered the seminary of Durango, where he did his classical studies, philosophy and a year of theology.

He earned a doctorate in theology from the Gregorian University, Rome, was ordained a priest on July 3, 1966, by Pope Paul VI in St. Peter's Basilica.

After serving as a curate in Rio Grande, he taught dogmatic theology for 18 years at the major seminary of Durango. He also taught sacred Scripture and pastoral and spiritual theology. In 1982 he became professor of ecclesiology at the Pontifical University of Mexico.

He was also founder of the Movement for the Days of Christian Life. In November 1985 he was named bishop of Tehuacan and received episcopal ordination that Dec. 21.

From 1989 to 1995 he was chairman of the Mexican bishops' Commission for the Family. From April 1993 to 1995 he headed the Family Section of the Latin American bishops' council.

In June 1995 he was appointed archbishop primate of Mexico City and was installed that July 26. He was elevated to cardinal in February 1998.

Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Clergy (congregations)
* Family (council)
* Latin America (commission)
* Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops



Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, 62
Archbishop of Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga was born Dec. 29, 1942, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. He was ordained for the Salesians in June 1970 and holds a doctorate in theology from the Lateran University, Rome, and a diploma in clinical psychology and psychotherapy from Leopold Franz University, Innsbruck.

He taught chemistry, physics and music at various Salesian colleges in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala and was professor of moral theology and ecclesiology at the Salesian Theological Institute, Guatemala, and rector of the Salesian Philosophical Institute in the same country.

In October 1978 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Tegucigalpa, receiving episcopal ordination that Dec. 8. He was promoted to archbishop in January 1993. He was president of the Latin American bishops' council 1995-99.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

* Clergy (congregation)
* Justice and Peace, Social Communications (councils)
* Latin America (commission)
* Special Council for America of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Antonio Rouco Varela, 68
Archbishop of Madrid, Spain

Antonio María Rouco Varela was born Aug. 24, 1936, in Villalba, Spain. From 1946 to 1954 he studied at the seminary of Mondońedo-Ferral, and from 1954 to 1958 he studied theology at the Pontifical University of Salamanca.

He was ordained a priest March 28, 1959, in Salamanca. From 1959 to 1964, he studied law and theology at the University of Munich and earned a doctorate.

He was professor of fundamental theology and canon law at the seminary of Mondońedo from 1964-1966; adjunct professor at the Institute of Canon Law at the University of Munich from 1966-1969; professor of public ecclesiastical law at the University of Salamanca from 1969-1971; taught fundamental canon law in 1971 and served as vice rector in 1972 of the same university.

In September 1976 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Santiago de Compostela, and received episcopal ordination Oct. 31, 1976.

He has published many books and numerous scientific works on the theological foundation of canon law and problems with the Church-state relations.

He was named archbishop of Santiago de Compostela in May 1984 and hosted the 4th World Youth Day in August 1989.

He was named archbishop of Madrid in July 1994. He was elevated to cardinal in February 1998.

Curial membership:

* Bishops, Clergy, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Legislative Texts, Culture, Cor Unum (councils)
* Apostolic Signature (tribunal)
* Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
* Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See


Pedro Rubiano Sáenz, 72
Archbishop of Bogota, Colombia

Pedro Rubiano Sáenz was born Sept. 13, 1932, in Cartago, Colombia. He was ordained for the then Diocese of Cali in July 1956 following theological studies at Laval University, Quebec.

He was a parish priest, chaplain to Marco Fidel Suárez Air Force Academy, St. Liberata National College and Our Lady of Remedies Clinic, archdiocesan treasurer and vicar for pastoral ministry, and vice rector of Santiago College.

In June 1971 he was appointed bishop of Cucuta and received episcopal ordination that June 11.

In March 1983 he was promoted to coadjutor archbishop of Cali and became the see's second archbishop in February 1985. From April 1990 to January 1991 he was also apostolic administrator of Popayan.

In December 1994 he was appointed archbishop of Bogota. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

* Catholic Education (congregation)
* Migrants and Travelers (council)



Camillo Ruini, 74

Vicar General for Diocese of Rome

Camillo Ruini was born Feb. 19, 1931, in Sassuolo, Italy. Having studied philosophy and theology in Rome at the Gregorian University, he obtained a licentiate in philosophy and theology.

He was ordained a priest Dec. 8, 1954. In 1957 he returned to Reggio Emilia and taught philosophy at the diocesan seminary until 1968.

Among his teaching posts, from 1968 until 1986 he taught dogmatic theology at the Studio Teologico Interdiocesano di Modena-Reggio-Emilia-Carpi-Guastalla, where he was also headmaster from 1968 to 1977.

From 1958 to 1966 he served as chaplain to Catholic University graduates and from 1966 to 1970 he served as a delegate for Catholic Action.

In May 1983 he was named auxiliary bishop of Reggio Emilia and Guastalla, and received episcopal ordination that June 29.

As vice president of the Preparatory Committee, he contributed to the realization of the Ecclesial Convention of Loreto (1985) which has become a reference point in the dialogue between the Church and Italian society following the wounds of the 1960s and 1970s.

In June 1986 the Pope named him secretary-general of the Italian bishops' conference. Since 1988 he has been a consultor of the Congregation for Bishops.

In January 1991 he was named archbishop and pro-vicar general of the Pope for the Diocese of Rome. In March 1991 he became president of the Italian bishops' conference.

He was named vicar general of His Holiness for the Diocese of Rome and archpriest of Patriarchal Lateran Basilica, in July 1991. He is also grand chancellor of the Lateran University.

He was elevated to cardinal in June 1991.

Curial membership:

* Bishops (congregation)
* Laity (council)
* Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See (office)
* Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See

 

Juan Sandoval Íńiguez, 72
Archbishop of Guadalajara, Mexico


Juan Sandoval Íńiguez was born on March 28, 1933, in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, to a family of 12.

He entered the seminary in Guadalajara in 1945. He was sent to Rome in 1952 to continue his studies at the Gregorian University, where he obtained a degree in philosophy and a doctorate in dogmatic theology. He was ordained priest Oct. 27, 1957.

He returned to Guadalajara in 1961, and worked in the seminary in various posts including philosophy professor. He was named vice rector in 1971, and rector in 1980.

In 1988, he was appointed coadjutor bishop of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, and received episcopal ordination in April of that year. He became bishop of Ciudad Juárez in 1992. He was named archbishop of Guadalajara in 1994, and elevated to cardinal that same year.

He was relator general of the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops in 1997.

Curial membership:

* Institutes of Consecrated life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Culture (council)
* Latin America, Institute of Religious Works (commissions)
* Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
* Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
* Special Council for America of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


José Saraiva Martins, 73
Prefect of Congregation for Sainthood Causes

José Saraiva Martins was born on Jan. 6, 1932, in Gagos do Jarmelo, Portugal. He was ordained for the Claretians on March 16, 1957, and holds a licentiate in theology from the Gregorian University, and a doctorate in theology from the University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome.

After teaching metaphysics for a year at the Claretian seminary in Marino, Italy, he was assigned to the Claretianum, Rome, where he taught fundamental and sacramental theology for 10 years. He later taught sacramental theology at the Urbanian University, where he also served as rector in 1977-80, 1980-83 and 1986-88.

He is the author of many books and scholarly articles.

In 1988 he was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Catholic Education and ordained an archbishop. That same year he was named prefect of the Congregation for Sainthood Causes. He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.


Curial membership:

* Divine Worship and the Sacraments, Bishops (congregations)
* Health Care Workers (council)
* Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Eusébio Oscar Scheid, 72
Archbishop of Saő Sebastiăo do Rio de Janiero


Eusébio Oscar Scheid was born in Bom Retiro, Brazil, on Dec. 8, 1932. He studied at the Dehonian Fathers' Seminary and was ordained a Dehonian priest of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Rome in 1960.

He holds a specialization and a doctorate in Christology, and taught dogmatic theology and liturgy in Brazil until his appointment as bishop of Săo José dos Campos in 1981.

He was appointed archbishop of Florianópolis in 1991. In 2001, he became archbishop of Săo Sebastiăo do Rio de Janeiro, and that same year he was named ordinary for Eastern-Rite faithful resident in Brazil. He was elevated to cardinal in 2003.

The cardinal also served as president of South Region IV of the Brazilian bishops' conference; within the bishops' conference he is currently counselor of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. He is also an expert in family ministry.

Curial membership:

* Social Communications (council)
* Latin America (commission)



Christoph Schönborn, 60
Archbishop of Vienna, Austria

Christoph Schönborn was born on Jan. 22, 1945, in what is now Skalsko, the Czech Republic.

He studied theology at Le Saulchoir, philosophy and pyschology at the University of Vienna, Slavic and Byzantine Christianity at the Sorbonne and theology at the Catholic Institute of Paris. He was ordained for the Dominicans on Dec. 27, 1970. He has a doctorate in theology.

From 1973 to 1975 he was Chaplain at the University of Graz. He taught dogmatic and Eastern Christian theology at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. He was member of the Theological Commission of the Swiss Bishops' Conference (1980-1991), among other panels.

From 1987 to 1992 he served as secretary of the commission responsible for drafting the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

In 1991 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Vienna and was ordained bishop that same year. He was then appointed coadjutor bishop of Vienna in 1995, and became archbishop the see later in the year.

In 1996 he preached the Lenten spiritual exercises for the Pope and the Roman Curia. He is the author of many publications. He was elevated to cardinal in 1998.

Curial membership:

* Doctrine of the Faith, Eastern Churches (congregations)
* Culture (council)
* Cultural Goods of the Church (commission)
* Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Henri Schwery, 72
Retired bishop of Sion, Switzerland

Henri Schwery was born on June 14, 1932 in Saint-Léonard, Switzerland.

The last of 11 children, he studied theology at the major seminary of Sion, then continued in Rome at the French seminary of St. Clare. In 1957, he was called to Switzerland to pursue other studies.

He was ordained a priest on July 7, 1957. He was then sent to Fribourg and obtained a university diploma in mathematics and in physics. In 1961 he taught in Sion.

For eight years, since 1958 he was diocesan chaplain of the Catholic Action of Young Students. Since 1958 until 1977, he was a military chaplain. Also, in 1958 he was chaplain to the Our Lady of Sion children's choir and councilor of the Swiss Committee of Children Choirs.

From 1968 to 1972, he served as director of the minor seminary of Sion, and rector of the College in Sion from 1972 until 1977.

He was appointed bishop of Sion in 1977, and was ordained bishop that same year.

He was also member of the Congregation for Catholic Education from 1978 to 1983. From 1983 to 1988, he was president of the Swiss bishops' conference.

He is the author of many pastoral letters and biblical-theological reflections on the relationship between the pastor and the human and religious reality of his Church. In 1978 he dedicated his first letter to the lay and priestly vocations.

He was elevated to cardinal in 1991. He retired in 1995.

Curial membership:

* Sainthood Causes (congregation)



Angelo Scola, 63
Patriarch of Venice, Italy

Angelo Scola was born on Nov. 7, 1941 in Malgrate, Milan. He was ordained in 1970 and holds doctorates in theology and philosophy.

He was actively involved in the Communion and Liberation Movement before becoming assistant researcher in philosophy and then assistant professor of moral theology at the University of Fribourg.

In 1982 he was appointed professor of theological anthropology at the John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family, and taught contemporary Christology at the Lateran University, Rome.

In 1991, he was named bishop of Grosseto and received episcopal ordination that same year.

John Paul II appointed him rector of the Lateran University and president of the John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family in 1995.

In 2002 the Pope appointed him patriarch of Venice. He was elevated to cardinal in 2003.

Curial membership:

* Clergy (congregation)
* Family, Laity (councils)



Sergio Sebastiani, 74
President of Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See

Sergio Sebastiani was born on April 11, 1931, in Montemonaco, Italy. He was ordained for the Archdiocese of Fermo in 1956, and holds a doctorate in canon law from the Lateran University.

After studying at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, he was posted to Peru, Brazil and Chile before being recalled to the Secretariat of State.

In 1976 he was appointed apostolic pro-nuncio in Madagascar and Mauritius, with responsibility as apostolic delegate for La Réunion and the Comorros, receiving episcopal ordination that Oct. 30. In 1985 he was named apostolic nuncio in Turkey.

In 1994 he was appointed general secretary of the Central Committee for the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000. In 1997 the Holy Father named him president of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.

He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

* Bishops, Clergy, Sainthood Causes (congregations)
* Promoting Christian Unity, Interreligious Dialogue (councils)
* Apostolic Signature (tribunal)



Crescenzio Sepe, 61
Prefect of Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

Crescenzio Sepe was born on June 2, 1943, in Carinaro, Italy. He was ordained for the Diocese of Aversa in 1967, and holds degrees in theology and canon law from the Lateran University and in philosophy from the University of Rome.

He taught theology at the Lateran and Urbanian universities, and then studied at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. He was posted to Brazil and then recalled to the Secretariat of State, where he was appointed assessor for general affairs in 1987. He was also president of the Commission for Vatican Telecommunications.

In 1992 he was appointed secretary of the Congregation for Clergy, receiving episcopal ordination that same year.

In 1997 he was named general secretary of the Central Committee for the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000.

He was President of "Peregrinatio ad Petri Sedem" from 1997 until 2001.

In 2001 he was named prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. He is also the grand chancellor of the Urbanian University.

He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

* Clergy, Doctrine of the Faith (congregations)
* Social Communications, Interreligious Dialogue, Promoting Christian Unity,
* Interpretation of Legislative Texts (councils)
* Latin America (commission)
* Special Council for Asia of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, 76
Retired Archbishop Tokyo

Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi was born on June 17, 1928, in Tokyo. He graduated from Gyosei (Stella Maris) Junior School as a minor seminarian of the Diocese of Tokyo, and received a philosophy degree and a specialization in theology from Sophia University.

In 1954 he was ordained a priest at Kanda Catholic Cathedral. In 1960 he earned a doctorate in canon law from the Urbanian University in Rome.

He was ordained auxiliary bishop of Tokyo in 1966. In 1969 he was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Tokyo.

He is the representative of the Religious Juridical Body of the Catholic Archdiocese of Tokyo; representative director of the Juridical Foundation of Tokyo Caritas House and of the Social Welfare Juridical Foundation: Karashidane, Jiseikai, Saint Johhankai, etc.

He founded the first Episcopal Commission for Justice and Peace in 1970. He was also chairman of the Episcopal Commission for Social Activities, to establish basic policies for the Church's active evangelization.

He was president of the Japanese bishops' conference from 1983 to 1992. He was elevated to cardinal in 1994. He retired in 2000.



Adrianus Johannes Simonis, 73
Archbishop of Utrecht, Netherlands

Adrianus Johannes Simonis was born on Nov. 26, 1931, in Lisse. He is one of a family of 11 children.

After his studies in the Hageveld and Warmond seminaries he was ordained a priest in 1957. After this he served as curate of two parishes. From 1959 to 1966 he studied biblical exegesis in Rome.

In 1970, he was named bishop of Rotterdam, and was ordained bishop in 1971.

In 1983, he was nominated archbishop-coadjutor of Utrecht with the right of succession. In 1983 he was installed as archbishop. Since then, he has been the president of the bishops' conference in the Netherlands.

As archbishop, he assumed the role of president of the commissions for teaching and education, and for religion. He was named grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Nijmegen.

He was elevated to cardinal in 1985.

Curial membership:

* Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Promoting Christian Unity (council)



Angelo Sodano, 77

Vatican Secretary of State

Angelo Sodano was born on Nov. 23, 1927, in Isola d'Asti, Italy. He studied philosophy and theology at the seminary of Asti, and obtained a doctorate in theology from the Gregorian University, and a doctorate in canon law from the Lateran University.

He was ordained a priest in 1950, and dedicated his first years to teaching dogmatic theology at the diocesan seminary and to the youth apostolate.

In 1959, he joined the Holy See's Diplomatic Corps, and after having attended the Pontifical Ecclesiatical Academy, he served in Ecuador, Uruguay and Chile, as secretary of the nunciature.

In 1968 he was called to Rome to serve in the then Council for Public Affairs of the Church. During this period, as a member of the Holy See's missions, he visited Romania, Hungary and East Germany.

In 1977 he was named apostolic nuncio in Chile. He was ordained bishop in 1978.

In Chile, he worked for 10 years visiting nearly every diocese and cooperating also in the happy conclusion of the pontifical mediation between Chile and Argentina, for the peaceful solution to the controversy over the sovereignty of the two states in some zones of the austral territory.

In 1988 John Paul II called him to serve as secretary of the then Council for Public Affairs of the Church. In 1989, he assumed the title of secretary for the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State.

He has dedicated particular attention to the Pontifical Commission for Russia, of which he was president.

In 1990, he was called to serve as pro-secretary of state. He was elevated to cardinal in 1991. On June 29, 1991, he was named Vatican secretary of state. He was elected vice dean of the College of Cardinals in 2002.

Curial membership:

* Doctrine of the Faith, Bishops, Eastern Churches (congregations)
* Vatican City State, Institute for Works of Religion (commissions)



James Francis Stafford, 72
Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary

James Francis Stafford was born on July 26, 1932, in Baltimore, Maryland. He studied at Loyola College, Baltimore, 1950-52, and at St. Mary's Seminary University, Baltimore, 1952-54. He also studied at the Catholic University of America, in 1962-64.

He was ordained priest in 1957 in Rome.

He was named auxiliary bishop of Baltimore in 1976, and was ordained to the episcopate that year. In 1982 he was named bishop of Memphis, Tennessee. In 1986 he was named archbishop of Denver, Colorado.

He was named president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, a post he held from 1996 to 2003. He was elevated to cardinal in 1998.

As president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, he organized the international meetings of the 12th World Youth Day in Paris in 1987; the 15th World Youth Day held in Rome during the Jubilee Year 2000 and the 17th World Youth Day in Toronto, in 2002. Previously in 1993, as archbishop of Denver, he had welcomed Pope John Paul II to that city for the 8th World Youth Day.

He was named Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary in 2003.

Curial membership:

* Doctrine of the Faith, Bishops, Sainthood Causes, Evangelization of Peoples (congregations)
* Interpretation of Legislative Texts (council)
* Special Council for Oceania of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Georg Sterzinsky, 69
Archbishop of Berlin, Germany

Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky was born on Feb. 9, 1936, in Warlack, Germany.

Following World War II, in 1946 his family was forced to abandon their home to seek refuge in Thueringen. From 1948 he went to school in Erfurt, and in 1954 he began to study philosophy and theology at the regional seminary of Erfurt. In 1960 he was ordained a priest.

After spending two years at Eisenach, he served for two years as an assistant of theology at the seminary of Erfurt. In 1964 he was named vicar at Heilegenstadt/Eichsfeld.

From 1966 to 1981, he was a parish priest. In 1981 he was elected vicar general to Bishop Joachim Wanke, apostolic administrator of the territories of Erfurt-Meiningen.

In 1989 he was named bishop of Berlin, and received episcopal ordination that same year.

As bishop of Berlin, he lived the events that had pronounced the end of 1989, in this case, the destruction of the iron curtain and the collapse of the Berlin Wall.

He was president of the bishops' conference of Berlin from 1989-1990. In 1994 he was named archbishop of Berlin. He was elevated to cardinal in 1991.

Curial membership:

* Catholic Education (congregation)
* Migrants and Travelers (council)


Edmund Szoka, 77
President of Governatorate of Vatican City State

Edmund Casimir Szoka was born on Sept. 14, 1927, in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

He entered St. Joseph's seminary in Grand Rapids and then St. John's in Plymouth, Michigan. He was ordained a priest in 1954 in Marquette and served as an assistant priest in the parish of St. Francis in Manistique, Michigan.

In 1955, he became secretary to the Bishop Noa of Marquette. During the period of 1955 and 1962, he also served as chaplain at St. Mary's Hospital.

From 1957 to 1959, he attended the Faculty of Canon Law at the Urbanian University in Rome. Upon returning to the United States, from 1960 until 1971 he served at the matrimonial tribunal of the diocese of Marquette.

In 1971 he was elected bishop of Gaylord, Michigan, and was ordained bishop on July 20. He was named archbishop of Detroit in 1981.

In 1990 he was named president of the Prefecture of Economic Affairs of the Holy See that year, and remained in that post until 1997.

In 1997, he was named president of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. He had been elevated to cardinal in 1988.

In 2001, he was named president of the Governatorate of Vatican City State.

Curial membership:

* Secretariat of State (second section)
* Sainthood Causes, Bishops, Evangelization of Peoples, Clergy, Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (congregations)


Jean-Louis Tauran, 62
Archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church

Jean-Louis Tauran was born April 5, 1943, in Bordeaux, France. He was ordained a priest Sept. 20, 1969. He holds licentiates in philosophy and theology and a degree in canon law.

He served as parochial vicar in Bordeaux. In March 1975 he entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and was assigned to the apostolic nunciature of the Dominican Republic, and was later transferred to the one in Lebanon. He represented the Holy See at the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and participated in various European conferences.

In 1988 he was appointed undersecretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church (now known as the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State). On Jan. 6, 1991, he received episcopal ordination after being named secretary of the council.

In 1991, he was appointed secretary for relations with states. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003 and in November 2003 he was named archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church.

Curial membership:

* Second Section of Secretariat of State
* Doctrine of the Faith, Oriental Churches, Bishops (congregations)
* Vatican City State (commission)
* Apostolic Signature (tribunal)



Julio Terrazas Sandoval, 69
Archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

Julio Terrazas Sandoval was born March 7, 1936, in Vallegrande, Bolivia. He was ordained for the Redemptorists on July 29, 1962, and holds a degree in social ministry from EMACAS University, France.

He was superior of the Redemptorist community in Vallegrande and vicar forane. On 15 April 1978 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of La Paz and ordained that June 8.

In January 1982 he was transferred to the residential see of Oruro.

He was elected president of the Bolivian bishops' conference in 1985 and 1988, and is currently president.

He was appointed archbishop of Santa Cruz on Feb. 6, 1991. He has held an archdiocesan synod, has actively promoted vocations and is building a new major seminary. He was elevated to cardinal in 2001.

Curial membership:

* Laity (council)
* Latin America (commission)


Dionigi Tettamanzi, 71
Archbishop of Milan, Italy

Dionigi Tettamanzi was born March 14, 1934, in Renate, Italy. At age 11 he entered the diocesan seminary of Seveso San Pietro, where he began his studies. He then attended the Seminary of Lower Venegono until 1957 when he received a licentiate in theology.

In the same year on June 28, he was ordained for the Archdiocese of Milan. He holds a doctorate in theology from the Gregorian University, Rome.

For over 20 years he taught fundamental theology a the major seminary of Lower Venegono and pastoral theology at the Priestly Institute of Mary Immaculate and the Lombard Regional Institute of Pastoral Ministry, Milan.

He has been very active in the Italian Confederation of Family Counseling Centers of Christian inspiration from 1979 to 1989, in Oari, and in the Association of Italian Catholic Medical Doctors, Milan section for nearly 20 years.

In September 1987 he was called to serve as rector of the Pontifical Lombard Seminary. In July 1989 he was named metropolitan archbishop of Ancona-Osma. He received episcopal ordination that Sept. 23.

In March 1991 he was named secretary-general of the Italian bishops' conference a month later he resigned from the see of Ancona-Osma.

In April 1995 he was named metropolitan archbishop of Genoa. He also served as president of the regional episcopal conference.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 1998. In July 2002 he was named archbishop of Milan.

Curial membership:

* Clergy, Catholic Education, Eastern Churches (congregations)
* Economic Affairs of the Holy See (office)
* Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
* Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops
* Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Telesphore Placidus Toppo, 65
Archbishop of Ranchi, India

Telesphore Placidus Toppo was born Oct. 15, 1939, in Chainpur, India. He was ordained a priest May 3, 1969.

He studied at the regional major seminary of St. Albert's College in Ranchi. He holds a bachelor of arts degree from St. Xavier's College, Ranchi, and a master's in history from Ranchi University.

After his studies in theology at the Urbaniana College in Rome, he was ordained bishop of Dumka on June 8, 1978.

He was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Ranchi in November 1984 and succeeded to the See of Ranchi on Aug. 7, 1985, being installed that Aug. 25.

He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003. He is currently president of the Indian bishops' conference.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Interreligious Dialogue (council)


Christian Wiyghan Tumi, 74
Archbishop of Douala, Cameroon

Christian Wiyghan Tumi was born Oct. 15, 1930, in Kikaikelaki, Cameroon. He did his secondary studies at diocesan seminaries and at the seminaries of Ibadan, Bodija and Enugu in Nigeria.

He holds a licentiate in theology at the Catholic Faculty of Lyon and a doctorate in philosophy at the Catholic University of Fribourg, Switzerland.

He was ordained a priest April 17, 1966, in Soppo, Cameroon, and from 1966 to 1967 carried out his ministry as a parochial vicar at Fiango. From 1967 to 1969 he was a professor at the Bishop Rogan College minor seminary.

In 1973, after having studied abroad, he was named rector of the major regional seminary of Bambui, Archdiocese of Bamenda.

In December 1979 he was named the first bishop of the Diocese of Yagoua. He received episcopal ordination Jan. 6, 1980, in Rome.

He was elected vice president of the bishops' conference in April 1982. In November 1982 he was promoted to coadjutor archbishop of Garoua. In March 1984 he was made archbishop.

He was elevated to cardinal in June 1988 and was appointed archbishop of Douala on Aug. 31, 1991.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Culture, Cor Unum (councils)


Jean-Claude Turcotte, 68
Archbishop of Montreal

Jean-Claude Turcotte was born in Montreal on June 26, 1936. He earned a diploma in theology at Montreal's major seminary, and was ordained a priest May 24, 1959.

He was first named vicar to a parish, and subsequently, diocesan assistant-chaplain for Christian working youth (1961-1964). He continued his studies in France at the Catholic faculties in Lille.

From 1967-1974, he held various posts in the Office for Clergy. He was responsible for seminarians in the Diocese of Montreal, secretary of the Commission des Traitements, and in charge of the studies and ongoing formation of the clergy.

In September 1981 he was appointed vicar general of the diocese, and general coordinator of the pastoral programs.

In April 1982 he was appointed auxiliary to the archbishop of Montreal. He received his episcopal ordination June 29, 1982.

He was also responsible for coordinating the Pope's September 1984 visit in the Diocese of Montreal.

In March 1990 he was named archbishop of Montreal. He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994.

He was president of the Canadian bishops' conference from 1997 to 2000.

Curial membership:

* Sainthood Causes (congregation)
* Social Communications (council)
* Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
* Special Council for America of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Peter Turkson, 56
Archbishop of Cape Coast, Ghana

Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson was born Oct. 11, 1948, in Wassaw Nsuta, Ghana. He was ordained for the Diocese of Cape Coast on July 20, 1975, and holds a doctorate in sacred Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome.

From 1975-76 and 1980-81 he served as staff member at St. Theresa's minor seminary, and from 1981-87 as staff member at St. Peter's major seminary.

In October 1992 he was appointed archbishop of Cape Coast and received episcopal ordination on March 27, 1993. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:


* Christian Unity (council)
* Cultural Heritage (commission)



Ricardo Vidal, 74
Archbishop of Cebu, Philippines

Ricardo Jamin Vidal was born Feb. 6, 1931, in Mogpoc, Philippines. He did his studies at the minor seminary of the Most Holy Rosary and at the seminary of San Carlo.

He was ordained March 17, 1956, and was appointed spiritual director of the local seminary of Mount Carmel. He then became superior of the same institute until September 1971, when he was named coadjutor bishop of Malolos, Bulacan. He received episcopal ordination Nov. 30, 1971.

In August 1973 he was named archbishop of Lipa in Batangas. In April 1981 he was named coadjutor to the archbishop of Cebu. He was named archbishop there on Aug. 24, 1982.

He served as president of the Bishops' Commission for Vocations within the Catholic bishops' conference of the Philippines. He was also vice president of the bishops' conference and then president from 1985 to 1987.

He was elevated to cardinal in May 1985.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)
* Health-Care Workers, Family (councils)



Varkey Vithayathil, 77
Major archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly for Syro-Malabars, in India

Varkey Vithayathil was born May 29, 1927, in Parur, India. He was ordained for the Redemptorists on June 12, 1954, and holds a doctorate in canon law from the University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome.

For 25 years he taught canon law at the Redemptorists' major seminary in Bangalore. He also served as provincial for India and Sri Lanka (1978-84), president of the Conference of Religious, India (1984-85) and apostolic administrator of the Asirvanam Benedictine Monastery in Bangalore (1990-96).

In November 1996 he was appointed apostolic administrator of the vacant see of Ernakulam-Angamaly for Syro-Malabars, receiving episcopal ordination Jan. 6, 1997.

In December 1999 he was appointed major archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly for Syro-Malabars. He was elevated to cardinal in February 2001.

Curial membership:

* Eastern Churches (congregation)
* Legislative texts, Christian Unity (councils)



Miloslav Vlk, 72
Archbishop of Prague, Czech Republic

Miloslav Vlk was born May 17, 1932, in Lisnice, in the Pisek district of Southern Bohemia.

In June 1952 he passed his final examination at a secondary school in Ceske Budejovice, Southern Bohemia. In those years of communist persecution theological studies were impossible, so from 1952 to 1953 he worked at the Motor Union automobile factory in Ceske Budejovice and from 1953 to 1955 did military service in Karlovy Vary.

Despite the political situation, after being discharged, he was able to study archival science at the Arts Faculty of the Charles University in Prague and received his degree in 1960.

In this same period he published a series of articles in various scientific reviews. In 1964 he left this work in order to study at the School of Theology of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in Litomerice (1964- 1968).

On June 23, 1968, during the "Prague Spring," he was ordained a priest and was immediately appointed secretary to Bishop Josef Hlouch of Ceske Budejovice (1968-1971).

The state authorities, worried about his influence and pastoral activity, forced him in 1971 to leave Ceske Budejovice and sent him to the parishes of Laziste and Zablati, isolated on the mountains of the Bohemian Forest in the Prachatitz district. In 1978 the state authorities revoked his state authorization to exercise his priestly ministry.

He was thus forced to live underground in Prague from October 1978 to Dec. 31, 1988.

From 1978 to 1986 he worked as a window-cleaner in downtown Prague. In this period he secretly carried out his pastoral activity with small groups of lay people.

On Jan. 1, 1989, he was permitted to exercise the priestly ministry for a trial year. He became parish priest at Zihobce and Bukovnik in the Klatovy region of Western Bohemia.

In February 1990 he was appointed bishop of Ceske Budejovice and he received episcopal ordination on March 31, 1990.

In March 1991 the Pope appointed him archbishop of Prague. The official installation took place June 1, 1991. In 1992 he was elected president of the Czech bishops' conference; a role that he held until 2001.

From April 1993 until May 2001 Archbishop Vlk was president of the Council of European Episcopal Conferences.

He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994.

Curial membership:

* Eastern Churches (congregation)
* Social Communications (council)
* Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Emmanuel Wamala, 78
Archbishop of Kampala, Uganda

Emmanuel Wamala was born Dec. 15, 1926, at Kamaggwa, in the Diocese of Masaka.

He entered the Bukasala minor seminary in 1942. After seven years in Bukasala, he attended the national major seminary of Katingodo from 1949 to 1955. He gained pastoral experience in Kabula parish in the Masaka Diocese.

In September 1956, he was sent to Rome for further study at the Urbanian University, where he obtained a licentiate in theology. He was ordained a priest Dec. 21, 1957, in Rome.

After his ordination, he continued his studies at the Gregorian University (1958-1960) earning a licentiate in social sciences. He returned to Uganda in 1960.

For two years, he worked at the parish of Villa Maria which then functioned as the diocesan school supervisor in the Diocese of Masaka.

In 1964 he was sent to teach at Bukalasa minor seminary until 1968, when he was appointed chaplain of Makerere University.

In 1974 he was named vicar general of Masaka. He was appointed as bishop of Kiyinda-Mityana in July 1981 and received episcopal ordination that Nov. 22.

In June 1988 he was promoted to the rank of coadjutor bishop of Kampala, and took over the see on Feb. 8, 1990.

Archbishop Wamala became the first rector of the New Uganda Martyrs University, which officially opened in October 1993. He was elevated to cardinal in November 1994.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Cor Unum (council)


Friedrich Wetter, 77
Archbishop of Munich and Freising, Germany


Friedrich Wetter was born Feb. 20, 1928, in Landau, Germany. He attended philosophy courses at the advanced institute St. George in Frankfurt. He then studied theology at the Gregorian University in Rome.

He was ordained a priest Oct. 10, 1953, and completed his studies in Rome with a doctorate in theology.

In 1962 he was a professor of theology at the advanced institute of philosophy and theology of Eichstatt and in 1967 he was professor of dogmatic theology.

He was appointed bishop of Speyer in May 1968 and received episcopal ordination the following June 29.

In October 1982 he was made archbishop of Munich and Freising. He was elevated to cardinal in May 1985.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations)




Thomas Williams, 75
Archbishop of Wellington, New Zealand

Thomas Stafford Williams was born March 20, 1930, in Wellington, New Zealand.

He studied for a bachelor of commerce degree at Victoria University, Wellington, and worked for some years as an accountant. He was deeply involved in the Catholic Youth Movement.

In 1954 he commenced studies for the priesthood at the national seminary, Holy Cross College in Dunedin, and in 1956 was sent to the Urbanian University where he obtained a licentiate in theology.

He was ordained a priest Dec. 20, 1959. He then attended University College, Dublin, Ireland, and received a degree in social sciences.

Returning to Wellington, he served as assistant pastor and director of studies at the Catholic Enquiry Center, which had already brought the light of faith to many non-Catholics. He left that post when he volunteered to serve as a missionary in Western Samoa, where he was parish priest for five years.

Upon returning to Wellington at the end of 1975 he was a parish priest. In October 1979 he was named archbishop of Wellington and received episcopal ordination that Dec. 20.

He was elevated to cardinal in February 1983. He has been military ordinary for New Zealand since 1995.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Affairs of the Holy See
* Special Council for Oceania of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops


Gabriel Zubeir Wako, 64
Archbishop of Khartoum, Sudan

Gabriel Zubeir Wako was born Feb. 27, 1941, in Mboro, Sudan. He was ordained a priest July 21, 1963, and holds a licentiate in theology with a specialization in pastoral theology.

He began his priestly ministry as an assistant parish priest and as inspector for Christian religious education in the schools of the Gogrial District. He later served as rector of St. Anthony's minor seminary, Bussere, and was procurator for the Vicariate of Wau, where he also served as vicar delegate.

In December 1974 he was appointed as bishop of Wau and received episcopal ordination April 6, 1975. In October 1979 he was appointed coadjutor bishop of Khartoum.

He has been archbishop of Khartoum since 1981 and president of the Sudanese bishops' conference since 1992. He was elevated to cardinal in October 2003.

Curial membership:

* Evangelization of Peoples (congregation)
* Cor Unum (council)

 

 
Back

 

 
HOME - EWTNews - FAITH - TELEVISION - RADIO - LIBRARY - CHANNEL FINDER WATCH ONLINE - FAQ - EWTNKids
WHAT'S NEW - EWTN MOBI - GENERAL - RELIGIOUS CATALOGUE - PILGRIMAGES - PRESS ROOM - ESPAŃOL

Terms of Use      Privacy Policy      Contact Us

EWTN Global Catholic Network
5817 Old Leeds Rd., Irondale, AL 35210 USA 1-205-271-2900